Browsing by Subject "interventiotutkimus"

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  • Palsola, Minttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Adolescents continue to be affected by behavior-related health risk factors such as low levels of physical activity. They can be motivated to be more physically active in various ways, but they can also take agency in their own behavior change and use different behavior change techniques to manage and maintain their behavior. According to self-determination theory, the quality of motivation is key in behavior change, as fostering autonomous motivation should lead to long-lasting wellbeing-enhancing changes, whereas controlled motivation might have adverse effects. There is some evidence of the positive effects of the use of individual behavior change techniques on physical activity, but the effects of their use on motivational constructs is less studied. The aim of this thesis is to map the effects of (1) the use of individual self-motivating behavior change techniques on changes in physical activity-related autonomous and controlled motivation, (2) the total use of self-motivating behavior change techniques on changes in physical activity-related autonomous and controlled motivation, and (3) the total use of self-motivational behavior change techniques, and controlled and autonomous motivation on changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. This thesis utilizes data from Let’s Move It, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a school-based physical activity intervention (baseline N=767, post-intervention N=687). At both time points, participants self-reported use of three self-motivational techniques (reflecting on identity congruence, life values congruence and thinking about personal motives) on a scale from 1 to 6, and their autonomous and controlled motivation on a scale from 1 to 5. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was assessed with 7-day accelerometry. Their associations are analyzed with multivariate regression models corrected for age, gender and baseline levels of motivation or physical activity. The findings show that reflecting on life identity congruence (autonomous motivation; AM β=0.202, p<.001; controlled motivation; CM β=0.132, p<.001), life values congruence (AM β=0.184, p<.001; CM β=0.112, p<.001), and thinking about personal motives (AM β=0.246, p<.001; CM β=0.175, p<.001), as well as their total use (AM β=0.260, p<.001; CM β=0.157, p<.001), were all associated with both autonomous and controlled motivation. Total self-motivational behavior change technique use (β= -0.026, p=.617) and controlled motivation (β= -0.037, p=.373) had no detectable effects on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, but autonomous motivation (β=0.135, p<0.05) did. This thesis sheds light on the actions that individuals can take themselves to foster their motivation. Understanding how adolescents can self-motivate themselves can give insight into how to sustain a sense of autonomy while navigating through different life situations, and thus help to achieve long-lasting and wellbeing enhancing behaviors.
  • Hakala, Marjatta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Lola's World educational game on children's early numeracy skills learning. Previous studies indicate that early numeracy skills are important for later mathematical skills development. Thus, it is fundamental to support these skills already in kindergarten. Core numerical skills before school age include non-symbolic and symbolic number sense, counting skills, basic skills in arithmetic and understanding mathematical relations. Some children show weak performance already in their early numeracy skills. These weaknesses can partly be explained with factors such a cognitive skills or socio-economic background. According to previous research short mathematical computer-assisted interventions have demonstrated positive effects on children's learning. Methods. Thirty-three children between 5 and 6 years, from four kindergartens, took part in this study. Twenty-three children were split randomly in two groups. One group (n = 12) played Lola's World focusing on early numeracy skills and other group (n = 11) was an active control group that played Lola's ABC Party that focused on language skills. Rest of the children (n = 10) served as a passive control group and they did not play any games during the intervention phase. Intervention continued three weeks and children played Lola Panda -games every day for about 15 minutes. Children's numeracy skills were measured using Early numeracy test and their nonverbal reasoning skills were assessed with Raven test. Analysis was done mostly using one-way ANOVA. Results and conclusions. There was a positive development of early numeracy skills during the intervention, but it was not statistically significant in any of the groups. Children's numeracy skills increased most in Lola's ABC Party group and the least changes were measured in Lola's World group. Children whose homelanguage was Finnish had better numeracy skills than children whose homelanguage was other than Finnish. Because there was a strong negative correlation between playing time and numeracy performance it seems that the intervention was not appropriately supporting early numeracy skills development. Perhaps it is also possible that Early numeracy test was not sensitive enough or Lola's World does not improve all skills included in the test.
