Browsing by Subject "interaction"

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  • Liinamaa, Liisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate explaining among third grade primary school students undergoing inquiry-based science project. Secondly, the aim of the study was to observe the ways with which the teacher sought to promote and scaffold explanation development by students. Previous studies have shown that self-made explanations have an impact on learning outcomes. Explaining has a particularly important role in science education in which the starting point for teaching should be in utilizing students' own experiences, skills and knowledge. This is a qualitative case study written from a socio-cultural point of view using video research as a method. The class in question had 18 students. Material was collected during the spring 2008, when a science project was carried out in the class. In this study I analyzed 6 classes all related to the project. I categorized the explanations using a modified literature-based classification system. These categories were descriptive and developmental intuitive explanations, descriptive and developmental unifying explanations, descriptive and developmental scientific explanations and unclassified explanations. In order to find out the possible methods the teacher used as scaffolds, I further analyzed all the developmental scientific explanations made by the students. I analyzed discovered scaffolding methods using transcribed examples of the classroom discourse. The results indicated that students' explanations changed during the monitoring period. Intuitive explanations and unifying explanations had a relatively high share in the first lesson, after which it decreased. Nevertheless, this category of explanations did not totally disappear either. The number of descriptive scientific explanations stayed relatively high throughout the analyzed period but the share of the developmental scientific explanations increased. By using certain methods the teacher seemed to support the creation of developmental scientific explanations. Those methods were teacher-led questions, mediating conversation and invocation of students' experience and expertise. The study offers examples of what kind of a role explaining has in practical school work, as well as ways how teachers can support students' explanation development during the classes.
  • Calderón, Silvia M.; Tonttila, Juha; Buchholz, Angela; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Komppula, Mika; Leskinen, Ari; Hao, Liqing; Moisseev, Dmitri; Pullinen, Iida; Tiitta, Petri; Xu, Jian; Virtanen, Annele; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami (Copernicus Publ., 2022)
    Atmospheric chemistry and physics
    We carried out a closure study of aerosol-cloud interactions during stratocumulus formation using a large eddy simulation model UCLALES-SALSA and observations from the 2020 cloud sampling campaign at the Puijo SMEAR IV station in Kuopio, Finland. The unique observational setup combining in situ and cloud remote sensing measurements allowed a closer look into the aerosol size-composition dependence of droplet activation and droplet growth in turbulent boundary layer driven by surface forcing and radiative cooling. UCLALES-SALSA uses spectral bin microphysics for aerosols and hydrometeors and incorporates a full description of their interactions into the turbulent-convective radiation-dynamical model of stratocumulus. Based on our results, the model successfully described the probability distribution of updraft velocities and consequently the size dependency of aerosol activation into cloud droplets, and further recreated the size distributions for both interstitial aerosol and cloud droplets. This is the first time such a detailed closure is achieved not only accounting for activation of cloud droplets in different updrafts, but also accounting for processes evaporating droplets and drizzle production through coagulation-coalescence. We studied two cases of cloud formation, one diurnal (24 September 2020) and one nocturnal (31 October 2020), with high and low aerosol loadings, respectively. Aerosol number concentrations differ more than 1 order of magnitude between cases and therefore, lead to cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) values which range from less than 100cm-3 up to 1000cm-3. Different aerosol loadings affected supersaturation at the cloud base, and thus the size of aerosol particles activating to cloud droplets. Due to higher CDNC, the mean size of cloud droplets in the diurnal-high aerosol case was lower. Thus, droplet evaporation in downdrafts affected more the observed CDNC at Puijo altitude compared to the low aerosol case. In addition, in the low aerosol case, the presence of large aerosol particles in the accumulation mode played a significant role in the droplet spectrum evolution as it promoted the drizzle formation through collision and coalescence processes. Also, during the event, the formation of ice particles was observed due to subzero temperature at the cloud top. Although the modeled number concentration of ice hydrometeors was too low to be directly measured, the retrieval of hydrometeor sedimentation velocities with cloud radar allowed us to assess the realism of modeled ice particles. The studied cases are presented in detail and can be further used by the cloud modellers to test and validate their models in a well-characterized modelling setup. We also provide recommendations on how increasing amount of information on aerosol properties could improve the understanding of processes affecting cloud droplet number and liquid water content in stratiform clouds.
