Browsing by Subject "innovations"

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  • Samuelson, Olle; Björk, Bo-Christer (2011)
    Three strategically important uses of IT in the construction industry are the storage and management of project documents on webservers (EDM), the electronic handling of orders and invoices between companies (EDI) and the use of 3-D models including non-geometrical attributes for integrated design and construction (BIM). In a broad longitudinal survey study of IT use in the Swedish Construction Industry the extent of use of these techniques was measured in 1998, 2000 and 2007. The results showed that EDM and EDI are currently already well-established techniques whereas BIM, although it promises the biggest potential benefits to the industry, only seems to be at the beginning of adoption. In a follow-up to the quantitative studies, the factors affecting the decisions to implement EDM, EDI and BIM as well as the actual adoption processes, were studied using semi-structured interviews with practitioners. The theoretical basis for the interview studies was informed by theoretical frameworks from IT-adoption theory, where in particular the UTAUT model has provided the main basis for the analyses presented here. The results showed that the decisions to take the above technologies into use are made on three differ- ent levels: the individual level, the organizational level in the form of a company, and the organiza- tional level in the form of a project. The different patterns in adoption can to some part be explained by where the decisions are mainly taken. EDM is driven from the organisation/project level, EDI mainly from the organisation/company level, and BIM is driven by individuals pioneering the technique.
  • Vihakara, Monika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract Strategic development in the forest sector has been slow and not until the 21st century stake-holder focus came as a part of the strategic development. New innovations are now having important role while renewing forest sector into bioeconomy. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)has traditionally been as a target for development in forest sector because of the high usage of natural resources, but from the 1990s it has gained more attention inspired by the global megatrends and now CSR can be seen as the base of the consept of bioeconomy. The study explored the citizen’s perception towards forest sector innovation efforts from the year 2000 and within the next 20 years. The results were drawn from an analysis of two data sets. Data one consisted of multivariate survey data based on 218 valid responses where current state of forest industry innovative-ness was disclosed by using 13 bioeconomy products and services. Data two consisted of qualitative managerial interviews where forest industry professionals’ opinions of forest in-dustry contributions to sustainable innovations through the lens of three-dimensional innova-tion model/pyramid. Additionally, the aim was to get some reflections from survey results. Concluding the results of this study, the public opinion of forest sector innovations seemed to focus on constructions related innovation efforts and biofuels. In addition, results showed that perceptions of material substitution with wood and reducing environmental impacts of industry were improved since year 2000. The image of future innovation targets of forest sector was quite wide and most heavily it was pointed towards wood building systems, con-struction materials, brand development and material substitution with wood. Statistically sig-nificant differences found between the “past” and “future” innovativeness inquire strengthen-ing of both industry R & D and functioning of innovation systems.
  • Santavirta, Torsten (2003)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between competition and innovations. Making use of growth models where the incentive effects of competition on innovation, and consequently growth, are considered, the effect of competition on technological progress is examined. The interplay between competition and corporate governance and their combined effect on innovations are also examined. Furthermore, the interaction between R&D subsidies and competition and the additionality of an R&D subsidy are analytically elaborated as an extension to the already formulated model of an inverted U-shape relationship between competition and innovations. The three key hypotheses analyzed in this study are: 1) competition policy has important complementarities with R&D policy in the fostering of an innovative environment; 2) R&D subsidies should in all cases be carefully monitored; 3) the additionality of R&D subsidies tends to be strongest at moderate degrees of competition. The findings are that the degree of competition within the industry should be taken into account in the granting of R&D subsidies. A policy mix of R&D policy and competition policy may increase the additionality of an R&D subsidy. As for the monitoring of subsidies, the findings are that all forms of subsidies to R&D ventures should be carefully monitored. Finally, an R&D subsidy tends to have strongest additionality at moderate degrees of competition.
