Browsing by Subject "kantaja-aine"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-1 of 1
  • Mikkonen, Tiia (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The literature review dealed with composition of lingonberry, effects of processing on phenolic compounds and spray drying juices with the help of carrier agents. The aim of the experimental work was to spray dry lingonberry juice with the help of carrier agents, examine the properties of juice powders and explore how juice powders suit for selected applications. The total content of phenolic compounds was also measured from the lingonberry juice and powders. Maltodextrin DE 5–8 (MD), whey protein isolate (WPI) and combination of carrier agents (MD+WPI) were used as carrier agents while yield, glass transition temperature, colour, solubility and total content of phenolic compounds were the properties examined. A milk based lingonberry smoothie, lingonberry marmalade, lingonberry marshmallow and lingonberry spread were developed as applications. The spray drying of the lingonberry juice and subsequent applications were successful. The highest yield (20.9%) was achieved when MD was used as a carrier agent. WPI had the lowest yield (9.8%). MD-juice powders had the highest glass transition temperature at all relative humidities used (0, 11, 24, 33 and 44%) and WPI-juice powder had the lowest. Commercial juice powder had the darkest colour (garnet) and MD+WPI-juice powder was the lightest (light pink). MD-juice powder had the poorest solubility and commercial powder had the best, although MD was a carrier agent in both. The total content of phenolic compounds in lingonberry juice was 246.4 mg/100 g and in the best juice powder (WPI) 3.6 mg/100 g. Juice powders had differences in colour when used in applications and smoothies also had differences in stability of foam. MD and commercial powder formed a stabile foam structure but WPI-smoothies separated into liquid and foam phases. Lingonberry juice powders did not affect the structure of marmalades or marshmallows. In lingonberry spreads commercial juice powder blended the best into margarine. Lingonberry juice powders are interesting products. Lingonberry juice powders would suit well in different applications to add colour and taste. Due to low glass transition temperature, powders were difficult to handle. With some further research this stickiness problem could be solved.