  • Hakoinen, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Various cardiovascular diseases cause a significant portion of the direct healthcare costs. For this reason it is important to develop effective treatment strategies. In the treatment of heart failure maintaining healthy lifestyle is an important issue in addition to medical treatment. The aim of this study is to find out whether multidisciplinary interventions in the treatment of heart failure have had better patient outcomes and/or cost savings compared to the standard care and has a certain intervention method proved itself to be more effective than another. The study focuses on the published material in the last ten years, which is compared with prior systematic review about the same topic. The study was conducted as a systematic review. The literature search was performed on Medline (Ovid), CINAHL and Scopus databases. MeSH-terms and other keywords were used in the search. Search was limited to English-language studies. The article selection was made after 06.01.2004 published studies based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A quality assessment was made to the selected articles. Only valid articles exceeding 60 % of the maximum points were selected to this review. Literature search found 848 references, of which quality assessment was carried out for 17 articles. 12 articles were selected to this review. Based on statistical significance mortality rate was reduced only rarely. There were lots of heterogeneity in the results for reducing hospitalizations or improving the quality of life. Hospital or clinic-based interventions seemed to be slightly more effective than other intervention methods. There have been no major changes in the intervention methods, only the methods using mailed materials have been left out. Also the outcomes used are similar to those in the past, although validated instruments in different areas of determining the effectiveness have not been developed. This study found no clear evidence about the effectiveness of the treatment programs. Hospital or clinic-based interventions might be more effective than other intervention methods. There is a lot of research about the issue, but high-quality cost-effectiveness studies are lagging. The results from different studies are hard to integrate because the ways to measure vary. The effectiveness of the intervention depends on many factors, and the sheer increase in the knowledge does not seem to be crucial. For assessing the profitability of multidisciplinary interventions there is a need for a high-quality research about the cost-effectiveness of the treatment programs.
  • Hietapakka, Marke (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In Helsinki Medical school, half of the students experience lot of stress during their studies. Earlier inter-national research shows that university students wellbeing can be improved with practicing mindfulness skills, but in Finland there are fewer studies in this topic. Research on mindfulness trainings effects on different study programs, age-groups and genders are also missing. The aim of this study was to find out, if practicing mindfulness is linked to better wellbeing in university students in Helsinki Medical school. Other aim was to find out and there some effect concerning study program, gender, age, the amount of mindfulness training or earlier mindfulness background. The study was randomized controlled trial research with intervention- (N=52) and control group (N=35). Intervention group practiced mindfulness skills on different methods and control group had sup-port as usual from the university. The measures were gathered with online questionnaire in the in the baseline and at the end of the study (5-8weeks). T-test was used to analyze changes between baseline and finish measurements. Repeated ANOVA was used to measure intervention effect. The overall wellbeing in the intervention group did not change during the intervention. Whereas in control groups wellbeing decreased statistically significantly in almost every variable. It is possible, that mindfulness training helps to prevent increase of stress levels. There was seen decrease in subjective wellbeing in both groups, but in the intervention group the decrease was significantly less (p= 0.03, η2 =.053). The intervention effect size (η2) was small. In intervention group there was a significant differ-ence between medical and dentistry students and psychology and logopedics student’s subjective wellbe-ing (p=0.037, η2=.084). There was a moderate intervention effect (η2). Medical and dentistry students experienced more effect from the intervention. Due to small amount of the study subjects, results are di-rectional. The results support the earlier findings where mindfulness has effect on wellbeing. Methods based on mindfulness training should be studied more to find out cost effective and preventive ways to support medical student’s wellbeing. More research is also needed to find out the best methods for different genders, age groups and students from different study programs.
  • Haaman, Tuija (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Nele and Noa in Rainforest intervention on executive functions (EF) of children with intensive special education needs in the school context. The field of research of executive functions is wide and there is no generally accepted definition of executive functions. Previous studies indicate that executive functions play an important role in children's learning and academic performance processes. It is also possible to influence the skills of executive functions with different kinds of interventions. According to previous research, Nele and Noa in Rainforest intervention has demonstrated positive effects on generally supported children's executive functions, but its effectiveness has not been studied on children with intensive special education needs. Children with intensive special education needs have been found to have various challenges in EFs. Interventions aiming to improve EF skills are therefore being called for. Methods. The study involved a total of 57 pupils, aged 5-13years, with intensive special education needs from seven different classes of extended compulsory education. The children were split in two groups. The experimental group (n = 31) performed individual tasks and played the pair and small group games of Nele and Noa in Rainforest intervention while the control group (n = 26) attended school normally and participated in the intervention only after the research data was collected. Intervention continued for six weeks and the experimental group participated in the intervention exercises three times a week. Children's executive function skills were assessed using ATTEX, Attention and executive function rating inventory. Analyses were done with non-parametric analyses, like Mann-Witney U-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results and conclusions. There was a slight positive development of executive function skills in the experimental group in all areas of ATTEX during the intervention, but the results were statistically significant only in the skills of motor hyperactivity and EF – evaluation. The effect sizes of the intervention were medium-sized on total score, shifting of attention and EF -evaluation. The results suggest that it is possible to develope EFs on children with intensive special education needs with the intervention. However, based on this study, it is not possible to draw general conclusions on the effectiveness of the intervention for the EF skills and it calls for future research to investigate the effectiveness of intervention, for example, with a variety of indicators.
