Browsing by Subject "job strain"

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  • Hintsanen, Mirka; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsa, Taina; Theorell, T.; Elovainio, Marko; Raitakari, O. T.; Viikari, J. S. A.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2010)
  • Fransson, Eleonor I.; Nyberg, Solja T.; Heikkilä, Katriina; Alfredsson, Lars; De Bacquer, Dirk; Batty, G David; Bonenfant, Sebastian; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; Goldberg, Marcel; Kittel, France; Koskenvuo, Markku; Knutsson, Anders; Leineweber, Constanze; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Nordin, Maria; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Suominen, Sakari; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Zins, Marie; Theorell, Töres; Kivimäki, Mika (2012)
    BACKGROUND: Job strain (i.e., high job demands combined with low job control) is a frequently used indicator of harmful work stress, but studies have often used partial versions of the complete multi-item job demands and control scales. Understanding whether the different instruments assess the same underlying concepts has crucial implications for the interpretation of findings across studies, harmonisation of multi-cohort data for pooled analyses, and design of future studies. As part of the 'IPD-Work' (Individual-participant-data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium, we compared different versions of the demands and control scales available in 17 European cohort studies. METHODS: Six of the 17 studies had information on the complete scales and 11 on partial scales. Here, we analyse individual level data from 70 751 participants of the studies which had complete scales (5 demand items, 6 job control items). RESULTS: We found high Pearson correlation coefficients between complete scales of job demands and control relative to scales with at least three items (r > 0.90) and for partial scales with two items only (r = 0.76-0.88). In comparison with scores from the complete scales, the agreement between job strain definitions was very good when only one item was missing in either the demands or the control scale (kappa > 0.80); good for job strain assessed with three demand items and all six control items (kappa > 0.68) and moderate to good when items were missing from both scales (kappa = 0.54-0.76). The sensitivity was >0.80 when only one item was missing from either scale, decreasing when several items were missing in one or both job strain subscales. CONCLUSIONS: Partial job demand and job control scales with at least half of the items of the complete scales, and job strain indices based on one complete and one partial scale, seemed to assess the same underlying concepts as the complete survey instruments.
  • Koponen, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi; Pitkäniemi, Janne Mikael; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Simonsen-Rehn, Nina; Kivimäki, Mika; Suominen, Sakari (2013)
  • Heikkila, K.; Madsen, I. E. H.; Nyberg, S. T.; Fransson, E. I.; Westerlund, H.; Westerholm, P. J. M.; Virtanen, M.; Vahtera, J.; Vaananen, A.; Theorell, T.; Suominen, S. B.; Shipley, M. J.; Salo, P.; Rugulies, R.; Pentti, J.; Pejtersen, J. H.; Oksanen, T.; Nordin, M.; Nielsen, M. L.; Kouvonen, A.; Koskinen, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Knutsson, A.; Ferrie, J. E.; Dragano, N.; Burr, H.; Borritz, M.; Bjorner, J. B.; Alfredsson, L.; Batty, G. D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Kivimaki, M.; IPD-Work Consortium (2014)
  • Heikkilä, Katriina; Pentti, Jaana; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Lallukka, Tea; Virtanen, Marianna; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric; Burr, Hermann; Ferrie, Jane E.; Knutsson, Anders; Koskinen, Aki; Leineweber, Constanze; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nyberg, Solja T.; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pietiläinen, Olli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Rugulies, Reiner; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Tores; Vahtera, Jussi; Vaananen, Ari; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimaki, Mika (2020)
    Background Job strain is implicated in many atherosclerotic diseases, but its role in peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We investigated the association of job strain with hospital records of PAD, using individual-level data from 11 prospective cohort studies from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom. Methods and Results Job strain (high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline (1985-2008). PAD records were ascertained from national hospitalization data. We used Cox regression to examine the associations of job strain with PAD in each study, and combined the study-specific estimates in random effects meta-analyses. We used tau(2), I-2, and subgroup analyses to examine heterogeneity. Of the 139 132 participants with no previous hospitalization with PAD, 32 489 (23.4%) reported job strain at baseline. During 1 718 132 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 12.8 years), 667 individuals had a hospital record of PAD (3.88 per 10 000 person-years). Job strain was associated with a 1.41-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.80) increased average risk of hospitalization with PAD. The study-specific estimates were moderately heterogeneous (tau(2)=0.0427, I-2: 26.9%). Despite variation in their magnitude, the estimates were consistent in both sexes, across the socioeconomic hierarchy and by baseline smoking status. Additional adjustment for baseline diabetes mellitus did not change the direction or magnitude of the observed associations. Conclusions Job strain was associated with small but consistent increase in the risk of hospitalization with PAD, with the relative risks on par with those for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.
