Browsing by Subject "kasvihuonekaasut"

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  • Reinikainen, Tapio; Ottelin, Juudit; Finel, Nufar (Finlands miljöcentral, 2012)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 3sv/2012
    Guiden innehåller anvisningar om myndighetstillsynen för att förhindra utsläpp i atmosfären av gaser som bryter ned ozonskiktet och F-gaser som förstärker växthuseffekten. Tillsynen utgår från Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning (EG) nr 1005/2009 om ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet (ozonförordningen) samt förordning (EG) nr 842/2006 om vissa fluorerade växthusgaser (F-gasförordningen). I Finland har tillsynen enligt dessa förordningar och behörighetsvillkoren i anknytning till dem fastställs i statsrådets förordning 452/2009 om underhåll av anläggningar som innehåller ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet samt vissa fluorerade växthusgaser, i fortsättningen kallad underhållsförordningen. Förordningarna innehåller bestämmelser om skyldigheterna för ägare eller innehavare av anläggningar som innehåller ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet eller F-gaser samt om behörighetsvillkoren för personer eller företag som utför underhåll på anläggningarna.Förordningens tillsynsmyndigheter är ELY-centralerna och de kommunala miljöskyddsmyndigheterna samt hälsoskyddsmyndigheterna, livsmedelstillsynsmyndigheterna och tillsynsmyndigheterna för konsumtionsvaror och konsumenttjänster, vilka ser till att förordningen efterlevs inom de egna verksamhetsområdena. Denna guide kan användas av alla tillsynsmyndigheterna.Guiden beskriver tillsynsarbetet ur ett praktiskt perspektiv och ger anvisningar för fall där brister observeras vid inspektionen. I guiden finns även kortfattad information om avfallshanteringen av anläggningar som innehåller ozonnedbrytande ämnen och F-gaser.
  • Reinikainen, Tapio; Ottelin, Juudit; Finel, Nufar (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2015)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 3sv/2015
    Den uppdaterade guiden innehåller anvisningar om myndighetstillsynen för att förhindra utsläpp i atmosfären av gaser som bryter ned ozonskiktet och F-gaser som förstärker växthuseffekten. Tillsynen utgår från Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning (EG) nr 1005/2009 om ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet (ozonförordningen) samt förordning (EG) nr 517/2014 om vissa fluorerade växthusgaser (F-gasförordningen). I Finland har tillsynen enligt dessa förordningar och behörighetsvillkoren i anknytning till dem fastställs i miljöskyddslagen (527/2014) och statsrådets förordning 452/2009 om underhåll av anläggningar som innehåller ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet samt vissa fluorerade växthusgaser. Förordningarna innehåller bestämmelser om skyldigheterna för ägare eller innehavare av anläggningar som innehåller ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet eller F-gaser samt om behörighetsvillkoren för personer eller företag som utför underhåll på anläggningarna. Förordningarnas tillsynsmyndigheter är NTM-centralerna och de kommunala miljöskyddsmyndigheterna samt hälsoskyddsmyndigheterna, livsmedelstillsynsmyndigheterna och tillsynsmyndigheterna för konsumtionsvaror och konsumenttjänster, vilka ser till att förordningen efterlevs inom de egna verksamhetsområdena. Denna guide kan användas av alla tillsynsmyndigheterna. Guiden beskriver tillsynsarbetet ur ett praktiskt perspektiv och ger anvisningar för fall där brister observeras vid inspektionen. I guiden finns även kortfattad information om avfallshanteringen av anläggningar som innehåller ozonnedbrytande ämnen och F-gaser.
