Browsing by Subject "interaction"

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  • Liinamaa, Liisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate explaining among third grade primary school students undergoing inquiry-based science project. Secondly, the aim of the study was to observe the ways with which the teacher sought to promote and scaffold explanation development by students. Previous studies have shown that self-made explanations have an impact on learning outcomes. Explaining has a particularly important role in science education in which the starting point for teaching should be in utilizing students' own experiences, skills and knowledge. This is a qualitative case study written from a socio-cultural point of view using video research as a method. The class in question had 18 students. Material was collected during the spring 2008, when a science project was carried out in the class. In this study I analyzed 6 classes all related to the project. I categorized the explanations using a modified literature-based classification system. These categories were descriptive and developmental intuitive explanations, descriptive and developmental unifying explanations, descriptive and developmental scientific explanations and unclassified explanations. In order to find out the possible methods the teacher used as scaffolds, I further analyzed all the developmental scientific explanations made by the students. I analyzed discovered scaffolding methods using transcribed examples of the classroom discourse. The results indicated that students' explanations changed during the monitoring period. Intuitive explanations and unifying explanations had a relatively high share in the first lesson, after which it decreased. Nevertheless, this category of explanations did not totally disappear either. The number of descriptive scientific explanations stayed relatively high throughout the analyzed period but the share of the developmental scientific explanations increased. By using certain methods the teacher seemed to support the creation of developmental scientific explanations. Those methods were teacher-led questions, mediating conversation and invocation of students' experience and expertise. The study offers examples of what kind of a role explaining has in practical school work, as well as ways how teachers can support students' explanation development during the classes.
  • Nguyen, Su Duy; Javanainen, Matti; Rissanen, Sami; Zhao, Hongxia; Huusko, Jenni; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kovanen, Petri T.; Öörni, Katariina (2015)
    Lipolytic modification of LDL particles by SMase generates LDL aggregates with a strong affinity for human arterial proteoglycans and may so enhance LDL retention in the arterial wall. Here, we evaluated the effects of apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F on structural and functional properties of the SMase-modified LDL particles. LDL particles with and without 4F were incubated with SMase, after which their aggregation, structure, and proteoglycan binding were analyzed. At a molar ratio of L-4F to apoB-100 of 2.5 to 20: 1, 4F dose-dependently inhibited SMase-induced LDL aggregation. At a molar ratio of 20: 1, SMase-induced aggregation was fully blocked. Binding of 4F to LDL particles inhibited SMase-induced hydrolysis of LDL by 10% and prevented SMase-induced LDL aggregation. In addition, the binding of the SMase-modifi ed LDL particles to human aortic proteoglycans was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreating LDL with 4F. The 4F stabilized apoB-100 conformation and inhibited SMase-induced conformational changes of apoB-100. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that upon binding to protein-free LDL surface, 4F locally alters membrane order and fluidity and induces structural changes to the lipid layer. Collectively, 4F stabilizes LDL particles by preventing the SMase-induced conformational changes in apoB-100 and so blocks SMase-induced LDL aggregation and the resulting increase in LDL retention.
  • Kujala, Paivi; Virkkala, Seija; Lahdesmaki, Merja (2021)
    This article focuses on rural business support as a policy regime of the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). We examine the relationships present in the regime to find out how authorities become enablers in the entrepreneurship promotion process. A rural business support regime is considered as a government policy network, consisting of dynamic collaboration and interaction between the European Commission, policymakers, policy implementers and rural entrepreneurs. Based on 38 interviews of rural development actors in Finland, our case-study identifies four properties in the relationships, namely trust, learning, discretion and creativity that are crucial factors in enabling interactions in the rural business support regime. As a contribution, we develop a model for enabling rural authority. We conclude the article by presenting implications for the legitimacy, coherence and durability of the rural business support regime in Finland and in the EU, as we argue that enabling action affects these policy impacts.
