Browsing by Subject "interpretation"

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  • Peräkylä, Anssi (2011)
    Using 58 audio recorded sessions of psychoanalysis (coming from two analysts and three patients) as data and conversation analysis as method, this paper shows how psychoanalysts deal with patients’ responses to interpretations. After the analyst offers an interpretation, the patient responds: at that point (in the “third position”), the analysts recurrently modify the tenor of the description from what it was in the patients’ responses. They intensify the emotional valence of the description, or they reveal layers of the patients’ experience other than those that the patient reported. Both are usually accomplished in an implicit, non-marked way, and they discreetly index possible opportunities for the patients to modify their understandings of the initial interpretation. Although the patients usually do not fully endorse these modifications, the data available suggests that during the sessions that follow, the participants do work with the aspects of patients’ experience that the analyst highlighted. In discussion, it is suggested that actions that the psychoanalysts produce in therapy, such as choices of turn design in third position, may be informed by working understanding of the minds and mental conflicts of individual patients, alongside the more general therapeutic model of mind they hold to.
  • Öhman, Jenny (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The EC regulations for organic farming (OF), No. 834/2007 and 889/2008, apply in all EU countries but still, different rules are being implemented. Every country in the EU has its own certification bodies and certification systems, and the interpretation of the EC regulations for organic farming is done nationally. The purpose of this research is to fill a gap in the understanding how rules of organic farming differ between three countries in Europe: Finland, Sweden and Austria. In particular, this study aims to examine the role of the national interpretations of the EC regulations for OF at different stages in the food supply chain. The main interest lies in why these differences in interpretation occur, and what interpretations are made at what stage in the system. The methods chosen for answering the research questions is a literature review, a survey with qualitative interviews for gathering relevant topics from the field and finally a comparison of the EC regulations for OF and the national legislations and guidelines in Finland, Sweden and Austria for these topics. This study shows that there are many topics in OF where the EC regulations for OF leave room for variable interpretations and hence, it is unclear to the implementing authorities in the member states how to interpret these. The most significant result is that some of the differences in interpretation lead to the organic farmers being unequal across the countries. Even for statements with clear reasoning and precise instructions there can be significant differences in interpretation between the countries. Based on the results of this research I can state that the farmers in OF would benefit from a more harmonized landscape of OF rules on EU-level, as this would lower the inequality between farmers in OF in the different countries. One mean of doing this would be to reduce the number of statements of qualitative character.
  • Immonen, Outi; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki (2012)
  • Lindgren, Lasse (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study focuses on the exegesis of Gregory of Nyssa, a 4th century exegete, a Church Father, and one of the three Cappadocian Fathers. The main primary source of my thesis is Gregory’s treatise The Life of Moses, an intriguing example of Patristic exegesis based on the Exodus narrative. The main purpose of Gregory’s treatise is not to make a historical presentation of the journey of Moses and the Israelites, but to elevate the reader into a higher state of consciousness in order to perceive the spiritual meaning of the narrative. The kind of exegesis that Gregory applies is often defined as allegorical interpretation or allegorical exegesis, rich on symbols and enigmas, which was at first neglected in scholarly discussion. Fortunately, there has been a growing interest in Biblical interpretation of the Church Fathers since the mid-20th century. The main objective of my thesis is to focus on Gregory’s interpretations of topographical imagery presented in the Exodus narrative. Gregory gives symbolical interpretations to topographical locations: the city, the river, the sea, the desert and the mountain. My intention is to show that Gregory was not thinking of the various symbolical interpretations as independent units but he was seeking for a logical coherent sequence. One of the main objectives of modern research has been the reassessment of Gregory’s sources. In order to understand Gregory’s exegetical and philosophical concepts and terminology, one must be aware of the rich and profound tradition already established in classical antiquity. Gregory makes moral, ascetical, philosophical and mystical interpretations in relation to each topographical detail. These figurative interpretations are by no means based on his original ideas but are rooted in the rich tradition of Greek classical culture, as well as in the exegetical tradition of his Jewish and Christian predecessors. My purpose is to provide a systematic analysis of each term Gregory is applying and present an overall model of Gregory’s exegetical method. The final aim of my thesis is to present an analysis of Gregory’s pattern of topographical symbols as a whole. Gregory connects the topographical details with his threefold pattern of illumination, purification and participation in a fascinating way. For Gregory, the exodus narrative is a journey of a soul being liberated from the bondage of passions, temptations and materialism towards an ever-increasing awareness of God’s presence.
