Browsing by Subject "insulin signalling"

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  • Makinen, Selina; Nguyen, Yen H.; Skrobuk, Paulina; Koistinen, Heikki A. (2017)
    Saturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of insulin resistance, whereas unsaturated fatty acids may have a protective effect on metabolism. We tested in primary human myotubes if insulin resistance induced by saturated fatty acid palmitate can be ameliorated by concomitant exposure to unsaturated fatty acid oleate. Primary human myotubes were pretreated with palmitate, oleate or their combination for 12 h. Glucose uptake was determined by intracellular accumulation of [H-3]-2-deoxy-d-glucose, insulin signalling and activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by Western blotting, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by fluorescent dye MitoSOX. Exposure of primary human myotubes to palmitate impaired insulin-stimulated Akt-Ser(473), AS160 and GSK-3 beta phosphorylation, induced ER stress signalling target PERK and stress kinase JNK 54 kDa isoform. These effects were virtually abolished by concomitant exposure of palmitate-treated myotubes to oleate. However, an exposure to palmitate, oleate or their combination reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. This was associated with increased mitochondrial ROS production in palmitate-treated myotubes co-incubated with oleate, and was alleviated by antioxidants MitoTempo and Tempol. Thus, metabolic and intracellular signalling events diverge in myotubes treated with palmitate and oleate. Exposure of human myotubes to excess fatty acids increases ROS production and induces insulin resistance.
  • Lehtonen, Sanna (2020)
    SHIP2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol 5 '-phosphatase 2) belongs to the family of 5 '-phosphatases. It regulates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated insulin signalling cascade by dephosphorylating the 5 '-position of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to generate PtdIns(3,4)P2, suppressing the activity of the pathway. SHIP2 mouse models and genetic studies in human propose that increased expression or activity of SHIP2 contributes to the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. This has raised great interest to identify SHIP2 inhibitors that could be used to design new treatments for metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the central mechanisms associated with the development of diabetic kidney disease, including the role of insulin resistance, and then moves on to describe the function of SHIP2 as a regulator of metabolism in mouse models. Finally, the identification of SHIP2 inhibitors and their effects on metabolic processes in vitro and in vivo are outlined. One of the newly identified SHIP2 inhibitors is metformin, the first-line medication prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes, further boosting the attraction of SHIP2 as a treatment target to ameliorate metabolic disorders.