Browsing by Subject "interviews"

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  • Hagberg-Andersson, Åsa (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Economics and Society
    In today’s business one can say that competition does not take place inside the network, but between networks. Change and dynamics are central issues in network studies, and a company, due its changing environment, can identify opportunities and threats and respond to them accordingly. These opportunities are vital, but also complex and demanding for the management. Earlier research has identified a shortcoming in explanations of how the micro-level interactions to macro-level patterns are connected. The IMP-group has been trying to fill this research gap with research on interactions within business networks. In this area of research lies the focus of research on relationships between organizations. Adaptation in cooperation is a central concept within business network research. Adaptation has been dealt with in previous literature, but the focus of the studies has mainly been outside this phenomenon, and it has mostly had a supporting role. Most literature has also described the buyers' point of view in studied supply networks, whereas much less attention has been paid to the suppliers' view on them. This study focuses on this research gap. The results of the study stress that adaptation should be included to a greater extent in the strategy work of companies. The adaptations should be carefully planned and, as far as possible, made consciously. Conscious, well-planned adaptations can be seen as investments into present and future relationships, and resources should be invested into something that does not increase the company’s dependence, but divides the power in the relationship between the companies. Adaptations should be planned so that they result in a more offensive way of responding to the demands that are placed upon the companies. In this way, the actions can be viewed and analyzed in accordance with whether the actions make the company weaker or stronger.
  • Blyth, Pascale-L. (Science Direct, 2020)
    Energy Research Social Science 70 (2020), 101574
    Arguably the most powerful artifact of the 20th century, the private car brought profound spatial, social, and cultural changes, as well as wide-ranging mobility justice implications. Autonomous mobility technologies, with the power to supplant part or all of the action of the driver by collecting and processing large quantities of fine grained data, promise to shift power away from users to engineers and create new important spatial and social implications for mobility justice, of which little are known. This research draws from Foucauldian conceptualizations adapted for the study of geographies of power to investigate how autonomous mobility technology may diagram spatial rationalities and moralities into the built environment. To that effect, it draws from 30 interviews of intermediaries in Finland–a country actively pursuing a transition to automated and shared mobility as part of an ICT-driven innovation policy. Examining autonomous mobility through a Foucauldian lens helps highlight the complex power relations it affords–in terms of changes in social structure and infrastructure, and social justice. By shedding light on how technology may structure the built environment, the Foucauldian perspective shows itself to be a valuable tool for planning and policymaking, providing insight into how autonomous mobility (in)justice may be assembled.
  • Tidström, Annika (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2006)
    Economics and Society
    Most of the existing research within the business network approach is based on companies that are operating on different levels within the same value chain, as a buyer and a supplier. Intercompetitor cooperation, i.e. cooperation between companies occupying the same level within different value chains, has not been studied to the same extent. Moreover scholars within the business network approach have usually described industrial relationships as long term, consisting of mutual commitment and trust. Industrial relationships are not static, but dynamic, and they contain situations of both harmony and conflict. There is consequently a need for more research both concerning intercompetitor cooperation and conflicts. The purpose of this study is to develop our theoretical and empirical understanding of the nature of conflicts in intercompetitor cooperation from a business network perspective. The focus of the study lies on issue and intensity of conflict. The issue of a conflict can be divided into cause and topic, while the intensity comprises the importance and outcome of a conflict. The empirical part of the study is based on two case studies of groups of cooperating competitors from two different industries. The applied research method is interviews. According to the findings of this study causes of conflicts in intercompetitor cooperation can be divided into three groups: focus, awareness and capacity. Topics of conflict can be related to domain, delivery, advertising or cooperation. Moreover the findings show that conflict situations may be grouped into not important, important or very important. Some conflicts may also be of varying importance, meaning that the importance varies from one point of time to another. Based on the findings of the study the outcome or status of a conflict can be analyzed both on a concrete and general level. The findings also indicate that several conflicts are partly hidden, which means that only one or some of the involved actors perceive the conflict. Furthermore several conflict situations can be related to external network actors.