  • Häkkinen, Milla Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of the study is to highlight the processes of autism spectrum disorder’s social construction and to construe reality in behalf of more equal and free society. This thesis targets the theoretical framework of social constructionism to specific social contexts that illustrate autism spectrum disorder through real life experience. Material used in this thesis is published by the Finnish Association for Autism as a part of their 100 autisms campaign. Material is interpreted as a political statement by the Finnish Association for Autism that aims to advance positive knowledge of autism spectrum disorder. Analysis of this study is conducted with discourse analysis using Erving Goffman’s sociological perspective to interaction and theory on facework. The theoretical framework of social constructionism showed the social construction of autism spectrum disorder through language based meanings that gave the phenomenon its construed essence. As an element of social interaction autism spectrum disorder was to explain and help, but also something that brought both challenge and joy to other participants of interaction. Autism spectrum disorder was found to be an unnecessary element in certain circumstances.
  • Wiklund, Mari; Ihaksinen, Kia; Vainio, Martti (2021)
    Autismikirjon häiriö on aivojen neurobiologinen kehityshäiriö, jota luonnehtivat mm. sosiaalisen vuorovaikutuksen ongelmat, aistiyliherkkyydet sekä rajoittuneet kiinnostuksen kohteet (APA, 2013). Autismikirjon henkilöillä puheen prosodiaan liittyy usein epätyypillisiä piirteitä. Tässä artikkelissa tarkastellaan autismikirjon poikien puheen lausumanloppuista nousevaa intonaatiota ja sen käyttöä kysymys- ja kerrontavuoroissa spontaanissa vuorovaikutuksessa. Aihe on tärkeä, koska vaikka autismikirjoon liittyviä prosodisia piirteitä onkin jo tutkittu aiemmin melko paljon, spontaania puheaineistoa, joka mahdollistaisi autismikirjon henkilöiden intonaation käytön havainnoimisen, ei ole aiemmin juurikaan tutkittu. Tutkimuksen aineistona käytetään autenttisia ryhmäkuntoutuskeskusteluja, joissa 11–13-vuotiaat autismikirjon pojat (n = 7) keskustelevat kuntouttajiensa kanssa. Tutkimuksessa käytetään fonetiikan ja keskustelunanalyysin menetelmiä. Tutkimuksen tulokset viittaavat siihen, että autismikirjon pojat osaavat käyttää nousevaa loppuintonaatiota vuorovaikutuskeinona sekä tuottaa että tulkita oikein päättyvyyttä ilmaisevia prosodisia piirteitä spontaanissa vuorovaikutuksessa. He osaavat myös käyttää prosodisia piirteitä korostuskeinoina, kutsua intonaation loppunousun avulla reaktioita muilta osallistujilta sekä ilmaista vastaanottajan huomioonottamista. Autismikirjon pojat vaikuttaisivat siis pystyvän käyttämään hyväkseen intonaatiota vuorovaikutuksellisena resurssina, vaikka vastavuoroinen vuorovaikutus on yleisesti ottaen autismikirjon henkilöille vaikeaa (APA, 2013).
  • Weiste, Elina; Käpykangas, Sari; Uusitalo, Lise-Lotte; Stevanovic, Melisa (2020)
    Contemporary social and health care services exhibit a significant movement toward increasing client involvement in their own care and in the development of services. This major cultural change represents a marked shift in the client's role from a passive patient to an active empowered agent. We draw on interaction-oriented focus group research and conversation analysis to study workshop conversations in which social and health care clients and professionals discussed "client involvement". Our analysis focuses on the participants' mutually congruent or discrepant views on the topic. The professionals and clients both saw client involvement as an ideal that should be promoted. Although both participant groups considered the clients' experience of being heard a prerequisite of client involvement, the clients deviated from the professionals in that they also highlighted the need for actual decision-making power. However, when the professionals invoked the clients' responsibility for their own treatment, the clients were not eager to agree with their view. In addition, in analyzing problems of client involvement during the clients' and professionals' meta-talk about client involvement, the paper also shows how the "client involvement" rhetoric itself may, paradoxically, sometimes serve to hinder here-and-now client involvement.
