Browsing by Subject "intervention"

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  • Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Pekkinen, Minna; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Katayama, Shintaro; Kere, Juha; Mäkitie, Outi; Viljakainen, Heli (2019)
    Objective: The effect of vitamin D at the transcriptome level is poorly understood, and furthermore, it is unclear if it differs between obese and normal-weight subjects. The objective of the study was to explore the transcriptome effects of vitamin D supplementation. Design and methods: We analysed peripheral blood gene expression using GlobinLock oligonucleotides followed by RNA sequencing in individuals participating in a 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled vitamin D intervention study. The study involved 18 obese and 18 normal-weight subjects (of which 20 males) with mean (+/- s.D.) age 20.4 (+/- 2.5) years and BMIs 36 (+/- 10) and 23 (+/- 4) kg/m(2), respectively. The supplemental daily vitamin D dose was 50 mu g (2000 IU). Data were available at baseline, 6- and 12-week time points and comparisons were performed between the vitamin D and placebo groups separately in obese and normal-weight subjects. Results: Significant transcriptomic changes were observed at 6 weeks, and only in the obese subjects: 1724 genes were significantly upregulated and 186 genes were downregulated in the vitamin D group compared with placebo. Further analyses showed several enriched gene categories connected to mitochondrial function and metabolism, and the most significantly enriched pathway was related to oxidative phosphorylation (adjusted P value 3.08 x 10(-14)). Taken together, our data suggest an effect of vitamin D supplementation on mitochondrial function in obese subjects. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation affects gene expression in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. The altered genes are enriched in pathways related to mitochondrial function. The present study increases the understanding of the effects of vitamin D at the transcriptome level.
  • Hirvikangas, Roope (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    ABSTRACT Purpose; The investigators hypothesized that the role of alcohol in facial fracture etiology and patients’ daily life may be underestimated. Methods; A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Alcohol consumption habits were evaluated according to brief intervention and the data was collected with a constructed questionnaire and interview. After review of the patient records, a case-related data collection was performed with the primary predictor variables being mechanism of injury; fracture type; associated injury (any). Outcome variables were alcohol involved in injury (yes/no) and heavy alcohol use (yes/no). The explanatory variables were gender and age. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and the P value was set at .05. Results; A total of 166 patients were included in the study. 55% of patients reported being under the influence of alcohol during the injury. Alcohol was involved most often in males (P = .0006) and younger age groups (P < .0001); however, it was present in 22% of the cases among the elderly as well. 17% of patients reported heavy alcohol use habits. The majority of the interpersonal violence events had taken place under the influence of alcohol (84%, P < .0001). Patients who were under the influence of alcohol during injury were more often heavy users (P < .0001). There was no correlation between alcohol involvement during injury and associated injuries or type of fracture. Conclusions; The role of alcohol among facial fracture etiology is considerably high. A brief intervention of alcohol should be included routinely in patient care to identify and, if necessary, address the patient's alcohol use in heavy drinkers and to obtain more evidence about the role of alcohol in facial fracture etiology.
  • Palsola, Minttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Adolescents continue to be affected by behavior-related health risk factors such as low levels of physical activity. They can be motivated to be more physically active in various ways, but they can also take agency in their own behavior change and use different behavior change techniques to manage and maintain their behavior. According to self-determination theory, the quality of motivation is key in behavior change, as fostering autonomous motivation should lead to long-lasting wellbeing-enhancing changes, whereas controlled motivation might have adverse effects. There is some evidence of the positive effects of the use of individual behavior change techniques on physical activity, but the effects of their use on motivational constructs is less studied. The aim of this thesis is to map the effects of (1) the use of individual self-motivating behavior change techniques on changes in physical activity-related autonomous and controlled motivation, (2) the total use of self-motivating behavior change techniques on changes in physical activity-related autonomous and controlled motivation, and (3) the total use of self-motivational behavior change techniques, and controlled and autonomous motivation on changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. This thesis utilizes data from Let’s Move It, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a school-based physical activity intervention (baseline N=767, post-intervention N=687). At both time points, participants self-reported use of three self-motivational techniques (reflecting on identity congruence, life values congruence and thinking about personal motives) on a scale from 1 to 6, and their autonomous and controlled motivation on a scale from 1 to 5. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry. Their associations are analyzed with multivariate regression models corrected for age, gender and baseline levels of motivation or physical activity. The findings show that reflecting on life identity congruence (autonomous motivation; AM β=0.202, p<.001; controlled motivation; CM β=0.132, p<.001), life values congruence (AM β=0.184, p<.001; CM β=0.112, p<.001), and thinking about personal motives (AM β=0.246, p<.001; CM β=0.175, p<.001), as well as their total use (AM β=0.260, p<.001; CM β=0.157, p<.001), were all associated with both autonomous and controlled motivation. Total self-motivational behavior change technique use (β= -0.026, p=.617) and controlled motivation (β= -0.037, p=.373) had no detectable effects on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but autonomous motivation (β=0.135, p<0.05) did. This thesis sheds light on the actions that individuals can take themselves to foster their motivation. Understanding how adolescents can self-motivate themselves can give insight into how to sustain a sense of autonomy while navigating through different life situations, and thus help to achieve long-lasting and wellbeing enhancing behaviors.