  • Nguyen, Su Duy; Javanainen, Matti; Rissanen, Sami; Zhao, Hongxia; Huusko, Jenni; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Navab, Mohamad; Fogelman, Alan M.; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Kovanen, Petri T.; Öörni, Katariina (2015)
    Lipolytic modification of LDL particles by SMase generates LDL aggregates with a strong affinity for human arterial proteoglycans and may so enhance LDL retention in the arterial wall. Here, we evaluated the effects of apoA-I mimetic peptide 4F on structural and functional properties of the SMase-modified LDL particles. LDL particles with and without 4F were incubated with SMase, after which their aggregation, structure, and proteoglycan binding were analyzed. At a molar ratio of L-4F to apoB-100 of 2.5 to 20: 1, 4F dose-dependently inhibited SMase-induced LDL aggregation. At a molar ratio of 20: 1, SMase-induced aggregation was fully blocked. Binding of 4F to LDL particles inhibited SMase-induced hydrolysis of LDL by 10% and prevented SMase-induced LDL aggregation. In addition, the binding of the SMase-modifi ed LDL particles to human aortic proteoglycans was dose-dependently inhibited by pretreating LDL with 4F. The 4F stabilized apoB-100 conformation and inhibited SMase-induced conformational changes of apoB-100. Molecular dynamic simulations showed that upon binding to protein-free LDL surface, 4F locally alters membrane order and fluidity and induces structural changes to the lipid layer. Collectively, 4F stabilizes LDL particles by preventing the SMase-induced conformational changes in apoB-100 and so blocks SMase-induced LDL aggregation and the resulting increase in LDL retention.
  • Kujala, Paivi; Virkkala, Seija; Lahdesmaki, Merja (2021)
    This article focuses on rural business support as a policy regime of the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). We examine the relationships present in the regime to find out how authorities become enablers in the entrepreneurship promotion process. A rural business support regime is considered as a government policy network, consisting of dynamic collaboration and interaction between the European Commission, policymakers, policy implementers and rural entrepreneurs. Based on 38 interviews of rural development actors in Finland, our case-study identifies four properties in the relationships, namely trust, learning, discretion and creativity that are crucial factors in enabling interactions in the rural business support regime. As a contribution, we develop a model for enabling rural authority. We conclude the article by presenting implications for the legitimacy, coherence and durability of the rural business support regime in Finland and in the EU, as we argue that enabling action affects these policy impacts.
  • Häkkinen, Milla Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of the study is to highlight the processes of autism spectrum disorder’s social construction and to construe reality in behalf of more equal and free society. This thesis targets the theoretical framework of social constructionism to specific social contexts that illustrate autism spectrum disorder through real life experience. Material used in this thesis is published by the Finnish Association for Autism as a part of their 100 autisms campaign. Material is interpreted as a political statement by the Finnish Association for Autism that aims to advance positive knowledge of autism spectrum disorder. Analysis of this study is conducted with discourse analysis using Erving Goffman’s sociological perspective to interaction and theory on facework. The theoretical framework of social constructionism showed the social construction of autism spectrum disorder through language based meanings that gave the phenomenon its construed essence. As an element of social interaction autism spectrum disorder was to explain and help, but also something that brought both challenge and joy to other participants of interaction. Autism spectrum disorder was found to be an unnecessary element in certain circumstances.
  • Wiklund, Mari; Ihaksinen, Kia; Vainio, Martti (2021)
    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurobiological developmental disorder, characterized e.g. by problems of social interaction, over-sensitity to sensory stimuli as well as restricted interests (APA, 2013). People afflicted with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have deviant prosodic features in their speech. This article focuses on the utterance-final rising pitch and its use in questions and narrative turns in the spontaneous interaction of boys with ASD. The topic is important because even if autistic persons’ prosodic features have already been studied rather extensively, spontaneous interaction, which allows observing the use of intonation by persons with ASD, has been studied very little before. The data originate from authentic group therapy sessions where 11–13-year-old boys afflicted with ASD talk with their therapists. Methods of phonetics and conversation analysis are used in the study. The results of the study suggest that boys with ASD are able to use utterance-final rising pitch as an interactional resource as well as to produce and interpret correctly prosodic features that indicate finality in spontaneous interaction. They are also able to emphasize words with the help of prosodic features, call for other participants’ reactions and indicate that they take other participants into account with the help of utterance-final pitch rises. Thus, boys with ASD seem to be able to use intonation as an interactional resource, even though reciprocal interaction is generally speaking difficult for people afflicted with autism (APA, 2013).
