Browsing by Subject "intervention"

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  • Vepsäläinen, Henna; Skaffari, Essi; Wojtkowska, Katarzyna; Barlińska, Julia; Kinnunen, Satu Marjaana; Makkonen, Riikka Kyllikki; Heikkilä, Maria; Lehtovirta, Mikko; Ray, Carola Marie-Lousie; Suhonen, Eira; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2022)
    Background: Early childhood education and care (ECEC) centers are ideal venues for food education. As smartphones and tablets are becoming increasingly popular in ECEC centers, technology can be used to deliver such pedagogical content. Evidence suggests that video games can affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among 9-to 12-year-old children, but studies among preschoolers are scarce. Objective: This paper describes the development of the Mole's Veggie Adventures app and its effectiveness in increasing FV acceptance among Finnish and Polish preschoolers aged 3 to 6 years. Methods: A multiprofessional team created an app to be used in ECEC centers in groups of 3 to 10 children. The app aimed to increase vegetable acceptance, and it was built using elements that support the development of self-regulation and social skills. Altogether, 7 Finnish and 4 Polish ECEC centers participated in the study. Before randomization, parents reported background factors and their children's willingness to taste different FVs. The ECEC professionals in the intervention arm were instructed to use the app at least once a week during the 3-to 4-week intervention period. The main outcomes in this unblinded, cluster-randomized study were FV acceptance and relative FV acceptance. The first was calculated as a sum variable describing the children's willingness to taste 25 different FVs, the second as FV acceptance divided by the number of FVs served. We used analysis of covariance to compare the FV acceptance and relative FV acceptance scores between the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Results: A total of 221 children were included in the analysis. At follow-up, the intervention group (115/221, 52%) had higher FV acceptance scores (baseline adjusted difference of mean 7.22; 95% CI 1.41-13.03) than the control group (106/221, 48%). The intervention effect was parallel for relative FV acceptance scores (baseline adjusted difference of mean 0.28; 95% CI 0.05-0.52). Conclusions: The Mole's Veggie Adventures app has the potential to increase FV acceptance among preschoolers and can be a valuable tool in supporting food education in ECEC centers. Furthermore, the app can be feasibly incorporated into preschool routines in countries with different educational environments. Trial Registration: NCT05173311; (JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2022;10(1):e30352) doi: 10.2196/30352
  • Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Pekkinen, Minna; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Katayama, Shintaro; Kere, Juha; Mäkitie, Outi; Viljakainen, Heli (2019)
    Objective: The effect of vitamin D at the transcriptome level is poorly understood, and furthermore, it is unclear if it differs between obese and normal-weight subjects. The objective of the study was to explore the transcriptome effects of vitamin D supplementation. Design and methods: We analysed peripheral blood gene expression using GlobinLock oligonucleotides followed by RNA sequencing in individuals participating in a 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled vitamin D intervention study. The study involved 18 obese and 18 normal-weight subjects (of which 20 males) with mean (+/- s.D.) age 20.4 (+/- 2.5) years and BMIs 36 (+/- 10) and 23 (+/- 4) kg/m(2), respectively. The supplemental daily vitamin D dose was 50 mu g (2000 IU). Data were available at baseline, 6- and 12-week time points and comparisons were performed between the vitamin D and placebo groups separately in obese and normal-weight subjects. Results: Significant transcriptomic changes were observed at 6 weeks, and only in the obese subjects: 1724 genes were significantly upregulated and 186 genes were downregulated in the vitamin D group compared with placebo. Further analyses showed several enriched gene categories connected to mitochondrial function and metabolism, and the most significantly enriched pathway was related to oxidative phosphorylation (adjusted P value 3.08 x 10(-14)). Taken together, our data suggest an effect of vitamin D supplementation on mitochondrial function in obese subjects. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation affects gene expression in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. The altered genes are enriched in pathways related to mitochondrial function. The present study increases the understanding of the effects of vitamin D at the transcriptome level.