  • Cowie, Annette L.; Berndes, Göran; Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Brandão, Miguel; Cherubini, Francesco; Egnell, Gustaf; George, Brendan; Gustavsson, Leif; Hanewinkel, Marc; Harris, Zoe M.; Johnsson, Filip; Junginger, Martin; Kline, Keith L.; Koponen, Kati; Koppejan, Jaap; Kraxner, Florian; Lamers, Patrick; Majer, Stefan; Marland, Eric; Nabuurs, Gert‐Jan; Pelkmans, Luc; Sathre, Roger; Schaub, Marcus; Smith, Charles Tattersall; Soimakallio, Sampo; Van Der Hilst, Floor; Woods, Jeremy; Ximenes, Fabiano A. (Blackwell, 2021)
    GCB Bioenergy 13: 1210-1231
    The scientific literature contains contrasting findings about the climate effects of forest bioenergy, partly due to the wide diversity of bioenergy systems and associated contexts, but also due to differences in assessment methods. The climate effects of bioenergy must be accurately assessed to inform policy-making, but the complexity of bioenergy systems and associated land, industry and energy systems raises challenges for assessment. We examine misconceptions about climate effects of forest bioenergy and discuss important considerations in assessing these effects and devising measures to incentivize sustainable bioenergy as a component of climate policy. The temporal and spatial system boundary and the reference (counterfactual) scenarios are key methodology choices that strongly influence results. Focussing on carbon balances of individual forest stands and comparing emissions at the point of combustion neglect system-level interactions that influence the climate effects of forest bioenergy. We highlight the need for a systems approach, in assessing options and developing policy for forest bioenergy that: (1) considers the whole life cycle of bioenergy systems, including effects of the associated forest management and harvesting on landscape carbon balances; (2) identifies how forest bioenergy can best be deployed to support energy system transformation required to achieve climate goals; and (3) incentivizes those forest bioenergy systems that augment the mitigation value of the forest sector as a whole. Emphasis on short-term emissions reduction targets can lead to decisions that make medium- to long-term climate goals more difficult to achieve. The most important climate change mitigation measure is the transformation of energy, industry and transport systems so that fossil carbon remains underground. Narrow perspectives obscure the significant role that bioenergy can play by displacing fossil fuels now, and supporting energy system transition. Greater transparency and consistency is needed in greenhouse gas reporting and accounting related to bioenergy.
  • Vihanninjoki, Vesa (Finnish Environment Institute, 2014)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 41/2014
    Due to the Arctic climate change and the related diminishing of Arctic sea ice cover, the general conditions for Arctic shipping are changing. The retreat of Arctic sea ice opens up new routes for maritime transportation, both trans-Arctic passages and new alternatives within the Arctic region. Hence the amount of Arctic shipping is presumed to increase. Despite the observed development, the sailing conditions in the Arctic waters will remain challenging. Thus particular attention will be required also in the future with regard to crew, fleet and other infrastructural issues. In addition to other apparent challenges and risks, the increase in Arctic shipping will lead to an increased amount of emissions. The increased emissions may have considerable and unpredictable influences to the particularly sensitive Arctic environment. With regard to emission species, especially black carbon is presumed to have climatic sig-nificance within the Arctic context. Black carbon absorbs solar radiation very effectively, and when deposited to snow or sea ice cover, it may notably alter the radiative equilibrium of the Arctic region. The increased Arctic marine activities produce black carbon emissions, whose climate impacts are assessed in this report.
  • Niemistö, Johanna; Myllyviita, Tanja; Judl, Jáchym; Holma, Anne; Sironen, Susanna; Mattila, Tuomas; Antikainen, Riina; Leskinen, Pekka (2019)
    International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 26 (7): 625-634
    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have a substantial role in the economy and job creation, but they are a remarkable source of environmental impacts. SMEs often lack skills and resources to compile environmental impact assessments; Streamlined Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can provide efficient tools for this. An application of streamlined LCA relying heavily on database data, LCA clinic, was developed and tested on 23 SMEs in Finland. The climate change impacts were mainly caused by the production of raw materials, electricity and heating, whereas packaging and transportation were not influential. A significant amount of emissions were indirect, i.e. caused by production of raw materials. Thus, decreasing emissions from raw material production or selecting raw materials with a smaller environmental load could be a more efficient way to decrease emissions than reducing direct emissions such as those from electricity use. Lack of data in the LCA-databases was considered a challenge. An access to regionally customised datasets is important for the implementation of LCA clinics. Company feedback indicated that LCA clinics were useful in climate-friendly product design and increased environmental awareness, but did not lead to immediate actions to reduce emissions because of inadequate investment capabilities. Company managers had limited possibilities to use the results in marketing as comparative assessments would require a full LCA. Many company managers were willing to pay a fee sufficient to cover the costs of an LCA clinic, but some considered that the costs should be covered by external funding sources.