  • Mustajoki, Arto; Baikulova, Alla (2022)
    In an ordinary interaction, communicants have various, mostly unconscious goals which reflect their interactional, social and personal needs. In these interactions, people's minds try to find a balance between reaching these goals and consuming cognitive energy. If a speaker puts too little effort into speech production, she risks not achieving her communicative goals. This is especially typical when the atmosphere is relaxed, a good example of which is family discourse. An analysis of recorded conversations shows that there are certain regular manifestations of risk-taking in family discourse, such as expressing immature thoughts, raising a large variety of topics and overguessing. A substantial amount of risk-taking in family discourse is in one way or another connected with false confidence in the interlocutors' common ground. Family members know each other well, which results in an overestimation of the similarity of their understanding of words and objects. This attitude leads them to use cryptic, hard-to-comprehend speech. Quick, everyday interactions are mostly automated, and the speakers do not recognise that their speech is full of implicitness and underdeterminacy.
  • Gonçalves, Paula; Vierikko, Kati; Elands, Birgit; Haase, Dagmar; Catarina Luz, Ana; Santos-Reis, Margarida (Elsevier BV, 2021)
    Environmental and Sustainability Indicators 11: 100131
    Cities face growing challenges and urban greenspaces (UGS) play a key role in improving cities liveability. UGS are complex socio-ecological systems and evidence-based and context-sensitive tools are needed to assist planning and manage environmentally sound and socially inclusive UGS. In this paper, we propose an innovative indicator-based tool to operationalize the biocultural diversity (BCD) framework in urban contexts, deriving from its three conceptual layers – materialized, lived and stewardship. Indicators proposed are bundled in themes representing essential components when assessing and analyzing urban BCD from a contextual and sensitizing perspective. The set of indicators highlight key features of socio-cultural and ecological systems, theirs links and interactions, both material and non-material, to capture the essence of biocultural diversity at site-level. By offering a uniform scoring system with the possibility to set site-specific benchmarks, these can be used in any type of greenspace of any city, while allowing different communities/neighborhoods/city councils to embrace different approaches to meet their objectives towards larger scale goals. Twelve urban parks in Lisbon were used as a test-bed for the indicator-based tool and proved its feasibility to gather an overall snapshot of all parks and to demonstrate the possibility to deepen the study to only two parks uncovering self-exclusion processes that otherwise would have remained hidden. The BCD tool brings together essential information scattered over several quality and good practices assessment tools and protocols and, by including indicators specifically addressing governance and stewardship, offers a policy-driven instrument able to capture trade-offs and/or synergies between ecological, social and political domains.
  • García-Girón, Jorge; Heino, Jani; García-Criado, Francisco; Fernández-Aláez, Camino; Alahuhta, Janne (Wiley Online Library, 2020)
    Ecography 43 8 (2020)
    Biotic interactions are fundamental drivers governing biodiversity locally, yet their effects on geographical variation in community composition (i.e. incidence-based) and community structure (i.e. abundance-based) at regional scales remain controversial. Ecologists have only recently started to integrate different types of biotic interactions into community assembly in a spatial context, a theme that merits further empirical quantification. Here, we applied partial correlation networks to infer the strength of spatial dependencies between pairs of organismal groups and mapped the imprints of biotic interactions on the assembly of pond metacommunities. To do this, we used a comprehensive empirical dataset from Mediterranean landscapes and adopted the perspective that community assembly is best represented as a network of interacting organismal groups. Our results revealed that the co-variation among the beta diversities of multiple organismal groups is primarily driven by biotic interactions and, to a lesser extent, by the abiotic environment. These results suggest that ignoring biotic interactions may undermine our understanding of assembly mechanisms in spatially extensive areas and decrease the accuracy and performance of predictive models. We further found strong spatial dependencies in our analyses which can be interpreted as functional relationships among several pairs of organismal groups (e.g. macrophytes–macroinvertebrates, fish–zooplankton). Perhaps more importantly, our results support the notion that biotic interactions make crucial contributions to the species sorting paradigm of metacommunity theory and raise the question of whether these biologically-driven signals have been equally underappreciated in other aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Although more research is still required to empirically capture the importance of biotic interactions across ecosystems and at different spatial resolutions and extents, our findings may allow decision makers to better foresee the main consequences of human-driven impacts on inland waters, particularly those associated with the addition or removal of key species.
