Browsing by Subject "juuristo"

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  • Deleuze, Christine; Houllier, François (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1997)
    Process-based tree growth models are recognized to be flexible tools which are valuable for investigating tree growth in relation to changing environment or silvicultural treatments. In the context of forestry, we address two key modelling problems: allocation of growth which determines total wood production, and distribution of wood along the stem which determines stem form and wood quality. Growth allocation and distribution are the outcome of carbon translocation, which may be described by the Münch theory. We propose a simpler gradient process to describe the carbon distribution in the phloem of conifers. This model is a re-formulation of a carbon diffusion-like process proposed by Thornley in 1972. By taking into account the continuity of the cambium along the stem, we obtain a one dimensional reaction-diffusion model which describes both growth allocation between foliage, stem and roots, and growth distribution along the stem. Distribution of wood along the stem is then regarded as an allocation process at a smaller scale. A preliminary sensitivity analysis is presented. The model predicts a strong relationship between morphology and foliage:root allocation. It also suggests how empirical data, such as stem analysis, could be used to calibrate and validate allocation rules in process-based growth models.
  • Sirén, Gustaf (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1950)
  • Pärssinen, Jonna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This study investigated the frost hardiness of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) in four cultivars (’Early Black’, ’Howes’, ’Pilgrim’ and ’Stevens’), focusing especially on the frost hardiness of roots in soilless cultivation. Plants for the study were forced in a greenhouse from cuttings of mother plants. The cuttings were rooted in pots diameter of 10 cm x 10 cm in forest peat. Plants were set to grow in the high tunnel over the growing season. Two experiments were conducted during winter 2020–2021. In the experiments, whole plants with pots were exposed to freezing treatments in a controlled freeze chamber at the temperatures of -10, -15, -20 and -30 °C. Control plants were exposed to cooling at +2 °C for an equal time. In the first experiment, plants were exposed to freezing treatment in November straight from the high tunnel. The second experiment took place in January, and plants were overwintered outside until the experiment. After the freezing treatment one upright in each plant was cut, set in a glass tube containing distilled water, and forced in the greenhouse for 14 days. The vitality of the buds, leafs and stems in the cuttings was observed with a stereomicroscope. After the freezing treatment the vegetative growth of the plants grown in pots was cut off exluding the main shoot, which was cut 5 cm above the soil surface. Thereafter plants were forced in the greenhouse over 10 weeks (the light period of 18/6 h, temperature +20 °C). The vitality of the roots was determined by measuring the amount of the new vegetative growth. All the plants tolerated -10 ° C freeze in November and -15 ° C in January, respectively without injury. Some new growth was observed in plants exposed to freezing treatments of -5 ° C below the temperature mentioned above, but frost damage occurred, and the re-growth was decreased compared to control plants. Cultivar Stevens was more tolerant than the others in both experiments conducted. It maintained its growth potential after -15 °C freezing treatment in November, and -20 °C in January respectively. Frost hardiness (LT50) of buds ranged in November from -19 °C to -27 °C. In January ’Stevens’ buds had the highest frost hardiness (LT50 =-36 °C) and ’Pilgrim’ buds had the lowest (LT50 =-27 °C). The environmental conditions throughout the whole growing season may affect frost hardiness, thus, this experiment should be repeated for verifying the results obtained. Also the potential impact of dormancy in the experiment conducted in November cannot be ignored.
  • Kokkonen, P. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1923)
  • Laitakari, Erkki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1929)
  • Finér, Leena; Nieminen, Mika (The Finnish Society of Forest Science and The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1997)
    Dry mass and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B) contents of field layer vegetation and a combination of bottom layer vegetation and litter (referred to as bottom/litter layer in the text) were studied one year before and three years after fertilization (NPK and PK) on a drained low-shrub pine bog in eastern Finland. The results of an earlier study on the tree layer were combined with those of this study in order to estimate the changes caused by fertilization in the total plant biomass and litter. Before fertilization the average dry mass of the field and bottom/litter layers was 8400 kg ha–1 and 7650 kg ha–1, respectively. The above-ground parts accounted for 25% of the total field layer biomass. The dry mass of the field and bottom/litter layers together was < 20% of the dry mass accumulated in the total plant biomass and litter. The corresponding figures for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and B were 44%, 38%, 30%, 38%, 31% and 17%, respectively. Fertilization did not significantly affect the dry mass of either the field layer vegetation or the bottom/litter layer. 33% of the applied P was accumulated in the total plant biomass and litter on the PK-fertilized plots, and 25% on the NPK-fertilized plots. For the other elements, the proportions on the PK-fertilized plots were K 31%, Ca 6%, Mg 11% and B 13%. On the NPK-fertilized plots, the corresponding figures were N 62%, K 32%, Ca 6%, Mg 9% and B 13%. Except for B and K, the accumulation of fertilizer nutrients in the understorey vegetation and litter was of the same magnitude or greater than the uptake by the tree layer.