  • Karhula, Kati; Hakola, Tarja; Koskinen, Aki; Lallukka, Tea; Ojajarvi, Anneli; Puttonen, Sampsa; Oksanen, Tuula; Rahkonen, Ossi; Ropponen, Annina; Härmä, Mikko (2021)
    We studied whether implementing binding ergonomic shift-scheduling rules change ageing (>= 45 years) social and healthcare employees' (mean age 52.5 years, 95% women) working-hour characteristics (e.g. weekly working hours, number and length of night shifts, and short shift intervals) and sleep. We compared an intervention group (n = 253) to a control group (n = 1,234) by survey responses (baseline 2007/2008, follow-up 2012) and objective working-hour characteristics (intervention group n = 159, control group n = 379) from 91 days preceding the surveys. Changes in working-hour characteristics were analysed with repeated measures general linear models. The fully adjusted model (sociodemographics and full-/part-time work) showed that proportion of short shift intervals (= 9 hr; odds ratio [OR] 5.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.21-13.80), and lower odds of short sleep (
  • Hirvikangas, Roope (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    ABSTRACT Purpose; The investigators hypothesized that the role of alcohol in facial fracture etiology and patients’ daily life may be underestimated. Methods; A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Alcohol consumption habits were evaluated according to brief intervention and the data was collected with a constructed questionnaire and interview. After review of the patient records, a case-related data collection was performed with the primary predictor variables being mechanism of injury; fracture type; associated injury (any). Outcome variables were alcohol involved in injury (yes/no) and heavy alcohol use (yes/no). The explanatory variables were gender and age. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and the P value was set at .05. Results; A total of 166 patients were included in the study. 55% of patients reported being under the influence of alcohol during the injury. Alcohol was involved most often in males (P = .0006) and younger age groups (P < .0001); however, it was present in 22% of the cases among the elderly as well. 17% of patients reported heavy alcohol use habits. The majority of the interpersonal violence events had taken place under the influence of alcohol (84%, P < .0001). Patients who were under the influence of alcohol during injury were more often heavy users (P < .0001). There was no correlation between alcohol involvement during injury and associated injuries or type of fracture. Conclusions; The role of alcohol among facial fracture etiology is considerably high. A brief intervention of alcohol should be included routinely in patient care to identify and, if necessary, address the patient's alcohol use in heavy drinkers and to obtain more evidence about the role of alcohol in facial fracture etiology.
  • Palsola, Minttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Adolescents continue to be affected by behavior-related health risk factors such as low levels of physical activity. They can be motivated to be more physically active in various ways, but they can also take agency in their own behavior change and use different behavior change techniques to manage and maintain their behavior. According to self-determination theory, the quality of motivation is key in behavior change, as fostering autonomous motivation should lead to long-lasting wellbeing-enhancing changes, whereas controlled motivation might have adverse effects. There is some evidence of the positive effects of the use of individual behavior change techniques on physical activity, but the effects of their use on motivational constructs is less studied. The aim of this thesis is to map the effects of (1) the use of individual self-motivating behavior change techniques on changes in physical activity-related autonomous and controlled motivation, (2) the total use of self-motivating behavior change techniques on changes in physical activity-related autonomous and controlled motivation, and (3) the total use of self-motivational behavior change techniques, and controlled and autonomous motivation on changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. This thesis utilizes data from Let’s Move It, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a school-based physical activity intervention (baseline N=767, post-intervention N=687). At both time points, participants self-reported use of three self-motivational techniques (reflecting on identity congruence, life values congruence and thinking about personal motives) on a scale from 1 to 6, and their autonomous and controlled motivation on a scale from 1 to 5. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry. Their associations are analyzed with multivariate regression models corrected for age, gender and baseline levels of motivation or physical activity. The findings show that reflecting on life identity congruence (autonomous motivation; AM β=0.202, p<.001; controlled motivation; CM β=0.132, p<.001), life values congruence (AM β=0.184, p<.001; CM β=0.112, p<.001), and thinking about personal motives (AM β=0.246, p<.001; CM β=0.175, p<.001), as well as their total use (AM β=0.260, p<.001; CM β=0.157, p<.001), were all associated with both autonomous and controlled motivation. Total self-motivational behavior change technique use (β= -0.026, p=.617) and controlled motivation (β= -0.037, p=.373) had no detectable effects on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but autonomous motivation (β=0.135, p<0.05) did. This thesis sheds light on the actions that individuals can take themselves to foster their motivation. Understanding how adolescents can self-motivate themselves can give insight into how to sustain a sense of autonomy while navigating through different life situations, and thus help to achieve long-lasting and wellbeing enhancing behaviors.
  • Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Särkämö, Teppo (2021)
    Patients with post-stroke impairments present often significant variation in response to therapeutic interventions. Recent studies have shown that daily music listening can aid post-stroke recovery of language and memory, but reliable predictors of treatment response are unknown. Utilizing data from the music intervention arms of a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) on stroke patients (N = 31), we built regression models to predict the treatment response of a two-month music listening intervention on language skills and verbal memory with baseline demographic, clinical and musical data as well as fMRI data from a music listening task. Clinically, greater improvement in verbal memory and language skills after the music listening intervention were predicted by the severity of the initial deficit and educational level. Neurally, greater baseline fMRI activation during vocal music listening in the left parietal cortical and medial frontal areas predicted greater treatment-induced improvement in language skills and greater baseline engagement of the auditory network during instrumental music listening predicted improvement in both verbal memory and language skills. Our results suggest that clinical, demographic, and neuroimaging data predicts music listening treatment response. This data could be used clinically to target music-based treatments.
  • Cavonius-Rintahaka, Diana; Aho, Anna Liisa; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher (2021)
    Aim: To describe the development and implementation of a Dialogical Family Guidance (DFG) intervention, aimed at families with a child with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Design: The DFG components are presented and the content of a DFG training course. Professionals' experiences after the DFG training were evaluated. Methods: Dialogical Family Guidance development phases and implementation process are examined. The Revised Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence checklist (SQUIRE 2.0) was used to provide a framework for reporting new knowledge. Results: The DFG training course seemed to increase possibilities of a more independent role as a nurse to deliver the DFG family intervention. The project showed that the use of dialogue can be difficult for some professionals. Analysis of the questionnaire completed after DFG training reported a high level of satisfaction. DFG training offered a new approach to deliver knowledge and understanding to families using dialogue, including tailored psychoeducation and emotional and practical guidance.
  • Vessonen, Terhi; Hakkarainen, Airi; Väisänen, Eija; Laine, Anu; Aunio, Pirjo; Gagnon, Joseph Calvin (2021)
    Fraction knowledge has been found to predict later mathematical performance, but many students have difficulty with fractions. Virtual manipulatives (VM) and concrete manipulatives (CM) are effective approaches to teaching fractions, but previous research has not been able to reach a consensus on which manipulatives are the most effective. This quasi-experimental study employed a pre- and posttest design to investigate the differential effects of VM and CM in a fraction intervention on students’ fraction skills. In addition to fraction skills, students’ arithmetic fluency was measured. Fidelity of intervention, social validity, and time-efficiency of the manipulatives were also investigated. Fourth- and fifth-grade participants (N= 115) from Southern Finland were assigned to VM and CM intervention groups. The intervention was implemented during six 45-minute lessons over 2 weeks. Results revealed that the CM group outperformed the VM group in fraction skills, which suggests that CM should be favored in fraction interventions.
  • Häkkänen, Paula; But, Anna; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina (2020)
    Aim We aimed to identify groups of primary school children with similar overweight development, reveal age-related patterns of overweight development in the resulting groups and analyse overweight-related school healthcare interventions. Methods This retrospective longitudinal register study utilised electronic health records from six primary school years. From a random sample of 2000 sixth graders, we derived a study cohort of 508 children meeting criteria for overweight at least once during primary school. We investigated how many different groups (latent classes) of children with similar weight development would emerge by applying flexible latent class mixed models on body mass index standard deviation score. We also explored the resulting groups with respect to offered overweight-related interventions. Results Per child, the data consisted in median 7 growth measurements over 5.4 years. We identified five overweight development groups for girls and four for boys. The groups converged temporarily around age 10 after which only some continued into obesity. School nurses and physicians offered overweight-related interventions to children with obesity, less to children gaining weight or with overweight. Conclusion Obesity prevention might benefit from awareness of typical overweight development patterns when designing intervention studies or planning and timing multidisciplinary school health check programmes.