  • He, Chen; Micallef, Luana; He, Liye; Peddinti, Gopal; Aittokallio, Tero; Jacucci, Giulio (2021)
    Understanding the quality of insight has become increasingly important with the trend of allowing users to post comments during visual exploration, yet approaches for qualifying insight are rare. This article presents a case study to investigate the possibility of characterizing the quality of insight via the interactions performed. To do this, we devised the interaction of a visualization tool—MediSyn—for insight generation. MediSyn supports five types of interactions: selecting, connecting, elaborating, exploring, and sharing. We evaluated MediSyn with 14 participants by allowing them to freely explore the data and generate insights. We then extracted seven interaction patterns from their interaction logs and correlated the patterns to four aspects of insight quality. The results show the possibility of qualifying insights via interactions. Among other findings, exploration actions can lead to unexpected insights; the drill-down pattern tends to increase the domain values of insights. A qualitative analysis shows that using domain knowledge to guide exploration can positively affect the domain value of derived insights. We discuss the study’s implications, lessons learned, and future research opportunities.
  • Moliner, Rafael (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Classical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs have been shown to reinstate juvenile-like plasticity in the adult brain, allowing mature neuronal networks to rewire in an environmentally-driven/activity-dependent process. Indeed, antidepressant drugs gradually increase expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and can rapidly activate signaling of its high-affinity receptor TRKB. However, the exact mechanism of action underlying drug-induced restoration of juvenile-like plasticity remains poorly understood. In this study we first characterized acute effects of classical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs on the interaction between TRKB and postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins PSD-93 and PSD-95 in vitro. PSD proteins constitute the core of synaptic complexes by anchoring receptors, ion channels, adhesion proteins and various signaling molecules, and are also involved in protein transport and cell surface localization. PSD proteins have in common their role as key regulators of synaptic structure and function, although PSD-93 and PSD-95 are associated with different functions during development and have opposing effects on the state of plasticity in individual synapses and neurons. Secondly, we investigated changes in mobility of TRKB in dendritic structures in response to treatment with antidepressant drugs in vitro. We found that antidepressant drugs decrease anchoring of TRKB with PSD-93 and PSD-95, and can rapidly increase TRKB turnover in dendritic spines. Our results contribute to the mechanistic model explaining drug-induced restoration of juvenile-like neuronal plasticity, and may provide a common basis for the effects of antidepressant drugs.
  • Wallin, M (Kela, 2009)
    Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia 103
    Tutkimuksen tarkoitus oli selvittää kotona asuvien vanhusten laitoskuntoutuksen liikunnallisen osuuden toteutumista fysioterapeuttien ja vanhusten näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin vuosina 2002 ja 2003 Kelan IKÄ-hankkeen kuntoutusryhmistä. Tutkimukseen haastateltiin 31 iältään 66–93-vuotiasta kuntoutujaa ja 11 fysioterapeuttia. Lisäksi videoitiin seitsemän ryhmäliikuntatilannetta, joihin osallistui yhteensä 52 vanhusta ja 9 ammattilaista. Vanhukset kuvailivat kuntoutuskokemustaan joko arjessa selviytymisen välineeksi tai lomaksi arjesta. Osa oli pettynyt saamaansa kuntoutukseen. Fysioterapeutit pitivät vanhuksia joko kuntoutuksen vastaanottajina, jolloin keskityttiin vanhuksen fyysisen toimintakyvyn ongelmiin tai sosiaalisiin tarpeisiin, tai kumppaneina harjoitteluinterventiossa kotona selviytymisen edistämiseksi. Ryhmäliikuntatilanteet etenivät fysioterapeuttijohtoisesti, joko strukturoidusti ilman kuntoutujille annettua yksilöllistä palautetta tai yksilöllisen ohjauksen ja palautteen mahdollistaen. Ns. kiertoharjoittelussa vanhuksilla oli mahdollisuus osallistua aktiivisesti liikuntaryhmän toteuttamiseen. Vanhukset osallistuivat hiljaisesti harjoittelemalla, vastentahtoisesti suostumalla, sitkeästi yrittämällä tai kaveria auttamalla. Heterogeeninen vanhusryhmä haastaa nykyisiä kuntoutuskäytäntöjä, joissa on sekä toimivia että kehitettäviä alueita. Vanhusten kotona asumista heidän yksilölliset tarpeensa huomioon ottaen voidaan tukea, kun vanhukset saavat osallistua muiden ryhmäläisten kanssa yhteiseen ongelmanratkaisuun ja heille mielekkäiden, arjen askareita tukevien harjoitusten tekemiseen. – Suomenkielinen yhteenveto s. 52–56.