  • Cavonius-Rintahaka, Diana; Aho, Anna Liisa; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher (2021)
    Aim: To describe the development and implementation of a Dialogical Family Guidance (DFG) intervention, aimed at families with a child with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). Design: The DFG components are presented and the content of a DFG training course. Professionals' experiences after the DFG training were evaluated. Methods: Dialogical Family Guidance development phases and implementation process are examined. The Revised Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence checklist (SQUIRE 2.0) was used to provide a framework for reporting new knowledge. Results: The DFG training course seemed to increase possibilities of a more independent role as a nurse to deliver the DFG family intervention. The project showed that the use of dialogue can be difficult for some professionals. Analysis of the questionnaire completed after DFG training reported a high level of satisfaction. DFG training offered a new approach to deliver knowledge and understanding to families using dialogue, including tailored psychoeducation and emotional and practical guidance.
  • Häkkänen, Paula; But, Anna; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina (2020)
    Aim We aimed to identify groups of primary school children with similar overweight development, reveal age-related patterns of overweight development in the resulting groups and analyse overweight-related school healthcare interventions. Methods This retrospective longitudinal register study utilised electronic health records from six primary school years. From a random sample of 2000 sixth graders, we derived a study cohort of 508 children meeting criteria for overweight at least once during primary school. We investigated how many different groups (latent classes) of children with similar weight development would emerge by applying flexible latent class mixed models on body mass index standard deviation score. We also explored the resulting groups with respect to offered overweight-related interventions. Results Per child, the data consisted in median 7 growth measurements over 5.4 years. We identified five overweight development groups for girls and four for boys. The groups converged temporarily around age 10 after which only some continued into obesity. School nurses and physicians offered overweight-related interventions to children with obesity, less to children gaining weight or with overweight. Conclusion Obesity prevention might benefit from awareness of typical overweight development patterns when designing intervention studies or planning and timing multidisciplinary school health check programmes.
  • Lindqvist, Ulla (2008)
    The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate the work of early intervention and family support in Family Centres of Helsinki City Social Services Department. The subject matter in this study is approached by using community social work perspective. The research data consists of descriptions of early intervention and family support working models. Descriptions have been gathered from the workers of play parks, social and family work, families with children home service, family houses and groups and projects in two phases: first by a questionnaire and thereafter worker joint development process. This study is a part of the development process of early intervention and family support in Family Centres. The data was analysed by applying theory engaged examination and content analysis. Evaluation method is description and the purpose is to create an overview the work of early intervention and family support and its development needs. The approach to research is development evaluation. The workers described in the questionnaire 393 different working models. Based on analysis working methods of direct client work were defined as follows: family work, group work, community work, multicultural work and information about the services. Working methods of indirect client work were defined as multiprofessional network and strengthening of the working methods of early intervention and family support. Based on the questionnaire workers saw supporting parenthood and strengthening of social networks needs for the work. Experienced results of the working methods were positive and their achievements were experienced in family and group work. Based on workers experience working methods close to basic work were considered to be effective. Workers evaluate that the working methods brought a change to client's life situation (medium 8,31 on scale 1-10). The descriptions prepared in the development process examine early intervention and family support in three levels: community, department and worker/working place. Local co-operation and group work were described by all functions. This study investigates also the descriptions of the workers from play parks from the community and community social work perspective. Parks are described as spaces of community, where participation and empowerment is made possible. The work of early intervention and family support is not a uniform collection of working methods which would be similar to all functions. All functions do it by taking into account the basic work and its specific features. Based on the analysis of descriptions I suggest looking at the early intervention and family support from developmental, social and operational point of view. Operational viewpoint is intervention and support on individual and community level. Through these elements both universal and selective needs of children and their families is visible in early intervention and family support. The changes in working environment have an impact on the development of the work. In this study four development strategies have been created from community social work basis. In these strategies the aim, elements and methods of work have been combined. Strategies are proactive and preventive work, services close to community, work centred on the social network and shared responsibility of practitioners and citizens.