  • Gonçalves, Paula; Vierikko, Kati; Elands, Birgit; Haase, Dagmar; Catarina Luz, Ana; Santos-Reis, Margarida (Elsevier BV, 2021)
    Environmental and Sustainability Indicators 11: 100131
    Cities face growing challenges and urban greenspaces (UGS) play a key role in improving cities liveability. UGS are complex socio-ecological systems and evidence-based and context-sensitive tools are needed to assist planning and manage environmentally sound and socially inclusive UGS. In this paper, we propose an innovative indicator-based tool to operationalize the biocultural diversity (BCD) framework in urban contexts, deriving from its three conceptual layers – materialized, lived and stewardship. Indicators proposed are bundled in themes representing essential components when assessing and analyzing urban BCD from a contextual and sensitizing perspective. The set of indicators highlight key features of socio-cultural and ecological systems, theirs links and interactions, both material and non-material, to capture the essence of biocultural diversity at site-level. By offering a uniform scoring system with the possibility to set site-specific benchmarks, these can be used in any type of greenspace of any city, while allowing different communities/neighborhoods/city councils to embrace different approaches to meet their objectives towards larger scale goals. Twelve urban parks in Lisbon were used as a test-bed for the indicator-based tool and proved its feasibility to gather an overall snapshot of all parks and to demonstrate the possibility to deepen the study to only two parks uncovering self-exclusion processes that otherwise would have remained hidden. The BCD tool brings together essential information scattered over several quality and good practices assessment tools and protocols and, by including indicators specifically addressing governance and stewardship, offers a policy-driven instrument able to capture trade-offs and/or synergies between ecological, social and political domains.
  • He, Chen; Micallef, Luana; He, Liye; Peddinti, Gopal; Aittokallio, Tero; Jacucci, Giulio (2021)
    Understanding the quality of insight has become increasingly important with the trend of allowing users to post comments during visual exploration, yet approaches for qualifying insight are rare. This article presents a case study to investigate the possibility of characterizing the quality of insight via the interactions performed. To do this, we devised the interaction of a visualization tool—MediSyn—for insight generation. MediSyn supports five types of interactions: selecting, connecting, elaborating, exploring, and sharing. We evaluated MediSyn with 14 participants by allowing them to freely explore the data and generate insights. We then extracted seven interaction patterns from their interaction logs and correlated the patterns to four aspects of insight quality. The results show the possibility of qualifying insights via interactions. Among other findings, exploration actions can lead to unexpected insights; the drill-down pattern tends to increase the domain values of insights. A qualitative analysis shows that using domain knowledge to guide exploration can positively affect the domain value of derived insights. We discuss the study’s implications, lessons learned, and future research opportunities.
  • Moliner, Rafael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Classical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs have been shown to reinstate juvenile-like plasticity in the adult brain, allowing mature neuronal networks to rewire in an environmentally-driven/activity-dependent process. Indeed, antidepressant drugs gradually increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and can rapidly activate signaling of its high-affinity receptor TRKB. However, the exact mechanism of action underlying drug-induced restoration of juvenile-like plasticity remains poorly understood. In this study we first characterized acute effects of classical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs on the interaction between TRKB and postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins PSD-93 and PSD-95 in vitro. PSD proteins constitute the core of synaptic complexes by anchoring receptors, ion channels, adhesion proteins and various signaling molecules, and are also involved in protein transport and cell surface localization. PSD proteins have in common their role as key regulators of synaptic structure and function, although PSD-93 and PSD-95 are associated with different functions during development and have opposing effects on the state of plasticity in individual synapses and neurons. Secondly, we investigated changes in mobility of TRKB in dendritic structures in response to treatment with antidepressant drugs in vitro. We found that antidepressant drugs decrease anchoring of TRKB with PSD-93 and PSD-95, and can rapidly increase TRKB turnover in dendritic spines. Our results contribute to the mechanistic model explaining drug-induced restoration of juvenile-like neuronal plasticity, and may provide a common basis for the effects of antidepressant drugs.