  • Havu, Eva Elisabeth; Pierrard, Michel (GIANNINI EDITORE, 2018)
    Memorie dell’Accademia di Archeologia, Lettere e Belle Arti in Napoli
    This paper examines the factors that have an influence on the interpretation of French participles in detached constructions like Voyant arriver le bus, il a dû se précipiter ‘Seing the bus arrive he had to run’ [Since / when he saw…]. This interpretational variation is both diamesic (oral vs. written language) and diasystemic (language of the immediate / language of distance (Koch / Oesterreicher 2001) and is due to morphosyntactic, categorical and syntactic and semantic underspecification of participial constructions. After discussing these types of variation the paperfocuses on the description of internal and external factors having an impact on the discursive interpretation of clause-final constructions.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari (International Journal of Sustainable Lighting, 2020)
    International Journal of Sustainable Lighting
    Advances in remote sensing have proved to be highly valuable for the light pollution research and awareness raising. Maps based on night time satellite data can be used in communication campaigns aimed to improve the public and policy awareness about the extent and effects of light pollution and to justify appropriate management actions. However, visually appealing maps are also used in other communication settings. This article reviews different uses of light pollution maps and discusses the societal implications such uses. Based on examples of light pollution maps in different communication settings not directly related to light pollution debate the review proposes that the relatively wide popularity of light pollution maps may strengthen the impressions of artificially illuminated night environment as the normal baseline for human experience. This contributes to the loss of experience of the natural darkness possibly leading to generational amnesia complicating the management of light pollution. Multiple uses of light pollution maps and other visualizations should be taken into account when campaigns and policies aimed to support sustainable lighting are planned and implemented.
  • Enges, Pasi Alfred; Koski, Kaarina (2021)
    This article handles descriptions of being spirited away, as well as the variety and changes of interpretations and explanations given to the phenomenon in popular and academic discourses. Despite the changing interpretations, descriptions of the experiences from the 19th and 21st centuries are relatively similar. Academic discourses in question have followed two different knowledge interests, the hermeneutic and the explanatory ones. Hermeneutic research has analyzed meanings of the tradition in the pre-industrial worldview e.g. paralleling experiences of forest cover with anomalous states and ruptures in community membership. Explanatory research, in turn, seeks to find natural, particularly psychological and physiological reasons to the experiences. Even vernacular discussions about the supernatural are today informed with academic research. According to our research materials, which were collected via writing calls and on the internet, participants in the 21th century popular discussions about going astray prefer to explain the extraordinary experiences in psychological or medical terms. However, information about older belief tradition is appreciated, as well, and reinterpreted. A recent reinterpretation has led to adopting the old concept of forest cover to serve societal critique and to portraying it as a soothing escape from the modern hectic lifestyle.
  • Deppermann, Arnulf; Scheidt, Carl Eduard; Stukenbrock, Anja (2020)
    According to Positioning Theory, participants in narrative interaction can position themselves on a representational level concerning the autobiographical, told self, and a performative level concerning the interactive and emotional self of the tellers. The performative self is usually much harder to pin down, because it is a non-propositional, enacted self. In contrast to everyday interaction, psychotherapists regularly topicalize the performative self explicitly. In our paper, we study how therapists respond to clients' narratives by interpretations of the client's conduct, shifting from the autobiographical identity of the told self, which is the focus of the client's story, to the present performative self of the client. Drawing on video recordings from three psychodynamic therapies (tiefenpsychologisch fundierte Psychotherapie) with 25 sessions each, we will analyze in detail five extracts of therapists' shifts from the representational to the performative self. We highlight four findings:• Whereas, clients' narratives often serve to support identity claims in terms of personal psychological and moral characteristics, therapists rather tend to focus on clients' feelings, motives, current behavior, and ways of interacting.• In response to clients' stories, therapists first show empathy and confirm clients' accounts, before shifting to clients' performative self.• Therapists ground the shift to clients' performative self by references to clients' observable behavior.• Therapists do not simply expect affiliation with their views on clients' performative self. Rather, they use such shifts to promote the clients' self-exploration. Yet, if clients resist to explore their selves in more detail, therapists more explicitly ascribe motives and feelings that clients do not seem to be aware of. The shift in positioning levels thus seems to have a preparatory function for engendering therapeutic insights.