  • Lindqvist, Ulla (2008)
    The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate the work of early intervention and family support in Family Centres of Helsinki City Social Services Department. The subject matter in this study is approached by using community social work perspective. The research data consists of descriptions of early intervention and family support working models. Descriptions have been gathered from the workers of play parks, social and family work, families with children home service, family houses and groups and projects in two phases: first by a questionnaire and thereafter worker joint development process. This study is a part of the development process of early intervention and family support in Family Centres. The data was analysed by applying theory engaged examination and content analysis. Evaluation method is description and the purpose is to create an overview the work of early intervention and family support and its development needs. The approach to research is development evaluation. The workers described in the questionnaire 393 different working models. Based on analysis working methods of direct client work were defined as follows: family work, group work, community work, multicultural work and information about the services. Working methods of indirect client work were defined as multiprofessional network and strengthening of the working methods of early intervention and family support. Based on the questionnaire workers saw supporting parenthood and strengthening of social networks needs for the work. Experienced results of the working methods were positive and their achievements were experienced in family and group work. Based on workers experience working methods close to basic work were considered to be effective. Workers evaluate that the working methods brought a change to client's life situation (medium 8,31 on scale 1-10). The descriptions prepared in the development process examine early intervention and family support in three levels: community, department and worker/working place. Local co-operation and group work were described by all functions. This study investigates also the descriptions of the workers from play parks from the community and community social work perspective. Parks are described as spaces of community, where participation and empowerment is made possible. The work of early intervention and family support is not a uniform collection of working methods which would be similar to all functions. All functions do it by taking into account the basic work and its specific features. Based on the analysis of descriptions I suggest looking at the early intervention and family support from developmental, social and operational point of view. Operational viewpoint is intervention and support on individual and community level. Through these elements both universal and selective needs of children and their families is visible in early intervention and family support. The changes in working environment have an impact on the development of the work. In this study four development strategies have been created from community social work basis. In these strategies the aim, elements and methods of work have been combined. Strategies are proactive and preventive work, services close to community, work centred on the social network and shared responsibility of practitioners and citizens.
  • Scaratti, Giuseppe; Engeström, Yrjo; Ripamonti, Silvio (2021)
  • Sourander, Andre; Ristkari, Terja; Kurki, Marjo; Gilbert, Sonja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Kinnunen, Malin; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; McGrath, Patrick J. (2022)
    Background: There is a lack of effectiveness studies when digital parent training programs are implemented in real-world practice. The efficacy of the internet-based and telephone-assisted Finnish Strongest Families Smart Website (SFSW) parent training intervention on the disruptive behavior of 4-year-old children was studied in a randomized controlled trial setting in Southwest Finland between 2011 and 2013. After that, the intervention was implemented nationwide in child health clinics from 2015 onwards. Objective: The main aim of this study was to compare the treatment characteristics and effectiveness of the SFSW parent training intervention between the families who received the intervention when it was implemented as a normal practice in child health clinics and the families who received the same intervention during the randomized controlled trial. Methods: The implementation group comprised 600 families who were recruited in the SFSW intervention between January 2015 and May 2017 in real-world implementation. The RCT intervention group comprised 232 families who were recruited between October 2011 and November 2013. The same demographic and child and parent measures were collected from both study groups and were compared using linear mixed-effect models for repeated measurements. The child psychopathology and functioning level were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) version 1.5-5 for preschool children, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), and a modified version of the Barkley Home Situations Questionnaire. Parenting skills were measured using the 31-item Parenting Scale and the shorter 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). The estimated child and parent outcomes were adjusted for CBCL externalizing scores at baseline, maternal education, duration of the behavior problems, and paternal age. The baseline measurements of each outcome were used as covariates. Results: The implementation group was more likely to complete the intervention than the RCT intervention group (514/600, 85.7% vs 176/232, 75.9%, respectively; P Conclusions: The internet-based and telephone-assisted SFSW parent training intervention was effectively implemented in real-world settings. These findings have implications for addressing the unmet needs of children with disruptive behavior problems. Our initiative could also provide a quick socially distanced solution for the considerable mental health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Koota, Elina; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi; Lääperi, Mitja; Melender, Hanna-Leena (2021)
