Browsing by Subject "insecurity"

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  • Quesada, Florencia (2022)
    Living in the city's ravines is the common destiny of thousands of poor urban dwellers in Guatemala City, as is too often the case elsewhere in the Global South. The ravines surrounding the city represent one of the most visible and unjust urban spaces in the nation's capital. At the same time, Guatemala City has been among the most violent cities in the world and is highly vulnerable to climate change. Employing a critical spatial perspective and drawing on interviews in two at-risk communities-Arzu and 5 de Noviembre-this article examines the social production of such peripheral spaces. The levels of exclusion and inequalities are analysed by focusing on the multiple manifestations (visible and invisible) of violence and environmental risks, and deciphering the complex dynamics of both issues, which in turn generate more unequal and harmful conditions for residents. This article draws on the theoretical ideas elaborated by Edward Soja, Mustafa Dikec, and Teresa Caldeira on the contextualisation of spatial injustice and peripheral urbanisation to study the specific conditions of urban life and analyse the collective struggles of people in both communities to improve their current living conditions and mitigate the risk and the precariousness of their existence. The article underlines the need to make the processes of urban exclusion and extreme inequality visible to better understand how they have been socially and politically constructed. The research argues for more socially and ecologically inclusive cities within the process of unequal urbanisation.
  • Vallinkoski, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives. School safety has long been a subject of wide-ranging debate, but scientific research on the subject has, however, been rather limited. Although the English language research is comprehensive, in educational sciences school safety has not been a common subject of research. Matti Waitinen's (2011) dissertation is the first school safety culture investigative research in Finland. Waitinen images safety culture of Helsinki comprehensive school, and points out that the differences in security levels can be explained by a different safety cultures. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the most common needs to develop safety work that are encountered in comprehensive schools. Research methods. The target group here are four comprehensive schools and their safety groups. The study was carried out as so-called mixed - methods study, where the research data came from both quantitative and qualitative orientation. The data - collection in the first phase of the research was a questionnaire sent to schools, the purpose of which was to orient the school safety team members to the subject. The next step was, Tutor audit, which the Rescue Department of Keski-Uusimaa had developed. The audit, data were generated as quantitative and qualitative, structured group interview section yielded precise values of the school, the level of security, but on the other hand recorded and eventually transcribed conversation around the subject produced a material for the later content analysis. Results and conclusions. Based on the results it can be concluded that the safety work of comprehensive schools found plenty of areas for development. The audits on the basis of the values obtained, it can be said that none of the schools reached in the overall interpretation of the law formed through the minimum requirement, that is, the basic level three. There were found seven development themes: documentation, everyday and communally safety work, risk management, preparedness and independent development of safety, safety skills and safety training, as well as safety communication and paying attention to substitutes and stakeholders. Although the number of results can not be generalized to the comprehensive schools in general, the results can get an understanding of what kind of developments must be done in schools. The general conclusion is that the security work must continue to pay great attention to.
  • Penttilä, Elina; Hannula, Samuli; Numminen, Jura; Irjala, Heikki; Selander, Tuomas; Parmanne, Piitu; Mäkitie, Antti (2021)
    The objective was to investigate work satisfaction among recently graduated otorhinolaryngologist - head and neck surgeons - (ENT surgeons). An electronic questionnaire was sent to all ENT surgeons graduated in Finland during a ten-year period. Answers about work satisfaction were analyzed in detail with regards to age, gender, university of specialist training, experience, place of work and further education.Altogether 125/129 (96.9%) responded. The majority (87.8%) of the respondents enjoyed their current main occupation. The older age group (>= 40 vs
  • Vornanen, Riitta; Törrönen, Maritta; Niemelä, Pauli; Miettinen, Janissa (INTECHopen, 2012)
    Riitta Vornanen, Maritta Törrönen, Janissa Miettinen & Pauli Niemelä University of Eastern Finland/University of Helsinki, Finland Security is one of the basic needs; it can also be seen as a basic value in Western societies (Niemelä, 2000), where more and more systems are developed to guarantee security. Security is a highly valued goal, which may be difficult to reach because of different threats and risks in personal lives and in near and global environments. One indicator of the collective quest for security is evident in the literature and studies on different risks. Over a decade ago, Furedi (1997) wrote about the increase in the use of the word “risk” in literature and scientific research. This article participates in the discussion of insecurity and risks by focusing on the experiences of young people. In order to understand young people’s perspectives, we need to focus on their experiences; we need to ask how they relate to society and how distant and global issues influence their world. This article argues that young people are key persons in reflecting the world and the changes in societies. Instead of reacting to the extreme examples of social problems or crimes involving young people, we try to understand how young people experience their personal and social lives, and the more societal and global issues. There is a need to develop social sciences empirical research among young people. It is important to know the role of security in young people’s lives and the sources and dimensions of their insecurity. Empirical research on insecurity needs a theoretical and conceptual understanding of different approaches to security and insecurity. This article makes an explorative contribution to the concepts of insecurity and security from the perspectives of young people. Insecurity is a multidisciplinary concept; understanding of the concept demands different approaches. In addition, the article gives two empirical examples of research on insecurity among young people. By using both theory and empirical findings from quantitative and qualitative research, it is possible to explore the dimensions of the concept and its relevance in research.