  • Salmenperä, Hanna (Elsevier, 2021)
    Journal of Cleaner Production 292 (2021), 125986
    The European Union has set strict recycling targets for municipal solid wastes, but the implementation of circularity is still hindered by a variety of present set-ups. This paper addresses the recycling transitions and their complex nature in Austria, Sweden and Finland and points out the differences that are connected to the level of success in recycling. Furthermore, this study identifies present lock-ins in the waste management regime to provide an understanding on the factors preventing further development towards a recycling society. This is done by analysing different waste policy documents and interviews of national waste experts. The study employs the multilevel perspective (MLP) framework that is a commonly used approach in sustainability transitions research. The results highlight the variety of social, political, technical and economic elements, but also the connections between them that result in a stable regime. The pathways to achieve the recycling society differ between Austria, Sweden and Finland. National waste policy, the division of responsibilities, the variety of infrastructure and collection systems in waste management, the level of general awareness, public-private co-operation and the quality of waste data act as key characteristics that reflect the success in the recycling transition. Identified lock-ins for recycling seem to be slightly stronger in Finland compared to Austria and Sweden, while some of the lock-ins are the same in all countries, such as incineration capacity, malfunction of markets of recyclables or lack of product design for recyclability.
  • Karhinen, Santtu; Peltomaa, Juha; Riekkinen, Venla; Saikku, Laura (Elsevier, 2021)
    Global Environmental Change 67 (2021), 102225
    Local governments have set highly ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets on a strategic level, in some cases influenced by intermediary networks. Yet, the quantitative impacts of climate strategies or the sharing of best practices on emissions still remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of an intermediary network on municipal greenhouse gas emissions. This was done through an econometric analysis of the emissions of municipalities that are members of the Finnish Hinku (Towards Carbon Neutral Municipalities) network, and through comprehensive qualitative interviews conducted in 40 of those municipalities. Our quantitative results show that Hinku network membership has successfully led to the lowering of greenhouse gas emission levels in participating municipalities. The qualitative interviews suggest that this is due to systematic local level climate work, enhanced by network membership. The network functions as an intermediary in two ways: by providing expertise and enabling peer-support. In addition, it has also succeeded in legitimising local level climate action. Ambitious local level climate action can also affect the ambition of national climate policy, which in turn may reflect on the amount resources allocated to local climate action.
  • Polynczuk, Kinga Natalia (2018)
    This article is an empirical exploration of how ethical trade organisations draw on and appropriate in their communication the moral repertoire of ethical trade. Theoretically, it employs the notion of the “dialectics of care” to examine the tactics used in ethical trade communication to reconcile care for oneself and one’s close ones with care for distant producers. Empirically, this article is based on the discourse-theoretical analysis of two interviews with the representatives of Polish ethical trade organisations: (1) a fair trade firm, Pizca del Mundo, and (2) an NGO, the Institute for Global Responsibility. The analysis finds that ethical trade organisations seek to harmonise care for distant producers with the interests of the Polish public through (1) embedding it into the discourse of product quality, or (2) linking it to care for oneself, one’s family and society while raising awareness of the global interconnectedness.
  • Solitander, Maria (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2011)
    Economics and Society
    The tension created when companies are collaborating with competitors – sometimes termed co-opetition - has been subject of research within the network approach. As companies are collaborating with competitors, they need to simultaneously share and protect knowledge. The opportunistic behavior and learning intent of the partner may be underestimated, and collaboration may involve significant risks of loss of competitive edge. Contrastingly, the central tenet within the Intellectual Capital approach is that knowledge grows as it flows. The person sharing does not lose the knowledge and therefore knowledge has doubled from a company’s point of view. Value is created through the interplay of knowledge flows between and within three forms of intellectual capital: human, structural and relational capital. These are the points of departure for the research conducted in this thesis. The thesis investigates the tension between collaboration and competition through an Intellectual Capital lens, by identifying the actions taken to share and protect knowledge in interorganizational collaborative relationships. More specifically, it explores the tension in knowledge flows aimed at protecting and sharing knowledge, and their effect on the value creation of a company. It is assumed, that as two companies work closely together, the collaborative relationship becomes intertwined between the two partners and the intellectual capital flows of both companies are affected. The research finds that companies commonly protect knowledge also in close and long-term collaborative relationships. The knowledge flows identified are both collaborative and protective, with the result that they sometimes are counteracting and neutralize each other. The thesis contributes to the intellectual capital approach by expanding the understanding of knowledge protection in interorganizational relationships in three ways. First, departing from the research on co-opetition it shifts the focus from the internal view of the company as a repository of intellectual capital onto the collaborative relationships between competing companies. Second, instead of the traditional collaborative and sharing point of departure, it takes a competitive and protective perspective. Third, it identifies the intellectual capital flows as assets or liabilities depending on their effect on the value creation of the company. The actions taken to protect knowledge in an interorganizational relationship may decrease the value created in the company, which would make them liabilities.