  • Laitakari, Erkki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1934)
  • Hertz, Martti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1935)
  • Kämäräinen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Street trees are an important part of a comfortable urban environment. Their beneficial effects in the built environment have been documented in a number of ways around the world. In urban environment tree roots are often grown in limited volumes of soil and competing for space with artificial construction materials and technical structures. Low oxygen concentrations in urban soils are considered as one of the major growth limiting factors, particularly under street pavements. The terrestrial growth conditions are difficult to alter in urban environment. By improving below-ground conditions, tree well-being and sustainability can be significantly increased. Increased ensign of growing conditions and the awareness of the value of urban trees have contributed to the creation of landscaping applications such as structural soil. This study compared gas concentrations in the air of structural and conventional soils, used in roadside tree plantings in the City of Helsinki. Soil air samples were collected during growing seasons 2012 and 2013. Proportions of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and methane in soil air were determined by a gas chromatograph. CO?-fluxes were used to evaluate the effect of the soil surfacing material to ground ventilation. Structural soil contained more oxygen in all depths compared to conventional tree soil. A strong correlation existed between oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations. It seems that cobblestone coating with wide seams does not impair the ground ventilation compared to soil covered with cast-iron grate. Atmospheric growth conditions were more favorable in the structural soil; however the oxygen concentrations in conventional soil were also high.
  • Huiko, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis was undertaken to determine effects of genotype, vernalization and harvesting on the root growth of grass plants. Greenhouse experiments were carried out at Viikki experimental farm of University of Helsinki. The thesis was a part of a larger research of grasses. Grass species were two timothy (Phleum pratense L.) parental lines, northern (021/1) and southern (B112) genotype (Boreal Plant Breeding Ltd). The trial material was propagated using the plant material conserve of Viikki. A half of the trial material got a vernalization treatment (10 weeks) after pre-breeding (2 weeks, DL 12 h) and the other half of plants got only pre-breeding (3 weeks, DL 12h) before establishment of two separate trials in rhitsotubes and rhitsotrones. High, growth stage, dry matter of shoots and roots, depth of the root system and shoot to root ratios were measured from rhitsotubes seven times during the study. The growth samples from rhitzotrones were collected twice. The harvesting was done in the middle of the study from both separate trials. Genotype had an influence on all measured growth features in both separate trials. Treatments of southern genotypes were mainly higher, development was faster and dry matter of shoots was greater at harvest time compared to the same treatments of the northern genotype. There were no differences on growth features between genotypes in the end. The dry matter of roots was also greater at the harvest time with treatments of the southern genotype. In the end of the trial there were no differences between genotypes or treatments, but the genotype influenced on root growth in repeated measurements between weeks 6-8. The root system of the southern genotype spread out in deeper soil layers with both treatments and survived better after harvesting compared to treatments of the northern genotype. The vernalization had influence on growth features and the root system with most of the occasions of measurements with both the genotypes. The vernalization reduced biomass of roots in the both separate trials. This was partly due to low weight of shoots especially in the beginning of the study. In the other hand the vernalization improved on development before the harvesting and the carbohydrates allocated on shoots instead of roots. This was visible especially in the rhitsotubes. Differences between vernalized and non-vernalized treatments were levelled towards the end of the study. The vernalization increased growth of roots to deeper soil layers comparing to the non-vernalized treatment with the northern genotype. In weekly monitoring the growth of roots of both the vernalized genotypes were strong before ending the study. This might cite better overwintering but in the other hand shoot to root ratios were almost the same in all treatments. This study showed out that a plant tries to keep the growth of shoots and roots in balance but also that the biomass allocates in shoots in the beginning of the growing season and more in roots after harvesting. According to this study adding the southern genetic heritage to the timothy refinement programs brings higher yield level and moreover more abundant and deeper root system.
  • Lähde, Erkki; Oksanen, Antti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1969)
  • Kalela, Erkki K. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1949)
  • Laitakari, Erkki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1927)
  • Kalela, Erkki K. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1942)
  • Kalela, Erkki K. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1954)
  • Mattila, Tuomas J.; Rajala, Jukka; Mynttinen, Ritva (Helsingin yliopisto Ruralia-instituutti, 2019)
    Raportteja ; 197
    Maan kasvukunto on monipuolinen ja vaikeasti mitattava kokonaisuus, joka kattaa biologisia, kemiallisia ja fysikaalisia osatekijöitä. Eräs lähestymistapa maan kasvukunnon määrittämiseen on tehdä monipuolisia havaintoja ja pyrkiä muodostamaan kokonaiskuva maaperän toiminnasta. Havaintoja voi tehdä peltolohkon toiminnasta yleisellä tasolla esimerkiksi kuivumisen tai kasvien taimettumisen osalta. Havaintoja voi tehdä myös yksityiskohtaisemmin ja systemaattisemmin erilaisin havaintomenetelmin. Havaintomenetelmiä on ollut käytössä tutkimuksessa ja neuvonnassa jo 1900-luvun alkupuolelta, mutta 2000-luvun aikana menetelmiä on kehitetty edelleen. Kehityksen lopputuloksena on joukko menetelmiä, joiden avulla voidaan havainnoida peltolohkoja ja tuottaa luotettavaa tietoa lohkojen välisistä eroista ja yksittäisten lohkojen muutoksista. Tässä raportissa esitellään joukko havaintomenetelmiä ja tuloksia menetelmien soveltamisesta 24 koelohkolle kolmen vuoden aikana. Havaintomenetelmillä saatuja tietoja verrataan lohkoilta saatuihin mittaustuloksiin. Lisäksi raportissa on runsaasti havaintokuvia, joiden avulla lukija voi kehittää omia havaintotaitojaan.
  • Aaltonen, V. T. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1939)
  • Finér, Leena (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1991)
  • Heikurainen, Leo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1955)
  • Heikurainen, Leo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1958)