    Background Emergency care clinicians are expected to use the latest research evidence in practice. However, emergency nurses do not always consistently implement evidence-based practice (EBP). An educational intervention on EBP was implemented to promote emergency nurses' use of EBP, and the effectiveness of it was evaluated. Aims This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP educational intervention on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The study also examined learners' satisfaction with the EBP educational intervention. Methods A randomized controlled trial with parallel groups with evaluations before the education, immediately after it, and 6 and 12 months after the education was conducted at four emergency departments in two university hospitals. The experimental group (N = 40) received EBP education while the control group (N = 40) completed self-directed EBP education. The primary outcomes were emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior, while the secondary outcome was satisfaction with the EBP education. Results Thirty-five participants of an experimental and 29 participants of a control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant (p <.05) improvements and differences between groups in EBP attitude, self-efficacy, or behavior immediately after the EBP education. At the 6-month measurement point, the experimental group showed significantly better EBP attitudes, behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy than the control group. At the 12-month measurement point, the improvements began to decrease. The groups also differed significantly in terms of participant satisfaction with how the teacher encouraged learners to ask clinical questions. Linking Evidence to Action The EBP educational intervention implemented in this study had a positive effect on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The effects of the education appeared the best 6 months after the education. After this point, the results began to decrease and approached baseline levels. EBP educational interventions designed for emergency nurses should apply various teaching strategies to improve their EBP attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, behavior, and satisfaction with the education.
  • Basaran, Zeren (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Fear of falling (FOF) and falling are urgent public health and economical challenges. Approxi-mately half of the elderly people experience FOF regardless of whether they had experienced fall or not. Increasing level of FOF can lead to self-induced restriction in mobility, physical func-tioning and activities of daily living (ADLs). Avoidance of activities weakens elderly's perfor-mance, well-being and increases the risk of falling. One-third of people over 65 years fall. For elderly 80 % of injuries are falls. Falls results in fractures, hospitalization, FOF, depression, loss of independence, premature residential care admission and even death in older persons. Number of falls has quadrupled over the past 25 years. Incidence of falling will increase in the future, as world population of people aged 65 and older is projected to increase to 997 million. Exercise is an essential method to maintain mobility, reduce FOF and prevent incidence of falling among community-dwelling elderly. “Strength in Old Age Programme” is a health enhancing exercise program (2005-2015) coordinated by the Age Institute. The project promotes independent living and quality of life (QOL) for elderly with weakened functional ability. A questionnaire was mailed to programmes’ participants consisting of questions about demographic and socio-economic status, health and well-being, physical activity habits and self-reported health improvements after participating the exercise group in April 2015. The aims of this study were 3-fold: first to identify biological, socio-economic, health and well-being, and behavioral factors affecting FOF and falling; second, to study perceived health improvements effect on FOF and falling; and last to investigate the complex association between FOF and falling. The key achievement was that “Strength in Old Age Programme” improved physical activity of elderly people involved in the study and affected biological, socio-economic and behavioral risk factors. This resulted in improvement in physical, functional, psychological and social domains reducing perceived FOF. Particularly good results in FOF reduction were seen in the participants who had higher age, were living alone and had lower socio-economic status. The incidence of falling was reduced through balance improvement in the exercise group. Similar yet smaller changes were observed in more vulnerable participants having poorer health and well-being related status. It would be important to influence the attitudes of elderly and motivate them proactively increase their physical activity to maintain balance, mobility, muscle strength, ADLs, health and well-being.