  • Sörenson, Eva; Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna; Kremp, Anke; Krüger, Karen; Lindehoff, Elin; Legrand, Catherine (Wiley & Sons, 2019)
    Environmental Microbiology Reports, 11: 425-433
    Phytoplankton and bacteria interactions have a significant role in aquatic ecosystem functioning. Associations can range from mutualistic to parasitic, shaping biogeochemical cycles and having a direct influence on phytoplankton growth. How variations in phenotype and sampling location, affect the phytoplankton microbiome is largely unknown. A high-resolution characterization of the bacterial community in cultures of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium was performed on strains isolated from different geographical locations and at varying anthropogenic impact levels. Microbiomes of Baltic Sea Alexandrium ostenfeldii isolates were dominated by Betaproteobacteria and were consistent over phenotypic and genotypic Alexandrium strain variation, resulting in identification of an A. ostenfeldii core microbiome. Comparisons with in situ bacterial communities showed that taxa found in this A. ostenfeldii core were specifically associated to dinoflagellate dynamics in the Baltic Sea. Microbiomes of Alexandrium tamarense and minutum, isolated from the Mediterranean Sea, differed from those of A. ostenfeldii in bacterial diversity and composition but displayed high consistency, and a core set of bacterial taxa was identified. This indicates that Alexandrium isolates with diverse phenotypes host predictable, species-specific, core microbiomes reflecting the abiotic conditions from which they were isolated. These findings enable in-depth studies of potential interactions occurring between Alexandrium and specific bacterial taxa.
  • Suikkanen, Sanna; Uusitalo, Laura; Lehtinen, Sirpa; Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Kauppila, Pirkko; Mäkinen, Katja; Kuosa, Harri (Elsevier, 2021)
    Food Webs 28, e00202
    Blooms of cyanobacteria are recurrent phenomena in coastal estuaries. Their maximum abundance coincides with the productive period of zooplankton and pelagic fish. Experimental studies indicate that diazotrophic, i.e. dinitrogen (N2)-fixing cyanobacterial (taxonomic order Nostocales) blooms affect zooplankton, as well as other phytoplankton. We used multidecadal monitoring data from one archipelago station (1992–2013) and ten open sea stations (1979–2013) in the Baltic Sea to explore the potential bottom-up connections between diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria and phyto- and zooplankton in natural plankton communities. Random forest regression, combined with linear regression analysis showed that the biomass of cyanobacteria (both diazotrophic and non-diazotrophic) was barely connected to any of the phytoplankton and zooplankton variables examined. Instead, physico-chemical variables (salinity, temperature, total phosphorus), as well as spatial and temporal variability seemed to have more significant connections to both phytoplankton and zooplankton variables. Zooplankton variables were also connected to the biomass of phytoplankton groups other than cyanobacteria (such as chrysophytes, cryptophytes and prymnesiophytes), and phytoplankton variables had connections with the biomass of different zooplankton groups, especially copepods. Overall, negative relationships between cyanobacteria and other plankton taxa were scarcer than expected based on previous experimental studies.
  • Sorsa, Virpi (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 248
    “Strategizing has become one of the most important managerial practices. It is becoming harder and harder to find an organization, which wouldn't engage in yearly strategic planning and implementation cycles. Although the theorizing of "planning" is becoming less popular in strategy research and the theorization of "process" and "practice" is gaining more and more ground, the practice itself - the managerial elite's strategy workshops, the writing of official strategy documents and the employees' and interest groups' various innovative ways of interpreting and using those documents - has become accustomed, legitimate and even expected in contemporary organizations. This thesis examines the social practice of strategizing in municipal and congregational strategy work through various discursive perspectives and explains how strategy enters into and figures in the daily lives of people organizations. The contributions of this thesis are presented in six essays, which examine the actual strategy conversations and texts. This approach gives the reader a unique opportunity to access information and learn about issues which are typically kept out of sight to outside eyes. The results of this thesis emphasize the constitutive role of discourse and communication at different sites of social life within the context of strategizing. With its distinctive approach to studying the transcripts and videorecordings of strategy work, this thesis sensitizes scholars to pay careful attention to language and its role in social practice of strategy and will be invaluable to scholars, researchers, and graduate students in strategy communication.”