  • Scaratti, Giuseppe; Engeström, Yrjo; Ripamonti, Silvio (2021)
  • Koota, Elina; Kääriäinen, Maria; Kyngäs, Helvi; Lääperi, Mitja; Melender, Hanna-Leena (2021)
    Background Emergency care clinicians are expected to use the latest research evidence in practice. However, emergency nurses do not always consistently implement evidence-based practice (EBP). An educational intervention on EBP was implemented to promote emergency nurses' use of EBP, and the effectiveness of it was evaluated. Aims This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an EBP educational intervention on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The study also examined learners' satisfaction with the EBP educational intervention. Methods A randomized controlled trial with parallel groups with evaluations before the education, immediately after it, and 6 and 12 months after the education was conducted at four emergency departments in two university hospitals. The experimental group (N = 40) received EBP education while the control group (N = 40) completed self-directed EBP education. The primary outcomes were emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior, while the secondary outcome was satisfaction with the EBP education. Results Thirty-five participants of an experimental and 29 participants of a control group completed the study. There were no statistically significant (p <.05) improvements and differences between groups in EBP attitude, self-efficacy, or behavior immediately after the EBP education. At the 6-month measurement point, the experimental group showed significantly better EBP attitudes, behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy than the control group. At the 12-month measurement point, the improvements began to decrease. The groups also differed significantly in terms of participant satisfaction with how the teacher encouraged learners to ask clinical questions. Linking Evidence to Action The EBP educational intervention implemented in this study had a positive effect on emergency nurses' EBP attitudes, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, and behavior. The effects of the education appeared the best 6 months after the education. After this point, the results began to decrease and approached baseline levels. EBP educational interventions designed for emergency nurses should apply various teaching strategies to improve their EBP attitude, knowledge, self-efficacy, skills, behavior, and satisfaction with the education.
  • Basaran, Zeren (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Fear of falling (FOF) and falling are urgent public health and economical challenges. Approxi-mately half of the elderly people experience FOF regardless of whether they had experienced fall or not. Increasing level of FOF can lead to self-induced restriction in mobility, physical func-tioning and activities of daily living (ADLs). Avoidance of activities weakens elderly's perfor-mance, well-being and increases the risk of falling. One-third of people over 65 years fall. For elderly 80 % of injuries are falls. Falls results in fractures, hospitalization, FOF, depression, loss of independence, premature residential care admission and even death in older persons. Number of falls has quadrupled over the past 25 years. Incidence of falling will increase in the future, as world population of people aged 65 and older is projected to increase to 997 million. Exercise is an essential method to maintain mobility, reduce FOF and prevent incidence of falling among community-dwelling elderly. “Strength in Old Age Programme” is a health enhancing exercise program (2005-2015) coordinated by the Age Institute. The project promotes independent living and quality of life (QOL) for elderly with weakened functional ability. A questionnaire was mailed to programmes’ participants consisting of questions about demographic and socio-economic status, health and well-being, physical activity habits and self-reported health improvements after participating the exercise group in April 2015. The aims of this study were 3-fold: first to identify biological, socio-economic, health and well-being, and behavioral factors affecting FOF and falling; second, to study perceived health improvements effect on FOF and falling; and last to investigate the complex association between FOF and falling. The key achievement was that “Strength in Old Age Programme” improved physical activity of elderly people involved in the study and affected biological, socio-economic and behavioral risk factors. This resulted in improvement in physical, functional, psychological and social domains reducing perceived FOF. Particularly good results in FOF reduction were seen in the participants who had higher age, were living alone and had lower socio-economic status. The incidence of falling was reduced through balance improvement in the exercise group. Similar yet smaller changes were observed in more vulnerable participants having poorer health and well-being related status. It would be important to influence the attitudes of elderly and motivate them proactively increase their physical activity to maintain balance, mobility, muscle strength, ADLs, health and well-being.