  • Gallen, Anastasia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Formal musical training has shown promising effects on auditory discrimination in children, but it is not within reach of every family as it is time-consuming and costly. This study aimed to determine whether at-home musical intervention and activities enhance neural auditory speech sound discrimination accuracy in children with or without a familial dyslexia risk. Methods. A follow-up sample of 113 children with or without risk of dyslexia participated. During the first six months of infancy, 57 of the children with a familial risk participated in at-home music listening intervention, including vocal or instrumental music. Musical activities at home were assessed with a questionnaire at 24 months of age. Speech sound discrimination accuracy was assessed at 28 months, with change-elicited responses derived from EEG. Linear mixed-effects (LME) models were applied to study the association between neural responses and musical enrichment. Results. The LME models showed that the association between speech sound discrimination accuracy and musical activities differed between the groups. In post-hoc comparisons, this association differed between the vocal intervention group and the other risk groups. The group without the familial risk did not differ from the risk groups. Conclusions. The observed bidirectional associations of musical activities and vocal listening intervention with change-related cortical processing potentially reflect two separate mechanisms of neural maturation and compensatory activation. Hence, vocal intervention and musical activities might promote specific aspects of auditory neural development. Understanding these associations is relevant in both guiding future research and in preventing language disorders.
  • Seitamaa, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. In the context of rapid digitalization and the need to develop students’ 21st century skills, acquiring a growth mindset is essential. A person with a growth mindset believes that, for example, intelligence and creativity are malleable and develop through persistent practice. The purpose of this investigation was to first, explore Finnish 7th grade students’ mindsets related to intelligence and giftedness. Secondly, this study investigated students’ mindsets relation to academic achievement in mathematics and mother tongue, as well as students’ educational aspirations. Thirdly, this investigation examined how the mindsets are related to students’ sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices. Finally, findings of a mindset intervention conducted in a Finnish educational context, which targeted mindsets in intelligence, giftedness and creativity, are reported. Method. Data for Study A was collected with a questionnaire, which was answered by 1059 7th grade students in Helsinki. The questionnaire assessed students’ intelligence and giftedness mindsets, educational aspirations, sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices. A TwoStep cluster analysis was used to locate natural intelligence and giftedness mindset groups from the data. Next, two-way ANOVA’s were utilized: identified mindset groups and gender were independent variables and academic achievement in mathematics and mother tongue, educational aspirations, as well as sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices were dependent variables. In Study B 21 students answered a questionnaire on intelligence, giftedness and creativity mindsets before and after the intervention. Differences between pre- and post-test were analyzed using a paired samples t-test. Results and significance. The results indicated that 7th graders had a strong growth mindset in intelligence and giftedness, yet groups of fixed, mixed and growth mindsets were found. Moreover, a growth mindset in intelligence and giftedness was positively related to students’ academic achievement in both mathematics and mother tongue as well as their educational aspirations. Further, a fixed mindset in giftedness indicated higher technical sociodigital competence beliefs. Similarly, students with a fixed mindset in both intelligence and giftedness perceived there to be more sociodigital school practices. Study B found that only students’ creativity-related mindsets changed significantly. The investigation proposes that schools should more strongly support students’ growth mindsets and their creative and academic sociodigital competences as they are a relevant part of the 21st century skills.