  • Peräkylä, Anssi (2010)
    Psychoanalytic interpretation is normally understood as a sequence of two utterances: the analyst gives an interpretation and the patient responds to it. This paper suggests that, in the interpretative sequence, there is also a third utterance where psychoanalytic work takes place. This third interpretative turn involves the analyst’s action after the patient’s response to the interpretation. Using conversation analysis as method in the examination of audio-recorded psychoanalytic sessions, the paper will explicate the psychoanalytic work that gets done in third interpretative turns. Through it, the analyst takes a stance towards the patient’s understandings of the interpretation, which are shown in the patient’s response to the interpretation. The third interpretative turns on one hand ratify and accept the patient’s understandings, but, in addition to that, they also introduce a shift of perspective relative to them. In most cases, the shift of perspective is implicit but sometimes it is made explicit. The shifts of perspective bring to the foreground aspects or implications of the interpretation that were not incorporated in the patient’s response. They recast the description of the patient’s experience by showing new layers or more emotional intensity in it. The results are discussed in the light of Faimberg’s concept of listening to listening and Schlesinger’s concept of follow-up interpretation.
  • Malmelin, Nando Kristian (2001)
    The purpose of 'The Media Rhetorics of Advertising Film' is to clarify the conditions of and possibilities for the study of the production and interpretation of meaning in advertising film. I have attempted to answer the following questions: How is advertising film constituted from the producers' and the interpreters' point of view? How can advertising film be constituted as a research subject from those premises? In general, the aim of the research is to locate some basis for the study of meaning in advertising film. The nature of the research is theoretical, concept-analytical and descriptive. The research approaches advertising film from the premises of semiotics, media studies, literary studies and cognitive psychology. The research is preparatory in analysing the literature and concepts of advertising film, but also in aiming to develop some basic frameworks to the future study of advertising. There has been a twofold approach to the subject of the study. It has been discussed as 'advertising film' or 'commercial film', but on the other hand it is usually referred to as 'television commercial'. The most common media of advertising film is television, but advertising films are presented on the internet and in movie theaters as well. The concept of media rhetorics refers to the dynamics of persuasion in advertising. Media rhetorics has to do with the strategies of production and design, as well as with the contemplation of the conditions of intrepretation. The study consists of three distinct parts: 'Rhetorics of Production', 'Hermeneutics of Contexts' and 'Analysis of Advertising Film'. One purpose of the study has been to extend the model of radical contextualism in the direction of production. I have proposed two different types of approaches to advertising, 'reception semiotics' and 'metadesign'. The research concludes with some suggestions for further studies. When advertising film is studied, its multimodal nature and the fact that the subject is interdisciplinary should be taken into consideration.