  • Kankkunen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Identity is a much-studied topic within social psychology, and it has historically been linked with rapid societal change, such as a shift to modernity or postmodernity. Nepal is one of the fastest developing and urbanizing countries in South Asia, which opens up for identity negotiation as societal structures and discourses shift. Previous anthropological research on young women in Nepal and Kathmandu has highlighted the tension present in constructing identities as modern and Nepali, both because of conflicting discourses available for women as well as hegemonic constructs of Nepali womanhood within development discourse. This thesis investigates how young women working in development NGOs in Kathmandu construct Nepali womanhood and position themselves in relation to these constructions. Building on previous anthropological and sociological research on women in Nepal, a Critical Discursive Psychological approach is introduced for inquiry on the topic. Identity is approached through the concept of subject positions and the critical discursive psychological theoretical tools of ideological dilemmas and interpretative repertoires are used to answer the research questions. The data was collected by semi-structured thematic interviews that included one-on-one, dyad and small group interviews. The data included for final analyses was collected through interviews with 11 participants selected through purposive sampling. The research process was marked by reflexivity and the analyses reshaped the research questions to a focus on the constructions of Nepali womanhood and the subject positions available, in relation to the dilemma of being a modern Nepali woman. The themes brought up by the participants were centred around gender inequality and marriage, both of which were also at the root of the dilemma. From the data three main interpretative repertoires were proposed, namely cultural, neoliberal and development repertoire. The main construction of Nepali womanhood was that of woman as mother, as ideal Nepali, as individual with agency, and as woman in need of development. In solving the dilemma and renegotiating the constructs of Nepali womanhood the participants positioned as atypical either by othering, accepting, resisting or altering. The main result is that the women interviewed actively renegotiate the meaning of both Nepaliness and what it means to be modern when negotiating their identities and thus construct alternative positions. Finally, methodological and theoretical concerns are raised and ideas for further research, such as including men working in the same field in Kathmandu, are proposed.
  • Karjalainen, Meri (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkielma käsittelee haastattelusitaattien kääntämistä suomesta englantiin. Materiaalina toimii haastattelusitaatit omasta käännöksestäni, joka on tehty Salla Ikäheimon, Sanna Aaltosen ja Päivi Bergin tutkielman “Nuoret luukulla – Kolme näkökulmaa syrjäytymiseen ja nuorten asemaan palvelujärjestelmässä” (2015) satasivuisesta tiivistelmästä. Tutkielma on luonteeltaan retrospektiivinen käännöstutkimus. Tutkielman tavoitteena on eritellä puhuttua kieltä haastattelusitaateissa ja kuinka näitä piirteitä voidaan kääntää. Hypoteesina on, että akateemisessa tekstissä esiintyvien haastattelusitaattien kieli neutralisoituu skopos-teorian ja standardinmukaistumisen vuoksi. Tämän lisäksi oletuksena on, että puhekieliset piirteet vähenevät kohdetekstissä. Skopos-teorian mukaan käännöksen tarkoitus määrittelee kääntäjän toiminnot. Se on erityisen toimiva teoria informatiivisille teksteille, sillä niissä sisältö on usein muotoa tärkämpi. Skopokseen vaikuttaa myös käännöksen kohdelukijat, ja tässä tapauksessa oletettavasti kulttuurisesti moninainen (tutkijataustainen) lukijakunta vaikutti lopputulokseen. Standardinmukaisuuden lisääntyminen taasen pätee puhekielisyyden kääntämisen tutkimiseen varsinkin kirjoitetussa muodossa akateemisessa kontekstissa. Analyysin perusteella haastattelusitaattien kieli neutralisoitui. Analyysi kuitenkin osoitti, että käännökset voivat vaihdella kääntäjän prioriteettien mukaan. Tästä huolimatta oli huomattavaa, että haastattelusitaatteja kääntäessä puhekielisyyden vaaliminen ja informaatiosisällön välittäminen ovat usein toisensa poissulkevassa asemassa. Tutkielmani perusteella ei voida vetää kaiken kattavia yleistyksiä, mutta voitaisi ehdottaa, että haastattelusitaattien kääntämisessä tulisi ottaa huomioon 1) kohdeyleisö ja heidän oletettu tietotaso aiheesta ja/tai olennaisesta erikoiskielestä, 2) haastattelusitaattien käyttötarkoitus (eli tutkimuksen ala), 3) käännöksen skopos kahteen ensimmäiseen kriteeriin perustuen, 4) haastattelusitaattien olennaisin informaatiosisältö ja 5) kuinka paljon puheenomaisuutta halutaan säilyttää käännöksessä.