  • Palmgren, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Syftet med den här magisteravhandlingen är att utvärdera Familjeskolan POP® som insats vid barns utmanande beteende ur ett föräldraperspektiv. Genom en enkätundersökning undersöks föräldrars upplevelser före, direkt efter samt tre månader efter deltagande i Familjeskolan POP®. Enkäterna analyseras med en mixed methods-approach, dvs. en kombination av kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder. Undersökningen har tre övergripande forskningsfrågor: 1) hur upplever föräldrarna familjens situation innan deltagandet i Familjeskolan POP®? 2) hur upplever föräldrarna familjens situation efter deltagandet i Familjeskolan POP® samt 3) vilka effekter verkar Familjeskolan POP® ha ur ett föräldraperspektiv? Svaren på de två första forskningsfrågorna utgör en bas för besvarandet av den sista forskningsfrågan. Genom att utgå ifrån systemteoretiska och huvudsakligen ekokulturella ansatser identifieras kategorierna ”vardag” samt ”föräldraskap och uppfostran”. Dessa används som grund för de empiriska analyserna. Analysen visar att familjens situation inte av föräldrarna upplevs vara mycket svår innan deltagandet i Familjeskolan POP®, men att familjen ändå belastas på olika sätt när ett barn uppfattas ha ett utmanande beteende. Föräldrarna är oroliga över familjens vardag, som bedöms vara tämligen utmanande och stressig. Detta återspeglas negativt i familjens ork och atmosfär, och är i samband med uppfattningar om att olika vardagliga färdigheter inte fungerar så bra för barnet. Föräldrarna oroar sig över barnets relation till sig själv, sina föräldrar samt till andra vuxna och barn. Samtidigt upplevs responsen kring barnet från daghemmet i huvudsak som positiv. Analysen visar även att föräldrarna i medeltal inte ger sitt eget föräldraskap ett lågt vitsord. Vitsordet är i samband med upplevelserna av hur utmanande vardagen bedöms vara. Samtidigt visar analyserna att föräldrarna upplever en avsaknad av fungerande handlingsmodeller samt att de problematiserar sin negativa växelverkan med barnen som även upplevs påverka förälderns eget beteende negativt. Föräldrarna är också oroliga över den egna orken i en utmanande vardag. Det stöd som föräldrarna efterlängtar är ett sådant som riktar sig till hela familjen. Föräldrarna eftersträvar därmed bl.a. nya redskap såväl för vardagen som för sitt föräldraskap. Föräldrarna önskar också en bättre förståelse för sina barn samt ett referensstöd av andra föräldrar. Studien visar på en positiv förändring i familjens situation efter deltagandet i Familjeskolan POP®. Vardagen bedöms då av föräldrarna som mindre utmanande och barnets beteende i både daghemmet och i olika vardagliga situationer bedöms fungera bättre. Föräldrarna tilldelar i medeltal sig ett bättre vitsord för sitt föräldraskap. Trots att det fortfarande förekommer en oro över bl.a. att vardagen är tung, över att den egna orken inte skall räcka till samt för barnet och dess beteende, tyder resultatet ändå på att föräldrarnas upplevelser av vardagen samt av föräldraskap och uppfostran har främjats av deltagandet i Familjeskolan. Utvärderingen av Familjeskolan POP®:s effekter ur ett föräldraperspektiv visar sammantaget att stödprogrammet bidrar till att främja familjens situation och huvudsakligen uppfyller föräldrars egna förväntningar och programmets målsättningar. Familjeskolan POP® upplevs medföra en långsiktig positiv förändring i barnets beteende, stärkta resurser i föräldraskapet, en långvarig nytta för föräldrarna samt ett sådant referensstöd som föräldrarna efterlängtar. Dessutom upplevs föräldrarnas förståelse för såväl barnet som sig själva ha ökat. Trots att en del aspekter av Familjeskolan POP® problematiseras även efter ett deltagandet, upplevs programmet som helhet vara till nytta.