  • Moisala, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job strain and presenteeism among Finnish doctors, and investigate the role of team climate as a possible moderator in the association. Sickness presenteeism or presenteeism is defined as going to work sick even when the health condition would require taking a sick leave. In previous studies, high job demands have been associated with higher presenteeism, whereas support from colleagues has been associated with lower presenteeism. However, the relationship between job strain and presenteeism, where job strain is a combination of job demands and control, has not been examined before. Good team climate has been suggested to diminish the negative consequences of job demands but its moderation in the relationship of job strain and presenteeism has not been studied before. Methods The sample of the study (n = 2309) was based on a survey “Doctor’s health and work conditions 2015”. Quotient, linear and categorical job strain variables, as well as four job types, were formed of job demands and control. Team climate was measured by participative safety of Team Climate Inventory. Presenteeism was measured with the question ”Have you gone to work sick during the past 12 months?” and predicted with logistic regression in doctors who worked full-time and had answered to all the items used in the study. Results and conclusions 62% of the respondents had worked sick during the past year. High job demands and job strain were associated with higher presenteeism. In contrast, job control was associated with lower presenteeism. Good team climate weakened only the relationship between presenteeism and very high job strain, but not between presenteeism and other work conditions. However, the observed effect sizes were small.
  • Wesołowska, Karolina; Elovainio, Marko; Komulainen, Kaisla; Hietapakka, Laura; Heponiemi, Tarja (2020)
    Abstract Aim To examine: 1) whether nativity status was associated with workplace discrimination, 2) whether this association was mediated through psychosocial work characteristics (job strain, job demands and job control) among registered female nurses. Design Cross-sectional survey with a self-report questionnaire was conducted. Methods A random sample of 610 native Registered Nurses and a total sample of 188 foreign-born Registered Nurses working in Finland were used. Data were collected between September - November of 2017 and analyzed using a counterfactual approach in the causal mediation framework. Results After adjusting for several potential confounders, foreign-born nurses scored higher on workplace discrimination than native nurses. Approximately 20% of the association between nativity status and workplace discrimination was mediated through job control. Job demands and job strain were unlikely to mediate this association. Conclusion The study provides further evidence that migrant status is associated with a higher risk of workplace discrimination among nurses. Lower levels of control over one's own job may partly contribute to the higher risk of workplace discrimination in foreign-born women nurses. Impact Our study addresses the relationship between nativity status and workplace discrimination among female nurses and its mediating factors. The findings suggest that health care organization leaders need to be aware of the increased risk of workplace discrimination among migrant nurses. Moreover, health care organizations need to consider psychosocial work characteristics, including job control, in the efforts aimed to prevent and reduce discrimination against their foreign-born employees.
  • Urnberg, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims: Healthcare workers commonly suffer from workplace aggression, so it is important to understand factors that may increase its risk. Previous studies have shown that job demands increase the risk of inappropriate treatment at workplace. Furthermore, poorly functioning, and constantly changing information systems form a major work stressor for doctors. Therefore, the current study examines if physicians that re-port higher levels of stress related to information systems are also more likely to re-port experiencing workplace aggression. Methods: The sample for the study (n=3327) was collected in the cross-sectional Finnish Physicians’ Working Conditions and Health 2019 -study. Both physical and non-physical aggression were measured, and a combined variable for general aggression was also formed from them. For non-physical aggression, also the perpetrator of aggression was examined: patients or their relatives, and co-workers or superiors. For each type of aggression, logistic regression analysis was used with stress related to in-formation systems as the predictive variable. Results and conclusions: Higher levels of stress related to information systems were associated with higher likelihood of aggression in all types of aggression. The association was strongest with non-physical aggression. These results emphasize the importance of designing functional information systems to improve both the wellbeing of physicians and the quality of patient care in the future. However, the current findings warrant more research, especially regarding the possible mediating factors between stress related to information systems and workplace aggression.
  • Lintula, Sakari Johannes (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Recognizing factors that contribute to strain of employees is important. If we are able to do this we are also able to promote the mental health of the working population. Valid measurement is required if we want to achieve this. In this thesis the focus will be on the job demand-control questionnaire's construct validity and longitudinal measurement invariance. Some problems exist in the research and the aim of this thesis is to contribute in solving these problems. The sample is from the Children's Risk Factors for Coronary Heart disease study, and the sample includes observations from a wide spread of people from different occupations. Structural equation modeling is used to test the hypotheses of construct validity and longitudinal measurement invariance. The results point towards good construct validity and longitudinal measurement invariance. Some remarks that came up with the analysis are discussed. The results give clarity considering the hypotheses and confidence in deductions made with the questionnaire.