Browsing by Subject "intermediaries"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Karhinen, Santtu; Peltomaa, Juha; Riekkinen, Venla; Saikku, Laura (Elsevier, 2021)
    Global Environmental Change 67 (2021), 102225
    Local governments have set highly ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets on a strategic level, in some cases influenced by intermediary networks. Yet, the quantitative impacts of climate strategies or the sharing of best practices on emissions still remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of an intermediary network on municipal greenhouse gas emissions. This was done through an econometric analysis of the emissions of municipalities that are members of the Finnish Hinku (Towards Carbon Neutral Municipalities) network, and through comprehensive qualitative interviews conducted in 40 of those municipalities. Our quantitative results show that Hinku network membership has successfully led to the lowering of greenhouse gas emission levels in participating municipalities. The qualitative interviews suggest that this is due to systematic local level climate work, enhanced by network membership. The network functions as an intermediary in two ways: by providing expertise and enabling peer-support. In addition, it has also succeeded in legitimising local level climate action. Ambitious local level climate action can also affect the ambition of national climate policy, which in turn may reflect on the amount resources allocated to local climate action.
  • Kai, Zhan (2003)
    This research is focused on the quality uncertainty and market efficiency in E-commerce. The purpose of this study is to analyse the economics of lemons market in electronic commerce. In addition, I try to find methods to deal with this problem. Electronic commerce is presenting an exciting opportunity to reduce transaction costs, but its future may depend on how non-technological but fundamentally economic issues such as the lemons problems are solved, or it will essentially lead to the market failure. Repeat purchases play an important role in my analysis. In my opinion, one of the main reasons why electronic commerce players are losing money is because high-quality products cannot receive higher prices in high-quality markets. Due to lack of sufficient informed consumers, firms have to spend on dissipative advertising to signal product quality and consumers have to pay higher prices for high-quality products. By so doing, market efficiency cannot achieve. Thus, how to make consumers informed is the core of the problem of resolving lemons problems. I suggest that electronic intermediaries may provide information about product quality to consumers and reduce quality uncertainty. Actually, none of price, advertising and intermediaries is reliable to signal product quality. In order to reduce quality uncertainty and improve market efficiency, sellers are responsible to provide adequate information to buyers. Similarly, buyers should inform their preferences and tastes to sellers. My hope is that lemons could be turned into lemonade.