  • Parkkinen, Kimmo (Helsingfors universitet, 2002)
    Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin autismiluokan oppilaiden fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen yhteydessä olevia oppilas- ja opetusympäristötekijöitä. Tutkimuksen kohderyhmänä oli kaikki Suomen autismiluokkien oppilaat ja vertailuryhminä oli EHA1- ja EHA2- luokan oppilaita. Tutkimusote oli kvantitatiivinen, tutkimusaineisto kerättiin kyselylomakkeilla. Tutkimuskyselyyn vastasivat luokkien opettajat. Aineiston käsittelyssä pääasialliset analyysimenetelmät olivat faktori-, varianssi- ja regressioanalyysi. Tutkimuksen pääongelmat: 1. Millaista on tutkituilla oppilailla esiintynyt fyysinen väkivaltakäyttäytyminen? 2. Millaiset oppilastekijät ovat yhteydessä fyysiseen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen? 3. Miten luokkatoiminnot ja autismiluokan henkilökunnan toiminta ovat yhteydessä oppilaiden fyysiseen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen? Tutkimustulokset osoittivat, että autismiluokan oppilaiden fyysinen väkivaltakäyttäytyminen oli huomattavasti vertailuryhmien (EHA1 Ja EHA2) oppilaita runsaampaa. Autismiluokan oppilaiden yleisimpiä fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymisen muotoja olivat toisiin kohdistuneet lyömiset, puremiset, raapimiset tukistamiset ja tönimiset. Itseen kohdistui eniten puremista ja lyömistä. Autistien akateemiset taidot olivat tutkimuksen mukaan selvästi heidän sosiaalisia taitojaan paremmat. Runsaimmin fyysistä väkivaltakäyttäytymistä raportoitiin olevan niillä autismiluokan oppilailla, joilla oli hyvät akateemiset, mutta heikot sosiaaliset taidot. Väkivaltakäyttäytymistä edeltävissä tilanteissa ja toiminnoissa korostui yleisimmin yllätys-, siirtymis- ja odottamistilanteet. Väkivaltaa edeltävät vuorovaikutustilanteet olivat pääosin henkilökunnan johtamia käskynantotilanteita. Näissä tilanteissa oppilasta ohjattiin vaatimuksilla tai kielloilla. Fyysiseen väkivaltatilanteeseen puuttumiseen käytetyistä välittömistä interventiomenetelmistä yleisin oli fyysinen ohjaaminen. Tällä ohjausmuodoilla oli heikoin oppilaan rauhoittumista edistävä vaikutus. Parhaimmat intervention vaikutukset saatiin huomiotta jättämisellä tai huomion siirtämisellä muualle. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys perustui pääosin Kauffmanin sosiaalis-kognitiiviseen väkivaltateoriaan ja Schoplerin autistien häiriökäyttäytymistä kuvaavaan malliin. Kokonaisotos autismiluokan oppilaista antoi hyvän kuvan koko Suomen autismiluokilla esiintyvästä fyysisen väkivallan ilmiöstä. Tutkimuksen käytäntöön sovellettavuus liittyy autistien opetuksen kehittämiseen, fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymisen ennaltaehkäisyn suunnittelutyössä ja opetushenkilökunnan väkivallan kohtaamisen tukemiseen
  • Pulkkinen, Tuija (2015)
    Within the past 40 years, feminist studies/women's studies/gender studies/studies in gender and sexuality has effectively grown into a globally practised academic discipline while simultaneously resisting the notion of disciplinarity and strongly advocating multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity. In this article, I argue that gaining identity through refusing an identity can be viewed as being a constitutive paradox of gender studies. Through exploring gender studies as a transdisciplinary intellectual discipline, which came into existence in very particular multidisciplinary historical conditions of the feminist movement, I suggest that transdisciplinarity within gender studies takes on a meaning which results in a radical problematization of the academic goal of knowledge production'. Instead of such knowledge production', transdisciplinarity in gender studies promotes intervention which reaches beyond the concepts of accountability, innovation and corporate management. I argue that Jacques Derrida's promotion of the College International de Philosophie in 1982 in its particular relationship to the tradition of philosophy provides a parallel example of such an attitude. Adding to Joan Scott's and Clare Hemmings's insights on gender studies in terms of critique and transformation, I argue that transdisciplinarity as practice of intervention' is crucial for the construction of gender studies disciplinary identity, based upon apparent non-identity.
  • Rissanen, Inkeri; Laine, Sonja; Puusepp, Ita; Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi (2021)
    This article presents a study of five teachers at a Finnish elementary school who implemented and evaluated growth mindset pedagogy (GMP). The teachers received GMP training and conducted student interventions in their classrooms. We analyzed the impact of GMP on the teacher's pedagogical thinking and practices and found significant differences between fixed-mindset and growth-mindset teachers in the ways they internalized and applied GMP principles. The most important value of GMP was seen in its impact on emotion regulation through the normalization of hardship in learning. We discuss the dangers of a superficial understanding of growth mindsets in education.