Browsing by Subject "itsekorjaus"

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  • Hotakainen, Kirmo (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Tutkimuksessa pyritään selvittämään, millä kielellä tai kielimuodolla amerikansuomalaiset eli Suomesta Amerikkaan muuttaneet ratkaisevat puheessaan esiintyviä ongelmia. Tyypillisesti ongelmat koskevat suomenkielisen sanan tai ilmaisun löytämistä. Näissä tilanteissa haastateltavat tekevät itsekorjauksia ja sanahakuja. Kielen valinnan lisäksi selvitetään sitä, millainen rooli näissä tilanteissa on puhujalla itsellään, haastattelijalla ja tilanteen muilla mahdollisilla osallistujilla. Tarkastelussa on esillä kolme kieltä tai kielimuotoa: suomi, englanti ja amerikansuomi. Näiden keskinäistä vaihtelua ongelmakohdissa tarkastellaan koodinvaihdon näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksessa käytetään keskustelunanalyyttistä metodia, jota sovelletaan tallennekatkelmista tehtyjen litteraattien analyysiin. Aineistona tutkimuksessa on käytetty noin 8 tuntia amerikansuomalaisten haastatteluja, jotka ovat peräisin Kotimaisten kielten keskuksen nauhoitearkistosta. Kyseiset äänitallenteet ovat eri vuosikymmeniltä; varhaisin 1960-luvulta ja tuorein 2000-luvulta. Niissä esiintyvät haastateltavat edustavat eri amerikansuomen puhujapolvia ja erilaisia ikäryhmiä. Siirtolaisista ensimmäisen polven puhujat ovat kohdemaahan muuttaneita ja seuraavat polvet ovat kohdemaassa syntyneitä muuttajien jälkeläisiä. Tutkimuksessa esiintyvät haastatellut ovat ensimmäisen, toisen ja kolmannen polven puhujia. Tulokset osoittavat, että amerikansuomalaiset ratkaisevat itsekorjaukset ja sanahaut yleisimmin englanniksi. Tämä on tyypillistä etenkin nuoremmille puhujille. Englanninkieliset ilmaukset voivat olla suomalaisia tutumpia, ja niillä paikataankin pääasiassa sanastollisia aukkoja. Amerikansuomen sanat ja ilmaukset sen sijaan näyttäytyvät lähinnä vanhempien, ensimmäisen ja toisen polven puhujien ratkaisukeinoina. Amerikansuomessa englannin kielen sanat ja ilmaukset ovat usein mukautuneet suomen kielen äänneasuun ja varhaisemmilla puhujapolvilla kieli onkin näkyvimmin sopeutunut uuden maan oloihin. Kokonaan suomeksi tehdyt ratkaisut ovat aineistossa harvinaisempia. Suomi on kuitenkin mukana yhtenä resurssina kahdella kielellä tai kielimuodolla tehdyissä ratkaisuissa. Kahdella kielellä tehdyissä ratkaisuissa kyse voi olla esimerkiksi tarkentamisesta tai pyrkimyksestä käyttää keskustelun tavoitekieltä, suomea. Haastateltava voi pyytää apua puheessa ilmenneeseen ongelmaan haastateltavalta suoralla kysymyksellä, johon haastattelija reagoi tarjoamalla ratkaisun. Kysymys voi olla hakukysymys, jolla pääasiassa selvitetään jotakin sanaa, vaihtoehtokysymys, jolla voidaan varmistaa olemassa olevia käsityksiä, tai retorinen kysymys, joka jää vaille vastausta. Haastattelijan ja taustahenkilön tarjotessa ratkaisua sanahakutilanteeseen ratkaisukieli on pääsääntöisesti suomi, ellei haastateltava erikseen kysy englanninkielistä sanaa. Taustahenkilön ehdottama ratkaisu voidaan ottaa suoraan käyttöön, se voi toimia ehdotuksena, jonka haastateltava vahvistaa, tai jäädä huomiotta. Kun haastattelijalle tai taustahenkilölle ei esitetä eksplisiittistä avunpyyntöä, avustamisen käynnistää usein haastateltavan eriasteinen epäröinti. Tutkimuksen perusteella amerikansuomalaiset siis käyttävät kieliresursseinaan olevia suomea, englantia ja amerikansuomea moninaisesti ratkaistessaan itsekorjauksiaan ja sanahakujaan. Koska keskustelun tavoitekieli on suomi, on ymmärrettävää, että muun kuin haastateltavan suorittamat ratkaisut tapahtuvat suomeksi, ellei muuta kieltä erikseen pyydetä. Kaikkiaan haastatteluista ilmenee, että heikostikin suomea osaavat haastateltavat pyrkivät pysyttäytymään suomen kielessä ja orientoituvat näin normiin, että haastattelun kieli on suomi.