  • Puukka, Ilkka (2001)
    The objective of this study was the exercise of power and the politics related to it in the reform and change processes that have been carried out in a bureaucratic organization that belongs to the public administration. The study attempts to find out what happens when reforms deal with paradigrnatic models of activity that are related to bureaucratic procedures, and which factors activate resistance to change and in what conditions activity based on rational decision-making is maintained. This is a multiple-case study. The cases (4) dealt with the core functions and supportive functions of the Finnish Defense Forces. The basic material of the cases was formed out of notes the author had made on personal experiences; the notes have been supplemented with relevant document material. The cases took place between 1987 and 1999. Bureaucracy theory was used as the theoretical fl=ework, and on this basis the cases were analyzed from four different viewpoints: rational and incremental viewpoints and the viewpoints of power and interpretation. The cases showed that the better a reform can be justified with the help of the prevailing organization culture, the better the reform is accepted. Conceming the behavior of the actors, the study showed that officials, using various political and administrative channels, tend to try to break up decisions unfavorable to them. The institutional power exercised by the highest body of officials, allied with different interest groups, p-oved to be a strong opposing force to a minister exercising political power. The intertwining of rational strivings and bureaucratic politics meant that decisions in the change processes described by the cases began to tum into random outcomes of "various games". The organizations being studied acted strongly to interventions directed at their areas of operations. In all cases, an influential characteristic turned out to be interpretation and the incremental progression of changes. The cases can be seen to have shown that in refonns directed at the paradigrnatic models of activity in the defense administration a successful execution requires the ability and means to penetrate three paradigmatic walls that reject change. These walls are the wall of bureaucracy, the wall of military culture and the wall of professionalism. In the rational progression of the change process, a critical factor was found to be the top leadership's shared view of scenarios, visions and strategies as well as the principies of the management of change. The study showed that when reforins touch upon paradigrnatic models of activity related to bureaucratic procedures, the generation and management of a refortn project without the commitment of political decision-makers and the top body of officials brings with it phenomena and procedures related to bureaucratic politics. The cases also show that in change situations there is reason to pay attention not only to structures and organizations, but also to the attitudes of the individual and also that a change situation must also be approached from a psychological point of view. The development of change management in the defense administration requires the finding of the means and tools needed to break the prevailing paradigmatic walls and procedural reforms related to the execution of change. The study showed that when managing deepreaching changes that touch upon the entire field of administration, the behavior and activities of the minister become decisively important faetors. The minister can therefore be seen as a value leader and in this role he must become strongly involved in the game of bureaucratic politics played by officials.
  • Thompson, Kubi (2004)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Ghanaians decode The Bold and the Beautiful. An essentially American cultural product. The study is based on the assumption that when people watch programmes like The Bold and the Beautiful, they enter a cultural terrain where they are apt to make meanings and interpretations of their involvements based as it were on their cultural dispositions. The focus is on the type of response The Bold and the Beautiful evokes in a cross-section of Ghanaian viewers and the repertoire with which they frame their watching experiences. The assumption therefore is that people's television consumption can be made sense of through an empirical study. This study begins with overviews of paradig a shift in audience reception and Katz and Liebes previous study of Dallas with ethnic groups in Israel. The impetus of such reviews for the current study is also discussed. Soap opera, the subject matter is defined alongside a brief description of the study area, the people, and some aspects of their cultural rules. Transformation in the communication infrastructure of Ghana and its impact on Ghanaians is also discussed. The study task involved Ghanaians based in Finland and the main homeland, Ghana. A qualitative instrument of individual in-depth interview was used in the study involving the Ghanaian respondents in Finland. Focus Group Discussions were also held in Accra, Nsawam and Kumasi to assess an episode of The Bold and the Beautiful programme. The data collected from the individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, before and after informal discussions as well as observations during the fieldwork are embodied in chapter 5. The findings did answer the main questions of the thesis: How do Ghanaians decode The Bold and the Beautiful? With what repertoire would they frame their involvements and interpretations? And why do they even watch the programme? The study conclusively found that, these Ghanaians appropriated norms and values from their culture to make sense of the programme. They made normative and moral judgemental statements that suggest a stance to defend their group norms and values against the programme. Such display of involvement also suggest that these Ghanaians are not passive or held captive by the programme, rather they enjoy to appropriate themes and issues from the programme as agenda setting for discussions. Such acts that elicit gratifications and release of catharsis can be therapeutically beneficial. Given the potentiality of the Ghanaian critical abilities, skills to enable Ghanaians use such discussions as consciousness raising devices be introduced in school curriculum using programmes like The Bold and the Beautiful as resource material.