  • Mattinen, Maija; Hildén, Mikael; Petäjä, Jouko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    The Finnish Environment 18/2012
    The UN’s climate agreement and European Union necessitate evaluation of the policy sectors, the implementation of policy measures, and the achievement of the set goals. Last reporting about policies and measures for EU was done in 2011. In this report the emission impact calculations of policies and measures targeting on waste sector and F-gases are described. Policy measures of these sectors fall in the remit of ministry of environment in Finland. The procedure of calculations in waste sector is explained in detail from methods and required input data. The calculations include emissions related to solid wastes, waste waters and composting. The scenario calculations are done with the aid of Excel-spreadsheet at the Finnish Environment Institute. In addition, the report discusses briefly the economical assessment of waste sector that has been identified as a target for development. In the second part of the report, the data collection, calculation and reporting process of the F-gases are explained. More detailed explanation of emission scenario calculations has been documented in two reports written at the Finnish Environment Institute. This report presents briefly the main sources in sub-sector emission scenarios and gives and overview about the calculations.
  • Nissinen, Ari; Savolainen, Hannu (Finnish Environment Institute, 2020)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 15en/2019
    The aim of the research was to analyse the carbon footprint (i.e. life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions) and raw material requirements (RMR) for public procurement and household consumption. The main method used was the environmentally extended input-output model ENVIMAT, supplemented with statistics on public procurement. Greenhouse gas emissions for the final domestic demand, i.e. the consumption-based emissions of Finland, amounted to 73.4 million tons carbon dioxide equivalents (Mt CO2e) in 2015. This can also be seen as the carbon footprint of Finland, and it was 33 % bigger than the territorial emissions which form the basis of the official national inventories. The carbon footprint for public procurement in 2015 was 8.3 Mt CO2e. State procurement accounted for 1.78 Mt, municipalities for 4.73 Mt CO2e, and federations of municipalities (FM) for 1.79 Mt CO2e. The carbon footprint of investments made by public organisations amounted to 2.7 Mt CO2e. In state procurement 42 % of the emissions were caused by buying services, 38 % from goods, 12 % from rents, and 8 % were due to other costs. Buying goods caused the largest emission share in the defence administration (55 %), whereas services caused the largest share (81 %) in the traffic and communications sector. In the procurement made by municipalities and federations of municipalities 42–43 % of emissions were caused by the procurement of services and 52 % from goods. Looking at state administration, defence caused the largest share (43 %) of emissions, and next were the traffic and communications (21 %) and the ministry of the interior (10 %). Urban municipalities caused 3.33 Mt of emissions, and semi-urban municipalities caused 0.69 Mt and rural municipalities 0.71 Mt. Hospital districts had the largest emissions (1.03 Mt) among the federations of municipalities. The raw material requirement of public procurement amounted to 19.5 Mt in 2015. The share of state procurement was 34 %, whereas municipalities and FM caused the remaining 66 %. The RMR of investments made by public organisations amounted to 25.7 Mt. The RMR of household consumption in 2015 was 64.8 Mt. The share of other products and services came to 32 %, housing including energy use amounted to 30 %, foodstuffs and non-alcoholic beverages contributed 26 % and transport 12 %. Regarding the carbon footprint of households in 2016, transport caused 30 % of all carbon emission equivalents, housing and energy use 29 %, foodstuffs and non-alcoholic beverages 19 %, and other products and services 22 %. The overall carbon footprint was 53.4 Mt CO2e in 2000 and 60.1 Mt in 2016 (12.5 % growth). Emissions were the largest in 2007 (66.6 Mt). A structural decomposition of the change in the carbon footprint from 2000 to 2016 shows three major factors: change in consumption expenditure (which alone would change the footprint by +30.7 %), change in consumption structure (-5.7 %) and technological change (-12.5 %). The annual average carbon footprint per capita varied between 10.1 and 12.6 tons of CO2e. Statistics Finland’s Household Budget Survey was used to analyse different households. In the lowest income decile the carbon footprint was 7.2 t CO2e per consumption unit, and in the highest income decile it was 19.0. The emission intensity (i.e. emissions per euro consumed) did not have any clear relationship to the income. Regarding types of households, couples without children and couples with children had the largest footprint per consumption unit. When housing was not taken into account, households in inner urban areas had the smallest and households in peri-urban and rural areas close to urban areas had the largest carbon footprint per consumption unit. Of the consumption sectors, transport had the highest emission intensity (0.81 kg CO2e /€). Additionally, food had a high emission intensity (0.76). The two expenditure categories related to housing had smaller intensities (0.51 and 0.45), and other goods and services had the smallest (0.24). The average emission intensity was around 0.5.