  • Gallen, Anastasia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Formal musical training has shown promising effects on auditory discrimination in children, but it is not within reach of every family as it is time-consuming and costly. This study aimed to determine whether at-home musical intervention and activities enhance neural auditory speech sound discrimination accuracy in children with or without a familial dyslexia risk. Methods. A follow-up sample of 113 children with or without risk of dyslexia participated. During the first six months of infancy, 57 of the children with a familial risk participated in at-home music listening intervention, including vocal or instrumental music. Musical activities at home were assessed with a questionnaire at 24 months of age. Speech sound discrimination accuracy was assessed at 28 months, with change-elicited responses derived from EEG. Linear mixed-effects (LME) models were applied to study the association between neural responses and musical enrichment. Results. The LME models showed that the association between speech sound discrimination accuracy and musical activities differed between the groups. In post-hoc comparisons, this association differed between the vocal intervention group and the other risk groups. The group without the familial risk did not differ from the risk groups. Conclusions. The observed bidirectional associations of musical activities and vocal listening intervention with change-related cortical processing potentially reflect two separate mechanisms of neural maturation and compensatory activation. Hence, vocal intervention and musical activities might promote specific aspects of auditory neural development. Understanding these associations is relevant in both guiding future research and in preventing language disorders.
  • Seitamaa, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. In the context of rapid digitalization and the need to develop students’ 21st century skills, acquiring a growth mindset is essential. A person with a growth mindset believes that, for example, intelligence and creativity are malleable and develop through persistent practice. The purpose of this investigation was to first, explore Finnish 7th grade students’ mindsets related to intelligence and giftedness. Secondly, this study investigated students’ mindsets relation to academic achievement in mathematics and mother tongue, as well as students’ educational aspirations. Thirdly, this investigation examined how the mindsets are related to students’ sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices. Finally, findings of a mindset intervention conducted in a Finnish educational context, which targeted mindsets in intelligence, giftedness and creativity, are reported. Method. Data for Study A was collected with a questionnaire, which was answered by 1059 7th grade students in Helsinki. The questionnaire assessed students’ intelligence and giftedness mindsets, educational aspirations, sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices. A TwoStep cluster analysis was used to locate natural intelligence and giftedness mindset groups from the data. Next, two-way ANOVA’s were utilized: identified mindset groups and gender were independent variables and academic achievement in mathematics and mother tongue, educational aspirations, as well as sociodigital competence beliefs and perceived digital school practices were dependent variables. In Study B 21 students answered a questionnaire on intelligence, giftedness and creativity mindsets before and after the intervention. Differences between pre- and post-test were analyzed using a paired samples t-test. Results and significance. The results indicated that 7th graders had a strong growth mindset in intelligence and giftedness, yet groups of fixed, mixed and growth mindsets were found. Moreover, a growth mindset in intelligence and giftedness was positively related to students’ academic achievement in both mathematics and mother tongue as well as their educational aspirations. Further, a fixed mindset in giftedness indicated higher technical sociodigital competence beliefs. Similarly, students with a fixed mindset in both intelligence and giftedness perceived there to be more sociodigital school practices. Study B found that only students’ creativity-related mindsets changed significantly. The investigation proposes that schools should more strongly support students’ growth mindsets and their creative and academic sociodigital competences as they are a relevant part of the 21st century skills.