  • Toivanen, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to describe, in a single and consecutive way, self-repairs of bilingual children in a play situation and to investigate their possible differences between groups. The aim was to increase information on how and what kind of corrections children at different levels of language do, and how the level of language management affects the quality of self-corrections in Finnish. The research questions were what kind of corrections children make, how they start self-repairing and where the repairs are directed. It was also examined whether the groups differed and, if so, how. Methods. A total of 30 were supported, of whom 15 were monolingual and 15 consecutive bilingual children. The L2 language of all children was Finnish and the linguistic development of all the researchers was typical. The study methods were observation and analysis of literates. The data was analyzed both qualitatively and statistically. Elan annotation programme and SPSS statistics programme were used to analyze the data. Results and reflection. Monolingual children produced more self-repairs than bilingual children. Compared to the total number, the share of self-corrections for bilingual children was slightly higher than that of monolingual children. Both monolingual and bilingual children did the most self-repairs by searching for the next word. In the group of monolingual children, the biggest remedy was speech interruptions, while for bilinguals the largest group were different sounds. Self-repairs by both groups most often targeted the sledge hams. The results are partly in line with previous research data. However, previous studies have found that novice bilingual children prefer repetition in their self-repairs. In this study, on the other hand, monolingual children took more initiatives by repeating bilingual control.
  • Jokela, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aim. Compared to spoken conversations, achieving mutual understanding may be more at risk when one or more participants use aided communication. An aided communicator may take a passive role in conversations and may not have adequate strategies to repair conversational breakdowns when they occur. The aim of this study was to describe how an aided communicator may attempt to solve the problems he encounters in conversations with his speaking communication partners. Aided communicator’s repair strategies, causes of breakdowns and partners’ influence on repair phenomena were studied. This study may help professionals to acknowledge the threats that compromise achieving mutual understanding in aided conversations and recognize some of the strategies in overcoming potential communication disrupts. Method. Within the framework of data driven qualitative analysis this case study examined videotaped conversations, where an 11-year-old boy using communication book communicated with his mom, teacher and peer. The data was originally videotaped as a part of the international research project Becoming an Aided Communicator. Data driven analysis was considered as an appropriate method for studying a topic with limited previous research. Results and conclusion. Almost all of the aided communicator’s repairs were self-initiated self-repairs and the rest were other-initiated self-repairs. The former occurred mostly as responses to the partner’s misinterpretations and operational difficulties while the latter followed requests for clarifications. Aided communicator repaired by repeating or modifying his utterances or by adding new elements to the original utterance. For repairs he utilized nonverbal modalities: gaze, gestures and actions. In some exchanges, he changed modality. Reasons for the misinterpretations and requests for clarifications emerged from the linguistic limitations of the graphic communication system and partner’s difficulty in understanding the aided communicator’s nonverbal communicative acts. Operational challenges seemed to be related to partner’s experience with using communication aids that affected the fluency of communication. Partners’ varying familiarity with aided communication seemed to affect the need to repair and the effectivity of repair. In addition, the shared competence of the dyad influenced achieving mutual understanding. For the best results of support and guidance, speech and language therapists should emphasize finding out the communicator’s individual strategies in repair as well as effective practices to use a communication book. This could be implemented by video-based observations.
  • Santapukki, Saara (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims: Repair is one the three structures that organizes conversation. Repair organization is used for solving problems in speaking, hearing and understanding in conversation. Self-repair is initiated by the person who has produced the trouble source turn. Language deficits affect person's possibilities to communicate with speech. Different kinds of language deficits affect in different ways to person's possibilities to participate in conversation and to be understood. Self-repair is a way to maintain intersubjectivity in conversation. If one of the participants in conversation can't self-repair his speech because of the language deficit, the intersubjectivity between the participants might be endangered. The aim of this study is to describe self-repairs made by a 4-year-old boy and how his language deficits affect on his self-repairs. Methods: The main approach to this study was conversation analytic. Conversation analysis is a qualitative method. It is used for finding recurrent structures in conversation. The study examined self-repairs made by a 4-year-old boy who has deficits in speech understanding, naming and inflection. The material for the study was from speech therapy sessions. Speech therapy was held 20 times and a partner in the conversations was a logopedics student. The study observes three types of situations in speech therapy. The conversation topics were limited in different ways. Results & Conclusions: The participant made lots of fluent self-repairs despite his language deficits. He also made self-repairs when they were started by the other. The deficits of speech understanding and naming caused self-repairs. The deficits of naming caused multiple self-repairs one after the other. To the inflection the participant made just few self-repairs. The participant had not acquired the language skills of inflection at the time.