  • Bergström, Irina (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 38
    The carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from aquatic sediments have recently received considerable interest because of the role of these gases in enhancing climate warming. CO2 is the main end product of aerobic respiration and CH4 is produced in large amounts under anaerobic conditions. Shallow, vegetated sediments are an important source of both gases. CH4 may be transported via rhizomes and aerenchymal tissues of aquatic plants from the sediment to the atmosphere, thus avoiding oxidation in the aerated sediment surface and water column. Temperature is known to be a key factor affecting benthic CO2 and CH4 flux rates, but the interplay between other factors that may affect the fluxes from sediments is still poorly known. In order to study the spatial and temporal variability of carbon gas fluxes in boreal aquatic sediments, the area-based CO2 production rates in lake and brackish water sediments and CH4 emissions in vegetated lake littorals were measured in this work. The effects of temperature, sediment quality, plant species, zoobenthos and seasonal variation on flux rates were also estimated. The range of CO2 production rates measured in the field was 0.1–12.0 mg C m–2 h–1 and that of CH4 emission rates 0–14.3 mg C m–2 h–1. When incubated at elevated temperatures (up to 30 °C) in the laboratory, the CO2 production rates increased up to 70 mg C m–2 h–1. Temperature explained 70–94% of the temporal variation in the CO2 production in lake sites and 51% in a brackish water site. In the lake mesocosm, temperature explained 50–90% of the variation of CH4 emission. By contrast, CH4 oxidation rate was not dependent on temperature. The CH4 fluxes through the plants of six emergent and floating-leaved plant species were studied in the field (temperature range 20.4–24.9 °C). Stands of the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australis emitted the largest amounts of CH4 (mean emission 13.9 ± 4.0 (SD) mg C m-2 h–1), the mean emission rate being correlated with mean net primary production (NPP) and mean solar radiation. In the stands of floating-leaved Nuphar lutea the mean CH4 efflux (0.5 ± 0.1 (SD) mg C m–2 h–1) was negatively correlated with mean fetch and positively with percentage cover of leaves on the water surface. On a regional level, stands of the emergents P. australis and Equisetum fluviatile emitted 32% more CH4 than natural open peatland during the growing season, although their areal coverage in the study region was only 41% of that of peatland area. Climate warming will presumably increase the carbon gas emission from vegetated littorals. The model-based estimated increase of CO2 production rate in June was 29% and for CH4 emissions as much as 65% for the time interval of 110 years from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100. The results indicate that carbon gas fluxes from aquatic sediments, especially from vegetated littorals, are significant at the landscape level. They are linked to temperature but also to several other interacting factors such as e.g. water and bottom quality and ecosystem composition. Detailed investigation of the overall links between the causes and effects is urgently needed in order to understand and predict the changes caused by warming climate.
  • Iversen, L.L.; Winkel, A.; Baastrup-Spohr, L.; Hinke, A.B.; Alahuhta, J.; Baattrup-Pedersen, A.; Birk, S.; Brodersen, P.; Chambers, P. A.; Ecke, F; Feldmann, T.; Gebler, D.; Heino, J.; Jespersen, T. S.; Moe, S. J.; Riis, T.; Sass, L.; Vestergaard, O.; Maberly, S. C.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Pedersen, O. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2019)
    Science Vol. 366, Issue 6467, pp. 878-881
    Unlike in land plants, photosynthesis in many aquatic plants relies on bicarbonate in addition to carbon dioxide (CO2) to compensate for the low diffusivity and potential depletion of CO2 in water. Concentrations of bicarbonate and CO2 vary greatly with catchment geology. In this study, we investigate whether there is a link between these concentrations and the frequency of freshwater plants possessing the bicarbonate use trait. We show, globally, that the frequency of plant species with this trait increases with bicarbonate concentration. Regionally, however, the frequency of bicarbonate use is reduced at sites where the CO2 concentration is substantially above the air equilibrium, consistent with this trait being an adaptation to carbon limitation. Future anthropogenic changes of bicarbonate and CO2 concentrations may alter the species compositions of freshwater plant communities.
