Browsing by Subject "kapasiteetti"

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  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Tohni, Joonas (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency and capacity of milking robot models manufactured by Lely. In this study, milking robot models Astronaut A2 and A3 were compared to the renewed model Astronaut A4. Renewed build and advanced technology of A4 model are expected to increase the efficiency and capacity compared to the previous models. Especially, the I-flow concept of cows entering and exiting to the milking parlor in renewed A4 model is faster than in the previous models. Due to this change the cows are supposed to visit the robot more frequently in case of the new model. Further, the increased number of the visits is expected to increase the milk yield of the cows. In this study, the data was collected with Lely’s benchmark function by the NHK farm counseling. Data was collected from six farms where milking robot was changed from A2 to A4 and from six farms where the change was from A3 to A4. From each farm two periods of 100 days were gathered during two months before and after the change of the milking robot. The effect of the robot change was analyzed from average values calculated from the period before and after the change. In detail, the compared variables were: milking per cow per day, refusals per cow per day, connection attempts, box time per visit, handling time, milking time, milk yield per milking, the milk flow rate, and free capacity. According to the results, the change of robot increased clearly the number of milking visits, refusals, and milk yield per cow. Number of milking visit rose by 11,9% and refusals by 58%. The number of refusals was probably effected by the large number of free capacity that did exist on some analyzed farms after the milking robot change. Cows daily milk yield grew by 3.9 kg according to the results. The analysis of the results was done by comparing the robot technology and the data collected by the robots and therefore. Barn conditions and cows feeding were not considered in results. According to the results of the study the average number of visits to the robot was higher in A4 model. Also, the shortened box time was found to increase milking visits per day in A4 model.