  • Palmgren, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Syftet med den här magisteravhandlingen är att utvärdera Familjeskolan POP® som insats vid barns utmanande beteende ur ett föräldraperspektiv. Genom en enkätundersökning undersöks föräldrars upplevelser före, direkt efter samt tre månader efter deltagande i Familjeskolan POP®. Enkäterna analyseras med en mixed methods-approach, dvs. en kombination av kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder. Undersökningen har tre övergripande forskningsfrågor: 1) hur upplever föräldrarna familjens situation innan deltagandet i Familjeskolan POP®? 2) hur upplever föräldrarna familjens situation efter deltagandet i Familjeskolan POP® samt 3) vilka effekter verkar Familjeskolan POP® ha ur ett föräldraperspektiv? Svaren på de två första forskningsfrågorna utgör en bas för besvarandet av den sista forskningsfrågan. Genom att utgå ifrån systemteoretiska och huvudsakligen ekokulturella ansatser identifieras kategorierna ”vardag” samt ”föräldraskap och uppfostran”. Dessa används som grund för de empiriska analyserna. Analysen visar att familjens situation inte av föräldrarna upplevs vara mycket svår innan deltagandet i Familjeskolan POP®, men att familjen ändå belastas på olika sätt när ett barn uppfattas ha ett utmanande beteende. Föräldrarna är oroliga över familjens vardag, som bedöms vara tämligen utmanande och stressig. Detta återspeglas negativt i familjens ork och atmosfär, och är i samband med uppfattningar om att olika vardagliga färdigheter inte fungerar så bra för barnet. Föräldrarna oroar sig över barnets relation till sig själv, sina föräldrar samt till andra vuxna och barn. Samtidigt upplevs responsen kring barnet från daghemmet i huvudsak som positiv. Analysen visar även att föräldrarna i medeltal inte ger sitt eget föräldraskap ett lågt vitsord. Vitsordet är i samband med upplevelserna av hur utmanande vardagen bedöms vara. Samtidigt visar analyserna att föräldrarna upplever en avsaknad av fungerande handlingsmodeller samt att de problematiserar sin negativa växelverkan med barnen som även upplevs påverka förälderns eget beteende negativt. Föräldrarna är också oroliga över den egna orken i en utmanande vardag. Det stöd som föräldrarna efterlängtar är ett sådant som riktar sig till hela familjen. Föräldrarna eftersträvar därmed bl.a. nya redskap såväl för vardagen som för sitt föräldraskap. Föräldrarna önskar också en bättre förståelse för sina barn samt ett referensstöd av andra föräldrar. Studien visar på en positiv förändring i familjens situation efter deltagandet i Familjeskolan POP®. Vardagen bedöms då av föräldrarna som mindre utmanande och barnets beteende i både daghemmet och i olika vardagliga situationer bedöms fungera bättre. Föräldrarna tilldelar i medeltal sig ett bättre vitsord för sitt föräldraskap. Trots att det fortfarande förekommer en oro över bl.a. att vardagen är tung, över att den egna orken inte skall räcka till samt för barnet och dess beteende, tyder resultatet ändå på att föräldrarnas upplevelser av vardagen samt av föräldraskap och uppfostran har främjats av deltagandet i Familjeskolan. Utvärderingen av Familjeskolan POP®:s effekter ur ett föräldraperspektiv visar sammantaget att stödprogrammet bidrar till att främja familjens situation och huvudsakligen uppfyller föräldrars egna förväntningar och programmets målsättningar. Familjeskolan POP® upplevs medföra en långsiktig positiv förändring i barnets beteende, stärkta resurser i föräldraskapet, en långvarig nytta för föräldrarna samt ett sådant referensstöd som föräldrarna efterlängtar. Dessutom upplevs föräldrarnas förståelse för såväl barnet som sig själva ha ökat. Trots att en del aspekter av Familjeskolan POP® problematiseras även efter ett deltagandet, upplevs programmet som helhet vara till nytta.
  • Parkkinen, Kimmo (Helsingfors universitet, 2002)
    Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin autismiluokan oppilaiden fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen yhteydessä olevia oppilas- ja opetusympäristötekijöitä. Tutkimuksen kohderyhmänä oli kaikki Suomen autismiluokkien oppilaat ja vertailuryhminä oli EHA1- ja EHA2- luokan oppilaita. Tutkimusote oli kvantitatiivinen, tutkimusaineisto kerättiin kyselylomakkeilla. Tutkimuskyselyyn vastasivat luokkien opettajat. Aineiston käsittelyssä pääasialliset analyysimenetelmät olivat faktori-, varianssi- ja regressioanalyysi. Tutkimuksen pääongelmat: 1. Millaista on tutkituilla oppilailla esiintynyt fyysinen väkivaltakäyttäytyminen? 2. Millaiset oppilastekijät ovat yhteydessä fyysiseen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen? 3. Miten luokkatoiminnot ja autismiluokan henkilökunnan toiminta ovat yhteydessä oppilaiden fyysiseen väkivaltakäyttäytymiseen? Tutkimustulokset osoittivat, että autismiluokan oppilaiden fyysinen väkivaltakäyttäytyminen oli huomattavasti vertailuryhmien (EHA1 Ja EHA2) oppilaita runsaampaa. Autismiluokan oppilaiden yleisimpiä fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymisen muotoja olivat toisiin kohdistuneet lyömiset, puremiset, raapimiset tukistamiset ja tönimiset. Itseen kohdistui eniten puremista ja lyömistä. Autistien akateemiset taidot olivat tutkimuksen mukaan selvästi heidän sosiaalisia taitojaan paremmat. Runsaimmin fyysistä väkivaltakäyttäytymistä raportoitiin olevan niillä autismiluokan oppilailla, joilla oli hyvät akateemiset, mutta heikot sosiaaliset taidot. Väkivaltakäyttäytymistä edeltävissä tilanteissa ja toiminnoissa korostui yleisimmin yllätys-, siirtymis- ja odottamistilanteet. Väkivaltaa edeltävät vuorovaikutustilanteet olivat pääosin henkilökunnan johtamia käskynantotilanteita. Näissä tilanteissa oppilasta ohjattiin vaatimuksilla tai kielloilla. Fyysiseen väkivaltatilanteeseen puuttumiseen käytetyistä välittömistä interventiomenetelmistä yleisin oli fyysinen ohjaaminen. Tällä ohjausmuodoilla oli heikoin oppilaan rauhoittumista edistävä vaikutus. Parhaimmat intervention vaikutukset saatiin huomiotta jättämisellä tai huomion siirtämisellä muualle. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys perustui pääosin Kauffmanin sosiaalis-kognitiiviseen väkivaltateoriaan ja Schoplerin autistien häiriökäyttäytymistä kuvaavaan malliin. Kokonaisotos autismiluokan oppilaista antoi hyvän kuvan koko Suomen autismiluokilla esiintyvästä fyysisen väkivallan ilmiöstä. Tutkimuksen käytäntöön sovellettavuus liittyy autistien opetuksen kehittämiseen, fyysisen väkivaltakäyttäytymisen ennaltaehkäisyn suunnittelutyössä ja opetushenkilökunnan väkivallan kohtaamisen tukemiseen
