Browsing by Subject "job control"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Fransson, Eleonor I.; Nyberg, Solja T.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Batty, G David; Bonenfant, Sebastian; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; Goldberg, Marcel; Kittel, France; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Nordin, Maria; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Kivimäki, Mika (2012)
    BACKGROUND: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. METHODS: Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). RESULTS: We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was >0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.
  • Seppänen, Olli (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objectives. The job satisfaction of employees is important to organizations, because dissatisfaction impacts directly the economic results of the company, e.g. through increased employee turnover, poor quality of work and hiding problems. Job satisfaction has been defined as a relationship between the expectations for a job by an employee and the subjectively perceived fulfilment of those expectations. In this research, factors influencing job satisfaction are investigated by comparing three theoretical models related to job satisfaction. According to the Job Demands – Job Control model, demands of the job affect job satisfaction. Better job control or support from supervisor or peers can decrease the impact of demands on job satisfaction. According to the Effort – Reward Imbalance model, job satisfaction can be explained by investigating whether the rewards received from the job are commensurate with the effort required by the job. In the Job Demands and Resources model, different jobs have different demands and resources which are important. The model emphasizes the difference between jobs and assumes that demands impact job stress but not job satisfaction, whereas resources are mainly associated with job satisfaction. Methods. Based on the three models and previous empirical research results, 11 hypotheses were created and tested by using a large survey sample. The sample included 2 195 employees which represented 13 departments from nine organizations. The dependent variable was job satisfaction, and independent variables were associated with job demands, job control, rewards, and support by supervisor and peers. Linear mixed models were used as the statistical method because of its ability to compare the possibly different impacts of various resources and demands in different organizations. Results and conclusions. The most important factors associated with job satisfaction were opportunities to advance, possibility to use and develop skills and job security. Older employees were more satisfied with their jobs. Increased demands decreased the influence of peer support on job satisfaction. When the demands were high, the support of supervisor was more important. The impact of material rewards, such as salary or benefits, was low. As a conclusion, the Job Demands – Resources model was best able to explain job satisfaction out of the three tested models in this sample, if the model was expanded to include job security from the Effort-Reward Imbalance model.
  • Moisala, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job strain and presenteeism among Finnish doctors, and investigate the role of team climate as a possible moderator in the association. Sickness presenteeism or presenteeism is defined as going to work sick even when the health condition would require taking a sick leave. In previous studies, high job demands have been associated with higher presenteeism, whereas support from colleagues has been associated with lower presenteeism. However, the relationship between job strain and presenteeism, where job strain is a combination of job demands and control, has not been examined before. Good team climate has been suggested to diminish the negative consequences of job demands but its moderation in the relationship of job strain and presenteeism has not been studied before. Methods The sample of the study (n = 2309) was based on a survey “Doctor’s health and work conditions 2015”. Quotient, linear and categorical job strain variables, as well as four job types, were formed of job demands and control. Team climate was measured by participative safety of Team Climate Inventory. Presenteeism was measured with the question ”Have you gone to work sick during the past 12 months?” and predicted with logistic regression in doctors who worked full-time and had answered to all the items used in the study. Results and conclusions 62% of the respondents had worked sick during the past year. High job demands and job strain were associated with higher presenteeism. In contrast, job control was associated with lower presenteeism. Good team climate weakened only the relationship between presenteeism and very high job strain, but not between presenteeism and other work conditions. However, the observed effect sizes were small.
  • Wesołowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Komulainen, Kaisla; Hietapakka, Laura; Heponiemi, Tarja (2020)
    Abstract Aim To examine: 1) whether nativity status was associated with workplace discrimination, 2) whether this association was mediated through psychosocial work characteristics (job strain, job demands and job control) among registered female nurses. Design Cross-sectional survey with a self-report questionnaire was conducted. Methods A random sample of 610 native Registered Nurses and a total sample of 188 foreign-born Registered Nurses working in Finland were used. Data were collected between September - November of 2017 and analyzed using a counterfactual approach in the causal mediation framework. Results After adjusting for several potential confounders, foreign-born nurses scored higher on workplace discrimination than native nurses. Approximately 20% of the association between nativity status and workplace discrimination was mediated through job control. Job demands and job strain were unlikely to mediate this association. Conclusion The study provides further evidence that migrant status is associated with a higher risk of workplace discrimination among nurses. Lower levels of control over one's own job may partly contribute to the higher risk of workplace discrimination in foreign-born women nurses. Impact Our study addresses the relationship between nativity status and workplace discrimination among female nurses and its mediating factors. The findings suggest that health care organization leaders need to be aware of the increased risk of workplace discrimination among migrant nurses. Moreover, health care organizations need to consider psychosocial work characteristics, including job control, in the efforts aimed to prevent and reduce discrimination against their foreign-born employees.