  • Wallin, M (Kela, 2009)
    Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia 103
    Tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli selvittää kotona asuvien vanhusten laitoskuntoutuksen liikunnallisen osuuden toteutumista fysioterapeuttien ja vanhusten näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin vuosina 2002 ja 2003 Kelan IKÄ-hankkeen kuntoutusryhmistä. Tutkimukseen haastateltiin 31 iältään 66–93-vuotiasta kuntoutujaa ja 11 fysioterapeuttia. Lisäksi videoitiin seitsemän ryhmäliikuntatilannetta, joihin osallistui yhteensä 52 vanhusta ja 9 ammattilaista. Vanhukset kuvailivat kuntoutuskokemustaan joko arjessa selviytymisen välineeksi tai lomaksi arjesta. Osa oli pettynyt saamaansa kuntoutukseen. Fysioterapeutit pitivät vanhuksia joko kuntoutuksen vastaanottajina, jolloin keskityttiin vanhuksen fyysisen toimintakyvyn ongelmiin tai sosiaalisiin tarpeisiin, tai kumppaneina harjoitteluinterventiossa kotona selviytymisen edistämiseksi. Ryhmäliikuntatilanteet etenivät fysioterapeuttijohtoisesti, joko strukturoidusti ilman kuntoutujille annettua yksilöllistä palautetta tai yksilöllisen ohjauksen ja palautteen mahdollistaen. Ns. kiertoharjoittelussa vanhuksilla oli mahdollisuus osallistua aktiivisesti liikuntaryhmän toteuttamiseen. Vanhukset osallistuivat hiljaisesti harjoittelemalla, vastentahtoisesti suostumalla, sitkeästi yrittämällä tai kaveria auttamalla. Heterogeeninen vanhusryhmä haastaa nykyisiä kuntoutuskäytäntöjä, joissa on sekä toimivia että kehitettäviä alueita. Vanhusten kotona asumista heidän yksilölliset tarpeensa huomioon ottaen voidaan tukea, kun vanhukset saavat osallistua muiden ryhmäläisten kanssa yhteiseen ongelmanratkaisuun ja heille mielekkäiden, arjen askareita tukevien harjoitusten tekemiseen. – Suomenkielinen yhteenveto s. 52–56.
  • Suikkanen, Sanna; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Kauppila, Pirkko; Mäkinen, Katja; Kuosa, Harri (Elsevier, 2021)
    Food Webs 28, e00202
    Blooms of cyanobacteria are recurrent phenomena in coastal estuaries. Their maximum abundance coincides with the productive period of zooplankton and pelagic fish. Experimental studies indicate that diazotrophic, i.e. dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterial (taxonomic order Nostocales) blooms affect zooplankton, as well as other phytoplankton. We used multidecadal monitoring data from one archipelago station (1992–2013) and ten open sea stations (1979–2013) in the Baltic Sea to explore the potential bottom-up connections between diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria and phyto- and zooplankton in natural plankton communities. Random forest regression, combined with linear regression analysis showed that the biomass of cyanobacteria (both diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic) was barely connected to any of the phytoplankton and zooplankton variables examined. Instead, physico-chemical variables (salinity, temperature, total phosphorus), as well as spatial and temporal variability seemed to have more significant connections to both phytoplankton and zooplankton variables. Zooplankton variables were also connected to the biomass of phytoplankton groups other than cyanobacteria (such as chrysophytes, cryptophytes and prymnesiophytes), and phytoplankton variables had connections with the biomass of different zooplankton groups, especially copepods. Overall, negative relationships between cyanobacteria and other plankton taxa were scarcer than expected based on previous experimental studies.
  • Sorsa, Virpi (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 248
    “Strategizing has become one of the most important managerial practices. It is becoming harder and harder to find an organization, which wouldn't engage in yearly strategic planning and implementation cycles. Although the theorizing of "planning" is becoming less popular in strategy research and the theorization of "process" and "practice" is gaining more and more ground, the practice itself - the managerial elite's strategy workshops, the writing of official strategy documents and the employees' and interest groups' various innovative ways of interpreting and using those documents - has become accustomed, legitimate and even expected in contemporary organizations. This thesis examines the social practice of strategizing in municipal and congregational strategy work through various discursive perspectives and explains how strategy enters into and figures in the daily lives of people organizations. The contributions of this thesis are presented in six essays, which examine the actual strategy conversations and texts. This approach gives the reader a unique opportunity to access information and learn about issues which are typically kept out of sight to outside eyes. The results of this thesis emphasize the constitutive role of discourse and communication at different sites of social life within the context of strategizing. With its distinctive approach to studying the transcripts and videorecordings of strategy work, this thesis sensitizes scholars to pay careful attention to language and its role in social practice of strategy and will be invaluable to scholars, researchers, and graduate students in strategy communication.”