  • Sääksjärvi, Maria (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2004)
    Economics and Society
    Hybrid innovations, or new products that combine two existing product categories into one, are increasingly popular in today’s marketplace. Despite this proliferation, few studies address them. The purpose of this thesis is to examine consumer evaluation of hybrid innovations by focusing on consumer categorization of such innovations and on factors contributing positively and negatively to their evaluation. This issue is examined by means of three studies. The first study addresses the proportion of consumers categorizing hybrid products as single- versus dual-purpose, what contributes to such a categorization, what differences can be found between the two groups, and if categorization can and should be included in models of innovation adoption. The second study expands on the scope by including motivation as a predictor of consumer evaluation and examines two cognitive and affective factors and their differential impact on innovation evaluation. Finally, the third study examines the product comparisons single- versus dual-purpose categorization induce. These three essays together build up a broader understanding of hybrid innovation evaluation. The thesis uses theories from both psychology and marketing to examine the issues at hand. Conceptual combination and analogical learning theories from psychology are used to comprehend categorization and knowledge transfer. From marketing, consumer behavior and innovation adoption studies are addressed to better understand the link between categorization and product evaluation and the factors contributing to product evaluation. The main results of the current thesis are that (1) most consumers categorize hybrid products as single- and not as dual-purpose products, (2) consumers that categorize them as dual-purpose find them more attractive (3) motivation has a significant effect on consumer evaluation of innovations; cognitive factors promote an emphasis on product net benefits, whereas affective factors induce consumers to consider product meaning in the form of categorization and perceived product complexity, (4) categorization constrains subsequent product evaluation, and (5) categorization can and should be included to models of innovation adoption. Maria Sääksjärvi is associated with CERS, the Center for Relationship Marketing and Service Management at the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration
  • Louhivuori, Valtter (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Innovations can be seen as an engine of long-term economic growth. Firms conduct research and development (R&D) activities to create new production technology, methods or products in order to rival their competitors. In addition to benefiting the inventor, new innovations have considerable positive externalities through knowledge spillovers. However, the socially optimal level of innovations may not be achieved, because firms can underinvest in R&D if they are not compensated for the positive externalities produced by their R&D activities. Public R&D programs aim to encourage innovation by compensating firms for the positive externalities that they produce. Finland’s recent public efforts on fostering innovation have been globally high by many indicators. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of these efforts has been relatively little scrutinised. This thesis studies the effectiveness of Finnish R&D program in fostering innovation outputs at the firm level. Firm-level patent statistics are used as a proxy for the innovativeness of a firm. A major contribution of this thesis is the comprehensive database that has been constructed and employed for the analysis. The database includes firm-level innovative characteristics for all the Finnish firms during a ten-year sample period, altogether covering more than two million observations for over 400 000 firms. Most of the studies on the effectiveness of the Finnish R&D program rely on the assumption that the researcher has full information on the relevant innovative characteristics that affect a firm’s program eligibility. This thesis addresses the program selectivity concern by employing an instrumental variable approach that exploits regional variation in public R&D funding stemming from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) aid regulations. The estimates suggest that when the program selection bias is neglected, program participation is associated with around 10 percentage point increase in patenting probability among active patentees, whereas for all firms, the increase in patenting probability is only around 0.1 percentage points. However, the instrumental variable estimates do not confirm any significant causal effect of R&D program on patenting. This thesis highlights the importance of accounting for the selection bias induced by the R&D program selection criteria. The public R&D agency is found to select firms strongly based on the same characteristics that are highly associated with innovation within firms. Therefore, it is important to ask if some of the supported firms might have had conducted their R&D projects even in the absence of the public support. Analysing the R&D program’s selection criteria plays a major role in scrutinising the effectiveness of public R&D subsidies and in the further development of public innovation policies.
  • Moisio, Sami (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2018)
    We live in the era of the knowledge-based economy, and this has major implications for the ways in which states, cities and even supranational political units are spatially planned, governed and developed. In this book, Sami Moisio delves deeply into the links between the knowledge-based economy and geopolitics, examining a wide range of themes, including city geopolitics and the university as a geopolitical site. Overall, this work shows that knowledge-based "economization" can be understood as a geopolitical process that produces territories of wealth, security, power and belonging. This book will prove enlightening to students, researchers and policymakers in the fields of human geography, urban studies, spatial planning, political science and international relations.