  • Pulkkinen, Tuija (2015)
    Within the past 40 years, feminist studies/women's studies/gender studies/studies in gender and sexuality has effectively grown into a globally practised academic discipline while simultaneously resisting the notion of disciplinarity and strongly advocating multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity. In this article, I argue that gaining identity through refusing an identity can be viewed as being a constitutive paradox of gender studies. Through exploring gender studies as a transdisciplinary intellectual discipline, which came into existence in very particular multidisciplinary historical conditions of the feminist movement, I suggest that transdisciplinarity within gender studies takes on a meaning which results in a radical problematization of the academic goal of knowledge production'. Instead of such knowledge production', transdisciplinarity in gender studies promotes intervention which reaches beyond the concepts of accountability, innovation and corporate management. I argue that Jacques Derrida's promotion of the College International de Philosophie in 1982 in its particular relationship to the tradition of philosophy provides a parallel example of such an attitude. Adding to Joan Scott's and Clare Hemmings's insights on gender studies in terms of critique and transformation, I argue that transdisciplinarity as practice of intervention' is crucial for the construction of gender studies disciplinary identity, based upon apparent non-identity.
  • Muurinen, Heidi; Kääriäinen, Aino (2020)
    How could social workers apply theory in their everyday practice? According to John Dewey, theories are helpful instruments in analysing situations and forming hypotheses which are tested in practical experiments. Inspired by Dewey’s pragmatist philosophy, we designed a “Practice and Theory” pilot intervention group in which social workers were provided external, theory-driven supervision. This research is a three-case study of the pilot intervention group. Based on a thematic analysis of reflective discussions during the last group sessions and follow-up group interviews, we investigate the difficulties the social workers described in applying theoretical knowledge to practice. We explore what consequences they recognized when reflecting on and experimenting with theoretical knowledge. Our study demonstrates that the major barriers were lack of time and access to theories, difficulties in changing one’s own practice and establishing supportive structures, the lack of competence to understand the role theories and having become estranged theories. However, the positive consequences experienced in the three Practice and Theory groups suggest that the pilot intervention could serve as a potential model for integrating theoretical research into practice. The participants considered that reflecting theories enabled new understanding as well as allowed experimenting with new ways of operating. Participating in the group also improved social workers’ argumentation, helping them to recognize their own expertise. It also raised professional self-esteem and enabled self-development. In the group, the dialogical, reflective and experimental inquiry were key to understanding how theoretical knowledge can open new perspectives.
  • Ray, Carola; Campbell, Karen; Hesketh, Kylie D. (2019)
    Knowledge of the impact of health messages as an intervention strategy is sparse. The aim of this study was to explore recall and use of health behaviour messages among mothers, and whether recall is associated with child health behaviours. Intervention group data from the 15 months Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) were used (n = 127, children 4 months at commencement). Mothers recalled (unprompted then prompted) at 2 and 3.5 years post-intervention six key messages used in the program, and reported whether they had used them. Children's food intake was measured by three days of 24-h recall; physical activity by accelerometers; and television viewing by parent report. Unprompted recall ranged between 1-56% across messages and follow-up points, and 37-90% for prompted recall. The most commonly recalled messages "tap into water", "parents provide, kids decide" and "color every meal with fruit and veg" were also most commonly used. There were few associations between recall and children's health behaviours. Given the association between recall and reported use, it is important to plan messages so they resonate well with the target group and its needs. Messages should be used as one of multiple strategies within health promotion programs.