  • Liukkonen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastellaan empiirisen tutkimuksen avulla sitä, minkälainen merkitys viestinnällisillä kehyksillä on ihmisten terveyskäyttäytymiseen kohdistuvien interventioiden, eli muutosohjelmien vaikuttavuuden kannalta älypuhelinten terveys- ja hyvinvointisovellusten kontekstissa, ja miten näiden kehysten tutkimuksen avulla voidaan edistää interventioiden onnistumista. Tutkimusta motivoi ennen kaikkea se, että valtaosa elämänlaatua merkittävästi laskevista kroonisista sairauksista sekä ennenaikaisista kuolemista olisi maailmanlaajuisesti vältettävissä, mikäli ihmiset omaksuisivat tehokkaammin omaa fyysistä ja henkistä hyvinvointiaan parantavia elämäntapoja. Terveellisten elämäntapojen omaksumisessa on kuitenkin todettu ympäri maailman merkittäviä ja kasvavia, esimerkiksi työelämän ja ruokailutottumusten muutoksiin liittyviä ongelmia, joiden ratkaisemista vaikeuttaa se, että suurinta osaa ihmisen käyttäytymisestä ohjaa kudelma monimutkaisesti rakentuvia tapoja ja tottumuksia, joiden muuttaminen vaatii yksilöltä paljon tietoa ja työtä. Ihmisten taskuissa ja laukuissa aamusta iltaan mukana kulkevat älypuhelimet mahdollistavat kuitenkin uudenlaisia lupaavia toiminnallisia terveyskäyttäytymiseen kohdistuvia interventioita, jotka teknologiansa puolesta voivat tavoittaa kerralla kymmeniä miljoonia ihmisiä. Älypuhelinsovellusten interventioihin kohdistuva tutkimuksen tarve kasvaa täten kiihtyvää tahtia, mikä tarkoittaa myös sitä, että niiden viestintään kohdistuva tutkimustarve kasvaa. Yksi alan tutkimusalue on terveysviestien kehystäminen. Tältä pohjalta tämän tutkimuksen empiiriseksi kohteeksi on valikoitu yli 300 000 käyttäjää ympäri maailmaa kerännyt älypuhelinsovellus YOU-app, jonka hyvinvoinnin lisäämiseen tähtäävien tehtävien otsikoista tutkimuksessa on suoritettu laadullinen kehysanalyysi, jotta saataisiin selville, miten sovelluksen eniten ja vähiten tehtyjä tehtäviä on kehystetty. Kehysanalyysin tuloksia on tämän jälkeen analysoitu kvantitatiivisesti, jotta voitaisiin saada selville kehysten mahdollinen rooli tehtävien suorittamisaktiivisuudessa. Tutkimuksen aineisto kattaa sovelluksen ”päivän tehtävä” -nimiset tehtävät sekä niiden suoritusprosentit kahden vuoden ja kolmen kuukauden ajalta. Koska yhteiskuntatieteistä kumpuava kehysanalyysia ei tyypillisesti käytetä terveyskäyttäytymisinterventioiden yhteydessä, tutkimuksen teoreettisena pohjana on käytetty synteesiä terveyskäyttäytymisen muuttamisen ja niihin kohdistuvien interventioiden, interventioiden viestinnän sekä terveysviestinnän tutkimuksesta sekä kehysanalyysin teoreettista taustaa. Näiden tutkimusalueiden avulla on analysoitu kehysanalyysin ja kehysten kvantitatiivisen analyysin tuloksia sekä pohdittu laajemmin tutkimustehtävän mukaisesti sitä, millainen merkitys terveyskäyttäytymisinterventioiden viestinnällisillä kehyksillä on käyttäytymismuutosten tutkimuksessa ja aikaansaamisessa. Tutkimuksessa aineistosta löydettiin kehysanalyysin yhdeksän kehystä: positiivisten tunteiden, korostetun henkilökohtaisuuden, helppouden, korostetun nopeuden, välittömän hyödyn, epäselvän hyödyn, aktiivisen tekemisen, muille hyödyn tuottamisen sekä negaation kehykset. Kvantitatiivisen analyysin perusteella todettiin, että kehysten jakautuminen aineistossa viittaa siihen, että erityisesti positiivisten tunteiden, välittömän hyödyn ja epäselvän hyödyn kehyksillä voi olla ollut suuri merkitys siinä, kuinka aktiivisesti käyttäjät ovat motivoituneet suorittamaan sovelluksen tehtäviä. Näistä positiivisten tunteiden ja välittömän hyödyn kehyksillä vaikutus näytti positiiviselta, kun taas epäselvän hyödyn osalta negatiivisesti käyttäytymismotivaatioon vaikuttavalta. Myös muut kehykset näyttivät vaikuttavan motivaatioon, mutta ennemminkin osana kehysyhdistelmää. Tulosten ja niiden teoreettiseen viitekehykseen suhteuttamisen pohjalta tutkimuksessa tultiin siihen lopputulokseen, että terveyskäyttäytymisinterventioiden terveysviestien kehykset voivat vaikuttaa interventioiden onnistumiseen, ja että yhteiskuntatieteistä kumpuavalla kehysanalyysilla voidaan tavoittaa interventioiden onnistumiseen ja epäonnistumiseen vaikuttavia tekijöitä.