  • Miettunen, Antti (2008)
    This Licentiate Thesis belongs to the area of economics of immaterial property rights. The aim of the Thesis is to study one of the legal patentability requirements, namely the novelty requirement, in a theoretical general equilibrium model. We study the novelty requirement under the assumption that both an idea as well as research and development investments are needed for an innovation. We assume that ideas are a scarce resource, they are generated via an exogenous process, and that R&D activity is costly. In order to invest in R&D activity, firms must have sufficient incentives to do so. We equate the novelty value of an innovation with the economic value, or utility, it produces. We consider four different versions of this basic setup. In the most satisfactory version there are three parameters: the number of ideas, the survival probability of innovations, and the patent strength. The patent strength is modeled as the probability that the innovator gets to keep the returns from the innovation to her. The model successfully captures the tension between the objectives of the society and an individual innovator, changes in parameters can be traced to aggregate measures, the model is well-behaved both analytically and numerically and the results are intuitive. We show that in this kind of a general setting, the scarcity of research ideas is sufficient to make non-zero novelty requirement optimal. This is a noteworthy result since scarcity is an important element in many optimal patent policy models in the literature. We also study the relationship between novelty requirement and equilibrium investments and show that as a function of the novelty requirement the equilibrium investment takes an inverse-U-shaped form. We also consider novelty both under perfect and imperfect patent regimes. Getting analytical results in a model of cumulative innovations where there are simultaneously two endogenous policy instruments, novelty requirement and patent strength, is left for future research. The current model is also limited in that it is a model of perfect information where strategic behavior is abstracted away.
  • Kiema, Ilkka (2005)
    The licentiate thesis discusses the growth effects of nonproprietary innovations in the context of endogenous growth models. Nonproprietary innovations are exemplified by open source software products, and the discussion of their growth effects is motivated by a recent demonstration by Gilles Saint-Paul that for plausible parameter values they reduce the growth rate in an endogenous growth model. The thesis contains short discussions of the history OS software, the earlier theoretical and empirical literature concerning with the motives of its producers, and some earlier endogenous growth models. After the presentation of this background information, two different ways of implementing nonproprietary innovations into an endogenous growth model are contrasted with each other in it. The first of these is the model which is due to Saint-Paul. In it growth is caused by specialization, and nonproprietary innovations are produced by 'philanthropists' who do not participate in the economy in other ways. However, it is pointed out below that OS software is often produced by employees of the IT sector or IT students, and that currently its producers are mostly not motivated by philanthropy. It is also argued below that it would be more natural to assume that growth was caused by creative destruction than that it is caused by specialization. This motivates the introduction of the other considered model. It is a model of growth through creative destruction, and it can be used for representing not only a situation in which nonproprietary innovations are produced by 'philanthropists' from outside the economy, but also a situation in which employees of the research sector produce nonproprietary innovations as a hobby in their free time, and in which they evaluate the participation in their production positively. An analysis of the latter model shows that the validity of Saint-Paul's result is not affected by the shift to a model of growth through creative destruction. However, it also turns out that when nonproprietary innovations are produced by employees of the research sector, they do promote economic growth for plausible parameter values in the context of the latter model, provided that the research sector is not too capital intensive.
  • Toikka, Juuso (2004)
    In this thesis we analyze how patent policy affects the strategic behavior of firms. We develop an infinite horizon model of innovation where each period firms are randomly matched to ideas which can be developed into innovations. The model allows for simultaneous independent discovery so that the number of firms producing the same innovation is determined endogenously. The issues that we consider are (1) innovators' optimal choice of protection between patents and (trade) secrecy, and (2) the effect of patents on the firms' ability to sustain tacit collusion. In studying the choice of protection, we find that firms may find it optimal to patent even if patent protection is weaker than protection under secrecy. This follows because of the prisoner's dilemma created by the patent policy: If no one else patents, the firm gets the patent and the corresponding monopoly profits for sure whereas secrecy yields only oligopoly profits in the event that there are others that have developed the same innovation. On the hand, if the competitors patent when successful, then secrecy yields positive profits only when no competitor is successful with the same innovation. Applying for the patent gives the innovator a chance of receiving a monopoly even when others are successful. This explains how the patent policy can at the same time enhance incentives to innovate and increase the spreading of information through increased spillovers. We show that welfare maximizing patent policy may either reduce or increase spillovers. Turning to the effects of patents on the competitiveness of an industry, we argue that a patent system makes collusion among innovators more difficult. Our argument is based on two properties of the patent system. First, a patent not only protects against infringement but also against punishment by former collusion members. Second, a deviator has an equal chance with the former collusion members to get a patent on future innovations. We show that if a patent system reduces spillovers, it renders collusion impossible. Moreover, it is possible to design a patent system that simultaneously increases knowledge spillovers and eliminates collusion.