  • Rajala, Jaana (2007)
    Syftet med undersökningen var att kartlägga olika mobbningsroller och mobbningsstrategier i klassen och hur dessa korrelerar med varandra. Mobbning har undersökts av bland annat Dan Olweus och senare som ett gruppfenomen av Christina Salmivalli. Aggressionsforskningen i pro gradun grundar sig på Kirsti Lagerspetz tidigare undersökningar. Ålder och könsskillnader beaktades också. Sammanlagt undersöktes 110 elever från 6 grundskolklasser i en Helsingforsskola. En specialklass jämfördes med de övriga. PRQ (Participant Role Questionnaire), en kamratvärderingsenkät som baserar sig på Christina Salmivallis undersökningar om mobbarroller i klassen har används som metod. För att kunna klarlägga olika mobbningsstrategier och hur dessa korrelerar med mobbarrollerna, finns också en del i enkäten som baserar sig på DIAS (Indirect and Direct Aggression Scale) av Karin Österman. Resultaten tyder på att de flesta inte är inblandande i mobbning. Det finns mest mobbarroller hos lågstadiepojkarna men samtidigt också flere motståndarroller bland lågstadieflickorna. Mobbning ansågs som ett relativt sällsynt fenomen på högstadieklasserna. De flesta fick roller som utanförstående eller kunde inte placeras i någon roll alls. I specialklassen hittades mer mobbarroller och indirekt mobbning än i de övriga klasserna. Indirekt och direkt mobbning var inte bunden till könet eller åldern. Genom att identifiera mobbarrollerna kan det framgå hur allvarligt mobbningsproblemet är i klassen. Eftersom det är lättare att påverka yngre barns attityder, borde man redan i ett tidigt skede aktivt motarbeta mobbning. Mobbningsrollerna förändras heller inte mycket med tiden. Endast ombyte av klass eller förändring i gruppkonstellationen kan de varande mobbningsmönstren spjälkas upp. Skolkuratorn, lärarna och hela elevvårdgruppen har härmed en viktig ageringsroll. Interventioner och antimobbningsstrategier tyder på att man det är möjligt att få tillstånd en bestående förändring och minska mobbning.
  • Pasula, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Goals. The writing performance level of Finnish schoolchildren, especially of boys, has been an area of concern over the past few years. The present study is part of a longitudinal intervention study (RoKKi), which has created an encouraging feedback model for trying to find ways to enhance writing skills. Research has shown that writing self-efficacy and writing performance are related, so this study will examine whether the encouraging feedback model will improve the self- efficacy of the students. A central element of the encouraging feedback model is peer feedback. The idea is that the pupils feel that attention is being paid to what they have written. Pupil experience has not figured significantly as an issue in writing research, so this study will tackle that subject as well. Methods. The study was carried out in three 5th-grade classes between autumn 2011 and autumn 2012. The established class had already used the encouraging feedback model before the study, while the treatment class started to use it at the beginning of the intervention. In the control class, the teacher gave feedback according to a more traditional manner. The data consists of four measures of self-efficacy and writing experience. They were analysed using one-way ANOVA, repeated measures ANOVA, t-tests and the equivalent nonparametric tests. Results and conclusions. The encouraging intervention didn't have a statistically significant effect on the self-efficacy beliefs of the 5th-graders. However, the self-efficacy in the established class was higher and the writing experiences were statistically significantly higher than in the other two classes. In the established class, the experiences remained positive regardless of the genre that was being exercised whereas, in the control group, not even the normally positively experienced genre of story could improve the writing experience of the boys. The intervention seemed to have a positive effect for boys in particular, but one needs to take into account that the starting level of the self-efficacy of the boys in the test class was also high, which is exceptional in the light of earlier research. In the control class, the girls had much higher levels of self-efficacy and better writing experiences than the boys whereas, in the established class, the results were quite even. The positive writing experiences and self-efficacy beliefs – and the equality of the genders – in the established class suggest that the encouraging feedback model might be of value in long-term use.