  • Mononen, Kaarina (2019)
    This article analyses how caregivers use affective touch as a resource to facilitate interaction. Through touch, caregivers construct positive socio-emotional relationships with their residents. The analysis of micro-level interaction is based on an interactional sociolinguistic framework, and reveals how caregivers display affection and intimacy while assisting the residents in everyday situations in a care home. All of the examples involve touching a person's shoulder, stroking or giving half-embraces, typical resources used to construct affiliation between caregivers and residents. This article illustrates how affective touch facilitates interaction by regulating participation and calming down residents, by mitigating the controlling aspect of caring, and by fostering a positive interpersonal relationship. The care situations presented in this article contain crucial pauses within talk that are used to construct a peaceful atmosphere. During these crucial moments, embodied action effectively indicates an orientation to listening and establishes a presence to accomplish the actions in that situational talk. This analysis contributes to the studies on embodied interaction and on interpersonal relationships in care for older adults.(1)
  • Kokkoniemi, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective of the study. Previous studies have concluded that applying collaborative learning methods in university courses, such as a small group work, enhances profound understanding of a learning issue and students’ thinking processes. In a group, students bring up new ideas and process, justify them from different perspectives, evaluate explanations and try to form a shared understanding of the theme to be studied. Questions have been found to be effective for improving students’ deep and collaborative knowledge elaboration, but the interrelationship between these two has not been investigated extensively, thus, only in the context of medical education. The objective of this study was to analyse how questions are used in a small group discussion for enhancing undergraduate students’ collaborative elaboration of knowledge in the context of biosciences. Methods. In this study, the video data collected from a small group discussion in a field course in biology were analysed. The focus of the analysis were the utterances in the group discussion of eight first-year bioscience students and their teacher. The aim of the group work and the discussion was to find out the students’ prior knowledge and elaborate ideas for defining a research problem. Theory-based content analysis was used to classify different question types and the quality of elaboration in answers that the students expressed. Finally, different question types were compared in relation to the quality of subsequent answers. Results and conclusions. In line with previous studies, the students elicited factual and declarative questions checking prior knowledge and the accuracy of their ideas. The teacher presented explanative and meaningful questions when asking the students to interpret and meta questions when encouraging other students to join a discussion. The students rarely elaborated and explained learning issues collaboratively. When answering, the students accepted different ideas without explaining or elaborating them further. When the teacher was involved in a discussion, the teacher explained and clarified issues on behalf of the students. The results emphasised the interpretation that students are used to express simple questions that do not challenge their thinking but that teachers can use explanative and meaningful questions to support students to elaborate their ideas thoroughly. The results show that applying collaborative learning methods requires that students are taught to ask meaningful questions and that pedagogical programs aiming at learning question strategies enhancing collaborative learning are developed and made available for teachers.
  • Charbonnel, Nathalie; Pages, Marie; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti (2014)
  • Xu, Yan; Pitkänen, Leena; Maina, Ndegwa Henry; Coda, Rossana; Katina, Kati; Tenkanen, Maija (2018)
    The aim of this study was to study the interactions between dextran and fava bean protein. Two dextrans produced by Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 and Weissella cibaria Sj 1b were purified and mixed with fava bean protein isolate (FPI) in water or in different buffers. The two isolated dextrans presented a typical dextran structure, mainly alpha-(1 -> 6) linkages (above 95%) and few alpha-(1 -> 3) branches, but they differed in molar mass and conformation. Dry-heating incubation of FPI and dextran mixture facilitated the conjugation of dextran to FPI through the Maillard reaction. Both mixed and conjugated systems were further heat-treated, and different influences of the formed covalent bonds on rheological properties were observed. The W. cibaria Sj 1b dextran had a much higher gel-strengthening ability than the Ln. pseudomesenteroides DSM 20193 dextran. The intermolecular FPI-dextran interactions played an important role in stabilizing the mixed systems at different pH.
  • Siirtola, Harri; Isokoski, Poika; Säily, Tanja; Nevalainen, Terttu (IEEE Computer Society, 2016)
    Information Visualization
    Digitalization is changing how research is carried out in all areas of science. Humanities is no exception - materials that used to be hand-written or printed on paper are increasingly available in digital form. This development is changing how scholars are interacting with their material. We are addressing the problem of interactive text visualization in the context of sociolinguistic language study. When a scholar is reading and analyzing text from a computer screen instead of a paper, we can support this by providing a dashboard for reading, and by creating visualizations of the text structure, variation, and change. We have designed and developed a software tool called Text Variation Explorer (TVE) for sociolinguistic language study. It is based on interactive visualization with a direct manipulation user interface, and aimed for exploratory corpus linguistics. The TVE software tool has proven to be useful in supporting the study of language variation and change in its social contexts, or sociolinguistics. It is, to a certain degree, language-independent, and generic enough to be useful in other linguistic contexts as well. We are now in the process of designing and implementing the next iteration of TVE. We present the lessons learned from the first version, discuss the old and the new design, and welcome feedback from the communities involved.