  • Rugulies, Reiner; Framke, Elisabeth; Sorensen, Jeppe Karl; Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bonde, Jens Peter; Farrants, Kristin; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nyberg, Solja T.; Kivimäki, Mika; Madsen, Ida E. H. (2020)
    Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between job strain and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in Denmark, while accounting for changes of job strain. Methods We included all employees residing in Denmark in 2000, aged 30-59 years with no prevalent CHD (N=1660 150). We determined exposure to job strain from 1996-2009 using a job exposure matrix (JEM) with annual updates. Follow-up for incident CHD was from 2001-2010 via linkage to health records. We used Cox regression to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between job strain and incident CHD. Results During 16.1 million person-years, we identified 24 159 incident CHD cases (15.0 per 10 000 person-years). After adjustment for covariates, job strain in 2000 predicted onset of CHD during a mean follow-up of 9.71 years (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.07-1.13). When analyzing changes in job strain from one year to the next and CHD in the subsequent year, persistent job strain (HR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), onset of job strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.29) and removal of strain (HR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28) were associated with higher CHD incidence compared to persistent no job strain. Associations were similar among men and women. Conclusions Job strain is associated with a higher risk of incident CHD in Denmark. As we used a JEM, we can rule out reporting bias. However, under- or overestimation of associations is possible due to non-differential misclassification of job strain and residual confounding by socioeconomic position.
  • Niskanen, Riikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Introduction: Working conditions have not only been found to impact work ability and productivity, but the overall health of employees. The working environment is a relevant health factor for a considerable part of the population. In research, work-related mental strain has been associated with body weight change, yet no causal relationship can be confirmed based on the existing evidence. Of the psychosocial factors, low job control, as well as both high and low job demands have been associated with weight gain. Most of the research so far has been done with cross-sectional data; long-term follow-ups are scarce and only little research has been done on the association between changing working conditions and body weight change. Aim: The general aim of this study was to examine the association between changes in psychosocial working conditions and body weight change among midlife women and men. The association between two psychosocial work characteristics, job demands and job control, and weight gain during the follow-up was examined in a cohort study among the employees of the City of Helsinki in Finland. The main research question was: (i) Is change in job demands and job control associated with major weight gain during a 10- to 12-year follow-up period among midlife employees? In addition, the contribution of several background and lifestyle factors were taken into account. Especially the contribution of baseline BMI-status, dietary habits and leisure-time physical activity to the association between psychosocial working conditions and major weight gain was studied. Methods: The data were collected from a mail survey among the employees of the City of Helsinki in 2000–2002, 2007 and 2012. The study sample consisted of employees who were 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 years old at the beginning of the survey in 2000–2002. Exclusion criterions were BMI <18.5kg/m2 in phase 1, retiring before phase 2, and drop out before phase 3. Hence, the final study sample (n=4,630) consisted 52% of the original study population, of which 83% were women. Psychosocial working conditions were assessed with a validated Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) by Karasek and Theorell in phase 1 and 2. Weight change was assessed between phases 1 and 3, and major weight gain was defined as at least 10% weight gain during that time period. Dietary habits were assessed using a 20-item Food Frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Based on the current national dietary recommendations, nine food habits were chosen and their usage frequency was used as a determinant of healthy food habits. Leisure time physical activity was assessed with metabolic equivalent tasks (METs). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between changing job demands, job control, and major weight gain. All the analyses were stratified by gender. In addition, further stratification was made by the baseline BMI. Results: Weight gain was common among the study population. Major weight gain was observed among 27% of women and 15% of men. A weak association between change in job demands and major weight gain was found among both genders. Among women, the risk of major weight gain was higher among those who reported persistent high job demands (OR 1.22 95% CI 1.02–1.48 full adjusted model) compared with those with persistent low job demands. Among men, in contrast, the risk was higher among those who reported decreased job demands compared with those who reported persistent low job demands (OR 1.80 95% CI 1.02–3.16 full adjusted model). When further stratified by the BMI in phase 1, the risk was higher only among overweight or obese women, whereas among men the increase in risk was seen among both normal weight and overweight or obese participants. Dietary habits and leisure time physical activity did not affect the association of changing psychosocial working conditions with major weight gain. However, they had a minor own effect on the risk. Change in job control was not associated with the risk of major weight gain. Conclusions: The study shows that change in job demands is weakly associated with major weight gain. Future research is needed especially among other employers than municipalities, and especially among men. Changing working conditions should be studied with shorter follow-up periods, while taking into account also the role of social support at the workplace.