  • Stern, T.; Ranacher, L.; Mair, C.; Berghäll, S.; Lähtinen, K.; Forsblom, M.; Toppinen, A. (2018)
    New innovations are called for to renew the European forest sector into bioeconomy. However, little research exists on how the industry innovativeness is publicly perceived. Using data collected with an online questionnaire in four European countries, we investigate perceptions related to forest sector innovations on 13 current and new bioeconomy-related products and services. Altogether, 218 valid responses were received in 2015, and the data were analysed using descriptive statistics, performance-importance analysis, and Gartner's innovation hype cycle. Based on our results, the respondents were in the strongest agreement that the forest sector has since the year 2000 has produced innovations related to wood building systems, construction materials, and wood composites. In the next 15 years, they foresaw a decline in innovations related to biofuels and paper products. The European forest sector also has future potential in wood construction, which is likely related to international policy targets related to carbon mitigation and capture. The observed variation in perceptions among the respondents on forest sector innovativeness calls for strengthening industry R&D, as well as by improving societal awareness of ongoing innovation projects by developing better communication.
  • Rask, Mikko; Mačiukaitė-Žvinienė, Saulė; Tauginienė, Loreta; Dikčius, Vytautas; Matschoss, Kaisa; Aarrevaara, Timo; d’Andrea, Luciano (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2018)
    The field of public participation is developing fast, with phenomena such as citizen science and crowdsourcing extending the resource base of research, stimulating innovation and making science more accessible to the general population. Promoting public participation means giving more weight to citizens and civil society actors in the definition of research needs and in the implementation of research and innovation. As yet, there is limited understanding of the implications of widespread use of public participation and as a result, there is a risk that it will become a burden for research and an obstacle to bridging the gap between research and society. This volume presents the findings of a three-year international study on innovative public participation. The resulting work studies the characteristics and trends of innovative public participation through a global sample of 38 case studies. It provides theoretical generalisations on the dynamics of public participation, suggestions for an evaluation framework and clear empirical examples of how public participation works in practice. Illustrated by best practice cases, the authors identify characteristics which contribute to successful public participation. The book is aimed primarily at scholars and practitioners of public participation, as well as research managers, policy makers and business actors interested in related issues. There is also a secondary market for students and scholars of European governance studies, sociology and political sciences.
  • Tupasela, Aaro (2000)
    This paper proposes to discuss the shortcomings of three popular science and technology study models - the Triple Helix, Mode 2 and Entrepreneurial Science. It also focuses on the development of supra-national and national science and technology policies and the role they have played in the commercialization of university research. The three models and innovation policies are analyzed through a case study of Helsinki University Licensing Ltd. (HUL), a technology transfer company founded in 1992 by the University of Helsinki and the Finnish National Fund for Research and Development (Sitra). The purpose of the company is to patent and license innovations developed at the University of Helsinki. The paper identifies contradictions that emerge in the patenting of research developed at the University of Helsinki, Finland's largest public research university. It deploys the concepts of technological systems, diffusion of innovations and national ideologies to problematize the ubiquity of current models and policies. The study draws on interview material, policy documents, HUL documents, patenting statistics and newspaper articles. These sources are used to argue that the three models and current innovation policy lack a critical approach in looking at the technological development of the biosciences in Finland. Innovation policies are analyzed on the supra-national and national levels and compared to the strategies that have been adopted at the University of Helsinki during the 1990s. The assumptions set forth by the models are critiqued in light of obstacles HUL has encountered with patenting and licensing. The study concludes that current innovation policies are contradictory because they encourage the broad diffusion of university research and its patenting at the same time. The patenting of research confers monopoly rights over innovations and is an effective tool for the private industry to minimize risk. At the same time, however, competition and the dissemination of information are compromised. The role of individual actors is identified as an important component of the innovation process in Finland and the success of HUL. Professional know-how is a key factor in attracting business from researchers. Finally, the models are too descriptive and neglect to account for variation among different technological systems.