  • Kaheinen, Kaisla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Syventävien opintojen tutkielmassani tarkastelen uralilaiseen kielikuntaan kuuluvan, vakavasti uhanalaisen nganasanin kielen itsekorjausta vuorovaikutuslingvistisestä näkökulmasta. Tutkielmani on alustava katsaus itsekorjauksen morfosyntaktiseen jäsentymiseen sekä pragmaattisiin merkityksiin nganasaninkielisessä keskustelussa ja kerronnassa. Tutkielmassani selvitän, millaisia kieliopillisia resursseja nganasanin puhujat käyttävät oman puheensa korjaamiseen ja vuorovaikutuksen jatkuvuuden ylläpitämiseen, minkä lisäksi tarkastelen korjausten keskeisimpiä pragmaattisia funktioita eli sitä, millaisia asioita puhujat pitävät korjausta vaativina ja miksi. Tutkielman aineisto koostuu Hampurin yliopiston puhutun nganasanin korpuksen (Nganasan Spoken Language Corpus 0.2) kerrontaa ja keskustelua sisältävistä tallenteista sekä Suomen kielen nauhoitearkistossa säilytettävästä Jevgeni Helimskin vuonna 1996 videoimasta aineistosta. Olen poiminut aineistosta itsekorjauksen sisältävät katkelmat, joita analysoin vuorovaikutuslingvistisin menetelmin. Itsekorjauksella tarkoitan tässä yhteydessä tilannetta, jossa puhuja keskeyttää oman muotoutumassa olevan puheensa käsitelläkseen siinä havaitsemaansa ongelmaa. Tarkastelun lähtökohtana ovat siis vuorovaikutuslingvistisen näkökulman mukaisesti puhujien omat reaktiot omaan ja toisen puheeseen. Aineistossa esiintyvät korjaukset on mahdollista luokitella sen mukaan, käsittelevätkö puhujat edeltävässä puheessa esille tulleita vai vasta tulevaan puheeseen ennakoimiaan ongelmia. Tutkimuksen perusteella nganasanin puhujat käyttävät vuorovaikutuksen ongelmien korjaamiseen rakenteellisesti pitkälti samankaltaisia korjaustoimintoja kuin aiemmin tutkittujen kielten puhujat. Nganasanissa esiintyy kuitenkin joitakin suuresta osasta aiemmin tutkittuja kieliä puuttuvia korjauksen keinoja kuten sanahaun kohteena olevan verbin tai nominin morfologiset päätteet saava täytesana. Koodinvaihtoon ja puutteelliseen kompetenssiin liittyvien itsekorjausten runsaus puolestaan heijastelee puhujien kieliasenteita. Tutkielma osoittaa, että vertailevan pragmatiikantutkimuksen mahdollistaminen vaatii nykyistä suuremman ja typologisesti moninaisemman kielijoukon tarkastelua, jotta harvinaiset tai eurooppalaisille kielille epätyypilliset piirteet eivät jäisi huomaamatta. Vuorovaikutuslingvistinen tarkastelu antaa lisäksi mahdollisuuden seurata kieliasenteiden vaikutuksia ja tuottamista puheessa. Entistä kokonaisvaltaisemman tutkimuksen mahdollistamiseksi keskusteluaineistojen keräämiseen tulisi kiinnittää enemmän huomiota jo kieliä dokumentoitaessa.
  • Salmi, Hanna-Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    During the past decade Finland has become an increasingly multilingual country, and the need for understanding bilingual development of children has grown. The purpose of this study is to analyze conversational self-repair used by sequential bilinguals. Examining children´s self-repairs provide information of their ability to monitor conversation and the development of their language skills. The aim is to investigate how 4-to-5-year-old children who adopt Finnish as their second language use self-repair to solve problems in speaking and to create mutual understanding. The repairs that are self-initiated or other-initiated by the adults are taken into account. The focus is to investigate how the self-repair is initiated, in which part of the repair sequence the correction takes place, and what is repaired. The data of this study is taken from the PAULA research project, which aims to investigate the impact of small group activities on supporting the language learning of children who acquire Finnish as their second language. The data was recollected in 2018 in a city that is located in southern Finland. The subjects of study (N=7) were between 4;11 and 5;7 years old. They were normally developed sequential bilinguals who participated in the small group sessions that took place in their daycares. The material (1h 49 min) consisted of video recordings of two different types of tasks, a fishing game and grocery store play. The video data was transcribed and analyzed by the means of conversational analysis. The results show that children who adopt Finnish as their second language initiate repairs in many lexical (e.g. repetitions, adding and changing words) and non-lexical ways (e.g. cut-off or non-verbally). Other-initiated repair sequences was pointed out by questions (e.g. what, which, or why), giving semantic or phonological cues and making direct corrections. The results shows that the self-repair was preferred. Most of the children´s self-repairs took place in the same turn with the problem and in the third position. However, some of the repair sequencies formed much more complex patterns. The self-repair was used to correct vocabulary, semantics, and the situation. In addition, nonverbal means became central both in marking the need for repair and using it as a repair. Nonverbal repairs were used for example to replace missing vocabulary, to create common understanding of the situation, or to guide the interpretation of the words and meanings. The results encourage to monitor children’s ability to repair their speech in verbal or nonverbal manner to support the speech and language skills that they are acquiring.