  • Furstenborg, Karin (2006)
    The aim of the thesis is to analyze the policies of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) on humanitarian intervention. The general discussions and literature on the matter indicate that there are difficulties in this policy-making, therefore the assumption that this study tested was that the policies of NGOs on humanitarian intervention are unclear. Unclarity in this context is defined as a 'weak or inexistent link between objective, policy and outcome'. This is tested by analyzing the following determining variables, derived from literature on the subject: Organisational Structure, General Organizational Principles, General Policy on Humanitarian Intervention, Objective with Humanitarian Intervention Policy, General Principles into Humanitarian Intervention Policy, Evaluation Criteria on Humanitarian Intervention, Contribution to general Humanitarian Intervention Discussion and finally, Actions and Statements in actual Crises. Regarding the literature used in the literature review, types of earlier papers were reviewed - the first concerning general issues of NGO Policy making and the second concerning specific issues regarding NGO policies on Humanitarian Intervention. The above-mentioned variables were further divided into two groups - internal variables showing the consistency of the policy with organizational principles as well as a clear policy-making structure, and external variables showing how the policy is presented to the outside. The external variables were tested by analyzing how the NGOs have acted in two crisis situations, Rwanda and Kosovo, which were used as case studies. The units of the study were five international organizations: Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, Oxfam International, Médécins Sans Frontières and the International Committee of the Red Cross. The method used was policy analysis, a model for analyzing NGO policies on the matter of humanitarian intervention was built up. The result is presented in a figure, which shows that all NGOs indeed have unclear policies on humanitarian intervention. The research- and advocacy-oriented NGOs, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross, had a rather well-structured internal policy making, but did not get this picture to the outside by making policy statements and participating in the general discussion on the matter. The service-oriented NGOs, Oxfam International and Médécins Sans Frontières, were the opposite - they participated actively in discussions on the matter, but did not have clear policy documents and did not ground their policy on their organizational principles. The contradiction with the result was the following: Service-oriented NGOs seem to consider that policy-making and internal analyzing is not their main task - for them it is most important to be able to reach the victims they aim to help. They have not just realized that their campaigning is also to the highest degree advocacy, and that structurizing their policy-making on humanitarian intervention would facilitate their work. Research- and advocacy-oriented NGOs have quite the opposite problem - they have thoroughly designed policies on humanitarian intervention based on their general principles, but remain quiet on the general discussions on the matter as well as in specific crises. Why does it seem so difficult to give statements and participate in discussions, as this is already done indirectly by having a policy on the issue? This has not been a problem for research- and advocacy NGOs in other matters, they usually actively debate. Is it a question of fear of how the outside will react? The issue of humanitarian intervention is, after all, rather controversial.
  • Krokfors, Linda Johanna (2005)
    Latinamerika demokratiserades i samband med den tredje demokratiseringsvågen. Efter demokratisering är det viktigt att landet bryter med ickedemokratiska procedurer och inkorporerar demokratiska principer istället. De latinamerikanska länderna har varken brutit med de tidigare procedurerna eller arbetat för att konsolidera de nyformade demokratiska institutionerna. Många länder har därför ickekonsoliderade demokratiska system. Organisationen för de amerikanska staterna (OAS) är en mellanstatlig regional organisation som främst har liberala karaktärsdrag. Arbetsfältet är brett och OAS arbetar bl.a. med fredlig konfliktlösning och för att hjälpa staterna forma gemensamma normer och principer. Noninterventionsprincipen har en stark ställning i OAS stadga, men efter det kalla krigets slut har den fått ge vika för demokratiprincipen. OAS medlemsländer har 1991 beslutat om att tillåta ett kollektivt ingripande i en medlemsstats interna angelägenheter när den konstitutionella demokratiska ordningen är allvarligt hotad eller bruten. Enligt resolution 1080 kan OAS permanenta råd sammankallas till möte för att diskutera hur OAS bäst kan ingripa för att hjälpa landet återgå till normal demokratisk ordning. Det permanenta rådet kan ta vissa kollektiva åtgärder och kan antingen sammankalla det konsulterande utrikesministermötet eller generalförsamlingen som fortsätter konfliktlösningen. I undersökningen granskas OAS ingripande vid konstitutionella kriser i de ickekonsoliderade latinamerikanska länderna åren 1991-2001. De ickekonsoliderade länderna påträffas genom att analysera kvantitativ data framställd av Cynthia McClintock, som baserar sig på Freedom House data och Latinobarometros opinionsundersökningar. Först identifieras alla konstitutionella kriser där den demokratiska ordningen varit hotad eller bruten genom litteraturstudier av Economist Intelligence Units analyser. Därefter presenteras de konstitutionella kriser som inträffat under den undersökta tidsperioden och OAS ingripande granskas kvalitativt. OAS har ingripit vid konstitutionella kriser enligt dess mandat med både lyckad och misslyckad framgång. Fyra ingripandena har skett i enlighet med resolution 1080 och ett ingrepp berättigades specifikt av OAS generalförsamling för att konsolidera demokratin. Vid en identifierad konstitutionell kris ingrep inte OAS. OAS insats kan vara viktig och organisationen kan försvara demokratin i medlemsländerna om kommunikationen löper, det permanenta rådet sammankallas snabbt och länderna är eniga om hur man bäst ska ingripa för att hjälpa landet återgå till demokratisk ordning.