Browsing by Subject "internationalisation"

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  • Greatrex, Katherine (2000)
    The focus of this paper is upon state-led international cultural co-operation and policy-making. To this end it is asking: What is the shape of the arena of state-led, international cultural relations, how is it connected to the broader context of ‘international relations’ and under what sorts of policies is it controlled? More specifically, the aims of this study are: 1. To develop an initial theory of this relatively unexamined subject area and, on a more specific level, 2. To observe recent trends in state-led international cultural activity and policy-making in Europe and, in particular, in Canada. A qualitative approach is used in discussing a variety of theoretical texts, internet sources and in analysing a survey of European cultural experts. The theoretical analysis suggests, most importantly, that states do not and cannot act as cohesive actors in determining their international cultural policies. This is in no small part due to the wide variety of pressures which affect and influence the formation of these policies: cultural idealism, foreign policy and security issues, trade concerns, domestic politics and so on. In addition to these constant pressures, each varying in significance over time, the survey of cultural experts also suggests that state-led international cultural policies and co-operation across Europe and Canada are being affected by a common set of ‘d-trends’: desétatisation, de-institutionalisation, de-diplomatisation, and de-nationalisation (due to globalisation and European integration/NAFTA). The bulk of the theory for this paper is drawn from, among others, the ideas of Pierre Bourdieu. Data has been drawn from a wide variety of sources, most significantly from the CIRCLE survey of cultural experts and from Canadian government websites.
  • Lumperoinen, Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aim of this thesis is to find out about internationalising service companies and possible new market entry modes. This is a case study for UK based Turquoise Holiday Company, which is a luxury tour operator. Research problem is to find out if the case company has prerequisites for internationalising to Finnish, Swedish, and /or Norwegian markets. Internal, external and strategic factors are taken into consideration. Introduction defines service and clarifies the difference from manufactured product. Theory chapter presents different foreign market entry modes and internationalising strategies for service companies. Also internal, external and strategic factors affecting internationalisation are presented, and they are base for theoretical framework. This study is a qualitative case study. Evaluation is based on publicly available information both externally from the market and internally from the case company. Thesis shows that many things are to be taken into consideration when a service company is thinking about international expansion. Travel industry in general is growing constantly but also going through changes that might change the business significantly. At the moment financial resources and language skills of the personnel of the case company are the internal factors that are limiting internationalising. Scandinavian countries are relatively wealthy though, which is encouraging external factor. Although Finland, Sweden and Norway are doing quite well in economic circumstances in Europe the markets are small in size compared to the UK. The most interesting internationalisation target could be Norway due to its high level of economy. Population of the country is not very big but also competition seems to be low. As this study does not include any practical market research it is suggested to conduct one if the company is willing to deepen its knowledge of consumer attitudes and market potential of the countries. Also the Turquoise Holiday Company should find out its possibilities of financial resources and educating personnel for foreign markets.
  • Balkarova, Laura (2010)
    Outward FDI from the transition countries (with an exception of the Russian Federation) does not appear to have received much attention from the researchers so far, which has been largely attributed to its small share in the world OFDI. Nevertheless, the internationalisation activities of the enterprises originating in transition economies other than Russia have intensified since the mid-1990s. This paper represents an empirical attempt to analyse the home country determinants of OFDI from the selected transition countries. It assesses the importance of different domestic macroeconomic and institutional indicators in shaping the dynamics of OFDI in 23 transition countries over the 1996 – 2007 period. A number of fixed effects panel data regression specifications are introduced in this study in order to evaluate the impact of these indicators on OFDI from the given countries. In addition, the paper refers to the investment development paths of several transition countries that have been characterised by the significant share of their OFDI stock in domestic GDP over the recent years. The data used are extracted from the UNCTAD Handbook of Statistics 2009, World Development Indicators (April 2010), the International Financial Statistics (IMF) Database (August 2010), the UNECE Statistical Database, the EBRD transition reports, the Quality of Government Institute’s Database and many other additional sources. The results of this study indicate that the role of the home country factors in pushing OFDI has been relevant in transition countries as nowhere else, and partially reveal the “system-escape dimension” in OFDI that has emanated from the given countries during the 1996 – 2007 period. In conclusion, the recommendations for the respective governments’ policies towards OFDI are provided.