  • da Silva, Pedro Giovâni; Cañedo-Argüelles, Miguel; Bogoni, Juliano André; Heino, Jani (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021)
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 9: 670212
    According to metacommunity theory (Leibold et al., 2004), the structure of local communities results from the interplay between local factors (e.g., environmental filtering, species interactions) and regional factors (e.g., dispersal rates, landscape configuration). The relative importance of these factors is highly dependent on the organisms’ biological traits, landscape connectivity, and the spatial and temporal scales considered (Heino et al., 2015; Tonkin et al., 2018; Viana and Chase, 2019; Almeida-Gomes et al., 2020; Cañedo-Argüelles et al., 2020; Lansac-Tôha et al., 2021). However, the differences in metacommunity assembly mechanisms found among studies are far from being fully understood. The evaluation of temporal dynamics of metacommunities has only emerged recently (Cañedo-Argüelles et al., 2020; Jabot et al., 2020; Li et al., 2020; Lindholm et al., 2021) and the application of the metacommunity theory in other fields, such as biomonitoring, conservation biology or ecosystem restoration, is yet to be fully explored (Bengtsson, 2010; Heino, 2013; Leibold and Chase, 2018; Chase et al., 2020; Cid et al., 2020; Heino et al., 2021). In this Research Topic, our aim was to invite researchers working in different biogeographic regions and ecological systems (Figure 1) to publish a number of innovative papers on metacommunity spatio-temporal dynamics. We expect to obtain a better understanding of how the factors and processes that structure metacommunities vary in space and time, as well as the implications of such dynamics for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management.
  • Mononen, Kaarina (2019)
    This article analyses how caregivers use affective touch as a resource to facilitate interaction. Through touch, caregivers construct positive socio-emotional relationships with their residents. The analysis of micro-level interaction is based on an interactional sociolinguistic framework, and reveals how caregivers display affection and intimacy while assisting the residents in everyday situations in a care home. All of the examples involve touching a person's shoulder, stroking or giving half-embraces, typical resources used to construct affiliation between caregivers and residents. This article illustrates how affective touch facilitates interaction by regulating participation and calming down residents, by mitigating the controlling aspect of caring, and by fostering a positive interpersonal relationship. The care situations presented in this article contain crucial pauses within talk that are used to construct a peaceful atmosphere. During these crucial moments, embodied action effectively indicates an orientation to listening and establishes a presence to accomplish the actions in that situational talk. This analysis contributes to the studies on embodied interaction and on interpersonal relationships in care for older adults.(1)
  • Kokkoniemi, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective of the study. Previous studies have concluded that applying collaborative learning methods in university courses, such as a small group work, enhances profound understanding of a learning issue and students’ thinking processes. In a group, students bring up new ideas and process, justify them from different perspectives, evaluate explanations and try to form a shared understanding of the theme to be studied. Questions have been found to be effective for improving students’ deep and collaborative knowledge elaboration, but the interrelationship between these two has not been investigated extensively, thus, only in the context of medical education. The objective of this study was to analyse how questions are used in a small group discussion for enhancing undergraduate students’ collaborative elaboration of knowledge in the context of biosciences. Methods. In this study, the video data collected from a small group discussion in a field course in biology were analysed. The focus of the analysis were the utterances in the group discussion of eight first-year bioscience students and their teacher. The aim of the group work and the discussion was to find out the students’ prior knowledge and elaborate ideas for defining a research problem. Theory-based content analysis was used to classify different question types and the quality of elaboration in answers that the students expressed. Finally, different question types were compared in relation to the quality of subsequent answers. Results and conclusions. In line with previous studies, the students elicited factual and declarative questions checking prior knowledge and the accuracy of their ideas. The teacher presented explanative and meaningful questions when asking the students to interpret and meta questions when encouraging other students to join a discussion. The students rarely elaborated and explained learning issues collaboratively. When answering, the students accepted different ideas without explaining or elaborating them further. When the teacher was involved in a discussion, the teacher explained and clarified issues on behalf of the students. The results emphasised the interpretation that students are used to express simple questions that do not challenge their thinking but that teachers can use explanative and meaningful questions to support students to elaborate their ideas thoroughly. The results show that applying collaborative learning methods requires that students are taught to ask meaningful questions and that pedagogical programs aiming at learning question strategies enhancing collaborative learning are developed and made available for teachers.
  • Mäkinen, Heikki (Finnish Environment Institute, 2007)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 26/2007
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.