  • Heikkonen, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Reciprocal interaction between a parent and a child can face many challenges due to preterm birth. Not only is the preterm infant developmentally immature for social interaction, but also the parent may find it challenging to interact with the preterm child. Even though the preterm child would greatly benefit from parents’ support, it can be difficult for an anxious parent to support a child adequately, further harming the development of the preterm child. The aim of the current study was to examine how maternal anxiety after preterm birth affects later interaction between parents and the preterm child and the development of the preterm child at 2–3 years of age. Also, the associations between interaction and screen time and child’s development were examined. Methods. Participants of the study were 27 preterm children who were born at 30,20 (±2,27) weeks of gestation. Mothers assessed their anxiety after the preterm birth with a STAI -self valuation questionnaire at the time of the gestational age of 35 and 40 weeks. Later at the 2–3 year follow-up mothers, fathers or both parents estimated interaction with a questionnaire that examined the amounts of language and music actions at home and child’s screen time. Also, child’s development was assessed with Bayley-III. The associations were examined with Pearson correlation and Spearman order correlation coefficients. Results and conclusions. The results show that maternal anxiety after preterm birth is acutely very common and half of the mothers were moderately anxious. When anxiety seemed more chronic instead of short-lived, maternal anxiety after preterm birth was associated with less interaction at 2-3 years of age. In homes of less anxious mothers, parents and children’s siblings played more music and premature children spent more time watching television or otherwise spending time with smart devices than in the homes of more anxious mothers. In this study, the higher amount of child’s screen time was associated with poorer socio-emotional development. Screen time’s effect on socio-emotional development can be even more harmful with prematurely born children since they often suffer from developmental deficits and challenges in reciprocal interaction. Even though it seems that less anxious mothers mean well and want to offer more stimuli for their preterm children, they may not help the child by offering him or her more screen time. The results add to previous knowledge about screen time’s associations with poorer socio-emotional development for the first time with preterm children.
  • Hietala, Miina (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan eteläpohjalaismurteen ja yleiskielen sekä yleispuhekielen vaihtelun tilanteita ja tehtäviä luokkahuoneessa eräässä lapualaisessa alakoulussa. Tavoitteena on selvittää, millaisissa kielenkäytön tilanteissa murteen ja yleiskielen sekä yleispuhekielen vaihtelua tapahtuu ja millaisia tehtäviä sillä luokkahuoneessa on. Tarkasteltavat murrepiirteet ovat äänne- ja muotopiirteitä (esimerkiksi svaavokaali ja inessiivin pääte). Aineisto kerättiin alakoulun ensimmäisen ja toisen luokan yhdysluokasta kevättalvella 2008. Aineisto koostuu kolmesta oppitunnista, jotka on tallennettu kahdella videokameralla. Tutkimusluokalla oli 20 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli kuusi ja poikia neljätoista. Oppilaista seitsemän oli ensimmäisellä luokalla ja 13 toisella luokalla. Tutkimusaineisto litteroitiin keskustelunanalyyttisesti. Keskeisinä tutkimusmetodeina käytetään dialektologiaa, sosiolingvististä variaationtutkimusta sekä keskustelunanalyysia, ja tarkastelu on laadullista. Tutkimuksen alussa esitellään yleisesti murteentutkimusta luokkahuoneessa ja tutkimukseen vaikuttaneita tutkimustraditioita. Tutkielman teoriaosassa käsitellään luokkahuoneen vuorovaikutuksen piirteitä, puheen vuorottelukäytänteitä sekä kielenkäytön vaihtelua ja määritellään tutkimuksessa käytettäviä termejä sekä tutkittavia eteläpohjalaisia murrepiirteitä. Ensimmäisen analyysiluvun aluksi esitellään kielellisen vaihtelun perustapauksia sen mukaan, kuka puhuu ja miten jonkin piirteen variantti ilmenee: esimerkiksi variantti voi säilyä, vaikka puhuja vaihtuu, tai variantti voi vaihtua, vaikka puhuja säilyy. Tämän jälkeen analysoidaan luokkahuoneen kielenkäyttötilanteita kielellisen vaihtelun kannalta. Vaihtelu kasaantuu erityisesti tietynlaisiin tilanteisiin: