Browsing by Subject "intertextuality"

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  • Salo-oja, Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2004)
    This study examines strategies used to translate various thematic and character delineating allusions in two of Reginald Hill's detective novels, The Wood Beyond and On Beulah Height and their Swedish translations Det mörka arvet and Dalen som dränktes. In this study, thematic allusions and allusions used in character delineation are regarded as intertextual networks. Intertextual networks comprise all the texts that are in one way or another embedded into a text, all the texts referred to in it and even the texts somehow rejected from a text's own canon. Studying allusions as intertextual networks makes it warranted to pay minute attention to even the smallest of details. Seen together, these little details form extensive networks of meaning that readers use to interpret the text. Allusion can be defined as a reference, often covert or indirect, to another text in a way that brings into the text some of the associations of that other text. A text is here understood broadly, hence sources of allusions include all cultural texts from literature and history to cinema and televisions serials. Allusions are culture bound and each culture tends to allude to its own cultural products. The set of transcultural allusions is therefore fairly small. Translation strategies are translatorial ways of solving translation problems. Being culture-bound, allusions are potential translation problems. In order to transmit the thoughts evoked by the allusions in source text readers to the target text readers translators may add guidance to the translated text. Often guidance is not added, which may result in changes in handling of themes or character delineation, clear in the source text but confusing or incomprehensible in the target text. However, norms in target culture may not always allow the translators the possibility to make the text comprehensible. My analyses of translation strategies show that in the two translated novels studied minimum change is a very frequently used strategy. This results in themes and character delineation losing some of the effect they have in the source texts. Perhaps surprisingly, the result is very much the same even where it is possible to discern that the two translators have had differing translation principles.
  • Gärkman, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    One of the key characteristics of the Nordic sense of affinity and cohesion is the idea of a shared and common language community. The Nordic language community is based on the concept of inter-Nordic language comprehension, meaning that all members of the community ideally rely on the use of a Scandinavian language when in contact with one another, either as a first or a second (foreign) language. Another feature of this sense of community is the common Nordic efforts in language policy and planning, which, since the establishment of the Nordic institutions, have manifested themselves through various political endeavours, all with the aim to preserve and promote the use of Scandinavian as a lingua franca in Norden. Using a motivational, discursive, intertextual and interdiscursive approach to language policy and planning research, the purpose of this study is to uncover the motivation (goals, attitudes and motives) behind as well as the policy discourses (and their potential connections and discrepancies) used in the formulation of two central Nordic language policy agreements: the Nordic Language Convention, signed in 1981 and ratified in 1987, and the Declaration on a Nordic Language Policy, signed in 2006. In doing this, the study relies on the underlying assumption that language policy and planning is a socio-cultural construct of both explicit and implicit character. The analysis further explores how the uncovered motivational and discursive elements might mirror the linguistic complexities and diversities of the Nordic language community. The temporal range of this study is determined by the two selected language policy agreements, dividing the analysis into two historical eras of official Nordic language policy and planning which represent the socio-political, -cultural and -historical context of each respective language policy agreement: the early era of 1971–1987 and the late era of 1988–2006. The analysis suggests that there was no marked motivational or discursive ideological shift between the two language policy agreements. The narrower national language discourse of the Convention, motivated by early era socio-political issues of linguistic integration and freedom of movement, was somewhat expanded upon by the broader multilingual and democratic discourse of the Declaration, in turn motivated by the late era need to define the Nordic language community in and for the 21st century global community. Yet, the power, ideological and normative pendulum of both agreements still shifted towards the Scandinavian languages and the idealistic vision of effortless inter-Scandinavian communication in the region – forming the very basis of the symbolic integration of Norden through the concept of Nordic ideology.
  • Aejmelaeus, Anneli (Finnish Exegetical Society, 2011)
    Publications of the Finnish Exegetical Society
  • Pälli, Pekka; Vaara, Eero; Sorsa, Virpi (Sage Publications, 2010)
    Despite the acknowledged importance of strategic planning in business and other organizations, there are few studies focusing on strategy texts and the related processes of their production and consumption. In this paper, we attempt to partially fill this research gap by examining the institutionalized aspects of strategy discourse: what strategy is as genre. Combining textual analysis and analysis of conversation, the article focuses on the official strategy of the City of Lahti in Finland. Our analysis shows how specific communicative purposes and lexico-grammatical features characterize the genre of strategy and how the actual negotiations over strategy text involve particular kinds of intersubjectivity and intertextuality.