  • Amiri, Ali; Ottelin, Juudit; Sorvari, Jaana; Junnila, Seppo (IOP Publishing, 2020)
    Environmental Research Letters 15 (2020) 094076
    Although buildings produce a third of greenhouse gas emissions, it has been suggested that they might be one of the most cost-effective climate change mitigation solutions. Among building materials, wood not only produces fewer emissions according to life-cycle assessment but can also store carbon. This study aims to estimate the carbon storage potential of new European buildings between 2020 and 2040. While studies on this issue exist, they mainly present rough estimations or are based on a small number of case studies. To ensure a reliable estimation, 50 different case buildings were selected and reviewed. The carbon storage per m2 of each case building was calculated and three types of wooden buildings were identified based on their carbon storage capacity. Finally, four European construction scenarios were generated based on the percentage of buildings constructed from wood and the type of wooden buildings. The annual captured CO2 varied between 1 and 55 Mt, which is equivalent to between 1% and 47% of CO2 emissions from the cement industry in Europe. This study finds that the carbon storage capacity of buildings is not significantly influenced by the type of building, the type of wood or the size of the building but rather by the number and the volume of wooden elements used in the structural and non-structural components of the building. It is recommended that policymakers aiming for carbon-neutral construction focus on the number of wooden elements in buildings rather than more general indicators, such as the amount of wood construction, or even detailed indirect indicators, such as building type, wood type or building size. A practical scenario is proposed for use by European decision-makers, and the role of wood in green building certification is discussed.
  • Fronzek, Stefan; Johansson, Margareta; Christensen, Torben R.; Carter, Timothy R.; Friborg, Thomas; Luoto, Miska (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 3/2009
  • Kupiainen, Kaarle Juhana; Aamaas, Borgar; Savolahti, Mikko; Karvosenoja, Niko; Paunu, Ville-Veikko (European Geosciences Union, 2019)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 19, 7743–7757
    We present a case study where emission metric values from different studies are applied to estimate global and Arctic temperature impacts of emissions from a northern European country. This study assesses the climate impact of Finnish air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from 2000 to 2010, as well as future emissions until 2030. We consider both emission pulses and emission scenarios. The pollutants included are SO2, NOx, NH3, non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), CO, CO2, CH4 and N2O, and our study is the first one for Finland to include all of them in one coherent dataset. These pollutants have different atmospheric lifetimes and influence the climate differently; hence, we look at different climate metrics and time horizons. The study uses the global warming potential (GWP and GWP*), the global temperature change potential (GTP) and the regional temperature change potential (RTP) with different timescales for estimating the climate impacts by species and sectors globally and in the Arctic. We compare the climate impacts of emissions occurring in winter and summer. This assessment is an example of how the climate impact of emissions from small countries and sources can be estimated, as it is challenging to use climate models to study the climate effect of national policies in a multi-pollutant situation. Our methods are applicable to other countries and regions and present a practical tool to analyze the climate impacts in multiple dimensions, such as assessing different sectors and mitigation measures. While our study focuses on short-lived climate forcers, we found that the CO2 emissions have the most significant climate impact, and the significance increases over longer time horizons. In the short term, emissions of especially CH4 and BC played an important role as well. The warming impact of BC emissions is enhanced during winter. Many metric choices are available, but our findings hold for most choices.