opettajajohtoiseen opetustilanteeseen, kysymiseen, kerrontaan, toistamiseen sekä työrauhan ylläpitämiseen. Vaihtelua tapahtuu sekä opettajan että oppilaiden puheessa. Toisessa analyysiluvussa täsmennetään kuvaa kielellisestä vaihtelusta analysoimalla tarkemmin vaihtelun tehtäviä edellisessä luvussa esitellyissä tilanteissa. Ensiksikin vaihtelun avulla voidaan selventää puhetta, kun annetaan ohjetta (vain opettajan puheessa), selvitetään ongelmaa, kerrotaan uutta asiaa ja käytetään paikannimeä. Toiseksi kielellinen vaihtelu voi toimia yhtenä keinona osoittaa erilaisia siirtymiä vuorovaikutustilanteessa: siirtymää tilanteesta ja toiminnasta toiseen mukaan lukien puheenvuoron päättäminen tai muutosta puheen suuntaamisessa tai vuorovaikutusroolissa. Kolmanneksi vaihtelua voidaan käyttää myös etäännyttämään oma puhetta väärää vastausta arvioitaessa tai erimielisyyttä osoitettaessa. Toisin kuin aiemmissa tutkimuksissa, tämän tutkimuksen aineistossa oppilaat eivät käyttäneet kielellistä vaihtelua huumorin keinona, mitä saattaa selittää oppilaiden nuori ikä.
  • Männistö, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this study was to describe difficulties in kids self-regulation and define multiple things that cause it in day care interaction situations. The research questions are 1. How difficulties in self-regulation appear in interaction, 2. What are the causes that effect to self-regulation, and 3. What pedagogical methods are applied concerning self-regulation in day care groups in this research. Stress is closely related with self-regulation. When faced with a stimulus, people become alerted. That elevates stress level and calls for self regulation. Self-regulation is considered as dependent on circumstances and interaction. Difficulties in self-regulation often coexist with difficulties in peer relations. People have inborn abilities to regulate emotions and behavior, but self-regulation skills are also learned in interaction with others. Human is considered to be pro-social by birth, and to be favoring helping others. Interventions concerning self-regulation has been developed, to enhance pedagogical sensitivity among day care teachers. Pedagogical sensitivity reduces stress and helps children to self-regulate. Two day care groups from Helsinki participated in this research. Research groups had children with special needs integrated. The data was collected by videotaping and observing the interaction in normal daily activities in spring 2015, two days in a row. Interesting clips were chosen from the videotapes to be shown to day care teachers together with the interviews. In interviews, the teachers commented about the situations from the videoclips and answered open questions about self-regulation. Observations from the videotapes and transcribed interviews were analyzed according to methods of qualitative content analysis. According to research findings, difficulties in self-regulation appear in interaction with unique ways. Children seem to have their own individual ways to react in face of a stress and in need of self-regulation. Difficulties in self-regulation appeared in behavior merely described with three concepts: ”fight, flee or freeze”. Difficulties were either active and extraverted, or passive and introverted. The causes that effect self-regulation in this research were distinctive and dependent on the situation. Children had very different abilities to face day care interaction situations. Self-regulation was effected with multiple, also random causes, and because of that self-regulation cannot be seen linear from its causes and effects. Causes were classified as 1. abilities to regulate, 2. causes that strain and challenging interaction situations. These three causes can be found in all research situations that had self-regulation difficulties. Adult support, well-planned, structured day care environment and customs, that have been formed together, were the main causes that supported self-regulation in this research. In research day care groups self-regulation difficulties were prevented in many ways. Teachers had good knowledge and know-how about self-regulation. To support development of self-regulation in wider perspective knowledge should be increased. Children should have opportunities to train their self-regulation skills in their natural interaction situations, for example, with adult supported play, and interventions that enhance emotion-regulation and interaction skills.