  • Elo, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background and aims. Aphasia is a linguistic disorder most commonly caused by stroke. Aphasia manifests itself as difficulties in understanding and producing spoken or written language. Rehabilitation from aphasia requires the ability to learn. Previous studies have shown that individuals with chronic aphasia are able to learn and remember novel vocabulary in varying degrees. In addition, studies have shown that self-repair of speech is interrelated with linguistic recovery. However, the relationship between self-repair of connected speech and novel word acquisition in the non-chronic and chronic stages of aphasia has not previously been studied. The objective of this thesis is to describe the self-repair of connected speech and novel word learning ability in aphasic individuals and to determine whether self-repair and the ability to learn novel words are interrelated in the subacute (0–3 months) and chronic (12 months) stages of aphasia. Participants and methods. Four aphasic individuals were examined 0–3 months and again 12 months post-stroke within the Opi Sanoja research project at the University of Helsinki. Participants completed a computer-assisted learning experiment in which their aim was to learn the associations between novel words and images. Connected speech was collected from participants’ speech samples in a picture narration task, a stroke narrative and a thematic interview. The speech samples were transcribed according to the conventions used in conversation analysis and self-repairs were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively at both points in time. The relationship between self-repair and novel word acquisition was analyzed on a case-by-case basis and a group-level basis using scatter graphs and regression plots. Results and conclusions. Self-repairs of connected speech decreased and changed during the first year after stroke for all participants. The ability to learn novel words varied among the participants, but some participants were able to learn new words in the subacute and chronic stages of aphasia. On a case-by-case basis, no relationship was found between self-repair of connected speech and the ability to learn novel words in the subacute or chronic stages of aphasia. The learning ability in the subacute stage did not appear to predict the amount of self-repairs, nor the length of non-repaired problem sequences in the chronic stage. At the group level, in the subacute stage, there was a weak positive correlation between learning ability and self-correction rates, which turned negative in the chronic stage. There appeared to be a weak negative correlation between the length of non-repaired problem sequences and the ability to learn in the subacute stage, which disappeared in the chronic stage. However, group-level results were unreliable due to small sample size.
  • Alanko, Nina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims: There can be many speech sound errors in the speech of a person with verbal apraxia. The speaker with verbal apraxia usually detects the speech sound errors he/she makes and tries to correct them. Those corrections do not always succeed and, therefore, those speakers may need help. There are only few studies of speech sound errors and corrections with speakers who have verbal apraxia. This study provides information about speech sound errors in the speech of a person with verbal apraxia and about the correction of the speech sound errors. Method: This study examined the sound errors of a 45-year-old Matti and the correction of those sound errors. The corrections were made by Matti or Maija, a student in logopedics. Matti was diagnosed with aphasia and verbal apraxia. The data consisted of five videotaped speech therapy sessions in which Matti and Maija conducted few different speech therapy exercises. For the analysis, videotaped data were transcribed in detail. Speech sound errors and the correction of those errors were searched from the transcription. Speech sound errors were analysed by using the sound system of the Finnish language. The corrections of the speech sound errors were analysed by using conversation analysis. Results and suggestions for future research: There were many different speech sound errors in Matti's speech, for example: substitutions, assimilations, omissions, additions and metatheses. The number of the different speech sound errors remained relatively similar in different exercises in the same therapy session. In different therapy sessions the number in different therapy exercises varied some amount. The number of the speech sound errors Matti made diminished during the therapy period. Matti and Maija made different kind of corrections focused on Matti's speech sound errors. Matti usually tried to self-correct his speech. When it did not work he asked for help by looking at Maija, by asking questions or by making a gesture. Sometimes Maija corrected Matti's speech by saying the difficult word or phrase. In future it would be interesting to do more research on the construction of Matti's corrections and the success of Matti's self-corrections.