  • Simpson, Ashley; Dervin, Fred (2019)
    The popularity of the idea of the intercultural in different parts of the world, means that there are many differing meanings and ways in which the notion is understood, represented, expressed and used. In contrast to this polysemy, democracy often appears on the surface to be understood through universalist and/or absolutist conceptualisations. Combining the intercultural and democracy thus requires problematization. In this article we use The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences For Democratic Culture (2018a, 2018b, 2018c), a document that will have a non-negligible influence on education in Europe and the rest of the world, as an example showing how the notion of the intercultural is constructed. In order to do so, we use a form of intertextuality to analyze the Framework, focusing on three key instances found in the document;: identity, the political, and, intercultural competence. Some of the ideologies within the Framework clearly point to Eurocentric discourses and a stigmatization of the Other. Also, the way in which the political is sanitized can engender a language of depoliticization and obedience. As a result, we propose Critical Interculturality as a way to move beyond culturalist self-centered notions of the intercultural, arguing that the political and the social cannot be separated from the intercultural when discussing democracy.
  • Riad, Sally; Vaara, Eero; Zhang, Nathan (Hanken School of Economics, 2012)
    While studies on international management have focused on cultural differences and examined institutional specificities in various national business systems, conceptions of international relations have been left relatively underexplored. We argue that representations of international relations are relevant to international M&As and contend that intertextuality offers a novel approach to examine these relational features of international management. Our analysis focuses on Sino-US relations in the context of the acquisition of American IBM’s Personal Computer Division (PCD) by the Chinese company, Lenovo. We demonstrate the ways in which facets of international relations are produced in media accounts of this acquisition, and analyze the intertextual dynamics entwined with their production. The analysis consists of three sections: constitutive intertextuality, manifest intertextuality and intertextual ideological undercurrents. These illustrate the variation in producing international relations through discursive themes (threat to security/peaceful rise), emotion rhetoric (fear/cheer) and ideology (cold war/globalism). Altogether, the paper elucidates the ways in which international M&As are immersed in a seascape of intertextual international relations.
  • Saarentaus, Vera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis explores the textual relations of Ian McEwan’s 2014 novel The Children Act from the law and literature perspective. Using Gérard Genette’s theory of hypertextuality as my theoretical framework, I argue that Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice (1596–1597) is a central hypotext of The Children Act. In chapter 2, I survey the law and literature interdiscipline, and explain how my thesis hopes to contribute to its methodology. From its beginnings in the 1970s, the law and literature movement has developed outside its original scope and is increasingly focusing on non-textual aspects of law and literature, as well as other cultural phenomena. Despite the proliferation of different approaches and methods, the interdiscipline has suffered from an underuse and underdevelopment of literary theory as relates to the legal study of literary texts. I propose that theories of textual relations are important to the legal aspect of literature, and that literary texts be selected for legal study not merely for their legal themes, but also for how they relate to and converse with earlier works. I propose the terms “legal literary texts” and “legal novel” as appellations of the texts that law in literature examines. In chapter 3, I give an account of Genette’s theory of hypertextuality, including Genettean formal and thematic transposition. Formal transposition manifests itself in The Children Act through narrativization, transforming dramatic verse to narrative prose. The thematic transposition of the novel is all of diegetic, pragmatic and semantic, the latter constituting both transmotivation and transvaluation. Lastly, I compare and contrast hypertextuality to a sibling concept, adaptation, citing Linda Hutcheon’s theory, and explain my choice of the former. Chapter 4 is devoted to quotation and allusion in The Children Act. I review quotation as a theoretical concept and analyse central quotations in the novel, including its epigraph and its quotation of Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. I compare and contrast theories of allusion. I identify and analyse important Shakespearean allusions in the novel, making the case that Shakespeare is a strong textual presence in The Children Act. I propose that the formation of a hypertextual relationship is dependent on quotation and allusion. In chapter 5 I examine The Children Act as a hypertext of Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice. I survey the academic field of Shakespeare and law and presenting the important role of the Inns of Court in Renaissance London’s literary and cultural life. Merchant is present in The Children Act through diegetic transposition of central characters, but this transposition is adapted to arrangement rather than character identity. Judgeship is likened to authorship in the novel. Transposing the religious conflict of the play, law and religion are shown to be essentially the same kinds of belief systems and communities. A central transposition is the judgment on blood, where a religious outsider (Shylock/Adam Henry) is essentially forcibly converted. At trial, the judge (Portia/Fiona) is directed to her decision by a sole desirable outcome that precedes argumentation. Music is a common theme for both text, but in The Children Act, music is both metonymy for all other art and a metaphor for law. In Merhcant, the weather poses a threat to business, whereas in The Children Act it is an alternative, intrusive soundscape to music. Adam Henry’s letters and poems are a transposition of the many letters as well as the caskets in Merchant. As in Merchant, life and law is revealed to be a theatrical stage. Both texts end in marital reconciliation. McEwan’s novel is a treatise of the common textuality of law and literature. Despite different institutions, ways of telling, and modes of production, the textuality of law and literature is basically the same. A legal novel’s textual relationships link it to previous legal literary texts, forming a network of texts that comment on law.