Browsing by Subject "jet"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Pirttikoski, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    LHC is the highest energy particle collider ever built and it is employed to study elementary particles by colliding protons together. One intriguing study subject at LHC is the stability of the electroweak vacuum in our universe. The current prediction suggests that the vacuum is in the metastable state. The stability of the vacuum is dependent on the mass of the top quark, and it is possible that more precise measurement of the mass could shift the prediction to the border of the metastable and stable states. In order to measure the mass of the top quark more precisely, we need to measure the bottom (b) quarks decaying from it at high precision, as top quark decays predominantly into a W boson and a b quark. Due to the phenomenon called hadronisation, we can not measure the quarks directly, but rather as sprays of collimated particles called jets. The jets originating from b quarks (b jet) can be identified by b-tagging. The precise measurement and calibration of the b jet energy is crucial for top quark mass measurement. This thesis studies the b jets and their energy calibration at the CMS, which is one of the general purpose detectors along the LHC. Especially the b jet energy scale (bJES) is under the investigation and the various phenomena affecting to it. For example, large fraction of b jets contain neutrinos, which cannot be measured directly. This increases uncertainties related to the energy measurement. Also there are problems how precisely the formation and evolution of the b jets can be modelled by Monte Carlo event generators, such as Pythia8, which was utilized in this thesis. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate how big effect on the bJES is caused by the various different phenomena, which presumably weaken the precision of the b jet measurements. The studied phenomena are the semileptonic branching ratios of b hadrons, branching ratios of b hadron to c hadron decays, b hadron production fraction and parameterization of the b quark fragmentation function. The combined effect of all four different rescaling features mentioned above, suggests that bJES is known at 0.2% level. A small shift of -0.1% in the Missing transverse energy Projection Fraction (MPF) response scale is detected at low pt values, which vanishes as the pt increases. This improves remarkably 0.4-0.5% JES accuracy achieved during at CMS during Run 1 of the LHC. However, there are still many ways we can improve the performance presented here. Definitely there is a need for further studies of the rescaling methods before results could be utilized in the corrections of bJES to do precision measurement of the top quark mass.
  • Kekkonen, Tuukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The sub-λ/2 focusing, also known as super resolution, is widely studied in optics, but only few practical realizations are done in acoustics. In this contribution, I show a novel way to produce sub- λ/2 focusing in the acoustic realm. I used an oil-filled cylinder immersed in liquid to focus an incident plane wave into a line focus. Three different immersion liquids were tested: water, olive oil, and pure ethanol. In addition to the practical experiment, we conducted a series of finite element simulations, by courtesy of Joni Mäkinen, to compare to the experimental results.