  • Seppälä, Jyri; Grönroos, Juha; Koskela, Sirkka; Holma, Anne; Leskinen, Pekka Juhani; Liski, Jari; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Laurila, Tuomas; Turunen, Jukka; Lind, Saara; Maljanen, Marja; Matikainen, Pertti; Kilpeläinen, Antti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 16/2010
    In recent years there has been a lively debate in Finland and Sweden on the climate impact of peat fuel utilization. The aim of this study was to clarify the contradictions between the Finnish and Swedish studies and provide a better basis for energy policy decision-making by summarizing the recent scientific knowledge about the climate impacts of peat fuel utilization chains based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A starting point for this study was to carry out a critical review of Finnish and Swedish life cycle studies of the climate impacts of peat fuel utilization chains. The critical review was conducted according to the recommendations of international standards and its aim was to ensure that the methods, data and interpretation of results were carried out in a scientifically and technically valid way. During the review the available data (mostly published) on the greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and the radiative forcing impacts of GHGs were gathered and updated.  The re-calculations showed that the climate impact of "Pristine mire – afforestation" utilization chain is similar to the climate impact of coal utilization, whereas the result of the peat utilization chain "Pristine mire – restoration" is slightly worse than for the coal utilization chain. The results were similar in the reviewed studies. The peat utilization chain "Forestry-drained peatlands – afforestration" causes a slightly higher climate impact on average than the coal utilization chain does. From the viewpoint of peat utilization the result was similar to the result of Finnish study. According to the reviewed studies the use of cultivated peatlands causes the lowest climate impact compared to the climate impacts of the other peatlands. However, cultivated peatlands do not play important role as an extraction area for peat utilization. From the viewpoint of peat utilization the result of cultivated peatland was worse compared to the result produced by the Finnish and Swedish studies. The climate impacts of peat fuel utilization chains are mostly caused by the carbon dioxide released by peat combustion. These emissions are known quite  well. However, the emission assessments of different peat types include large uncertainty before, during and after peat extraction. In spite of that it can be said that land change options related to peat extraction and after-treatments have very limited effects on the climate impacts of peat utilization chain.
  • Salo, Marja; Nissinen, Ari (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2017)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 30/2017
    Climate change mitigation requires action in all spheres of society. The role of household consumption is often overlooked. However, 72% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are related to household consumption, while the rest stem from government consumption and investments. The result from a Finnish study is quite similar: households accounted for 68% of the GHG emissions of domestic final consumption in Finland, whereas government consumption and investments were responsible for the other 32% The key question in this report is: How much can a typical Finn decrease one’s GHG emissions with consumption decisions? To address this question, we took the average GHG emissions from consumption as a starting point. In Finland in 2010, the average per capita GHG emissions from consumption expenditure was 11.5 tonnes of CO2e. Between 2000 and 2013, the average per capita GHG emissions fluctuated from 9.6 tonnes to 11.8 tonnes. The per capita consumption carbon footprint in Finland is on the high end of the European scale but smaller compared to Australia and the United States, for instance. We listed measures that an ordinary Finnish consumer can use to decrease their GHG emissions with existing technology and solutions, and estimated the potential to avoid emissions with these activities. We focused on the most important sources of GHG emissions in Finland, including housing and especially energy-related emissions, private car travel and food choices. We also examined the consumption of goods and services, although in that particular category the emissions consist of a wide range of goods and services, and the potential of single or small numbers of actions is challenging to define. The GHG emissions include housing, travel, food, consumption of other goods and services. We used the consumption perspective, i.e. the emissions of consumption in Finnish households were taken into account regardless of their geographic origin. Therefore, the embodied emissions of imported goods were included. We estimated that the carbon footprint of an average Finn could be decreased from 11.5 tkg of CO2e to 7.2 tkg. In this paper, we present the measures for housing, travel, food, and goods and services that can be used to reach these savings. While consumption choices have potential in mitigating climate change, we note that there are barriers in reducing GHG emissions with consumption choices. The solutions to overcome the barriers can be market-based, i.e. business models in which the product or service produces less GHG emissions. Informational measures such as labelling help consumers choose products and services with lower GHG emissions. Public policies also play a role in speeding up product development, as shown by the examples of energy labelling of home appliances and phasing out inefficient lighting solutions. Informational measures can also include tools such as carbon footprint calculators and campaigns to raise awareness and engage people to take action. In this report we focused on the GHG emissions. However, other environmental footprints and indicators also show the unsustainability of current consumption patterns.
  • Grönroos, Juha; Mattila, Pasi; Regina, Kristiina; Nousiainen, Jouni; Perälä, Paula; Saarinen, Kristina; Mikkola-Pusa, Johanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    The Finnish Environment 8/2009
    Agriculture is the main source of ammonia (NH3) emissions in Finland comprising ca. 90% of the total emissions annually. Agriculture is also an important source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas for which agriculture is responsible for ca. 50% of emissions. The main source for ammonia is livestock manure whereas for N2O its importance is much smaller. However, the same activity data are needed to assess both NH3 and direct N2O emissions from animal husbandry. In addition to this, indirect emissions of N2O are calculated based on NH3 and NO emissions. NH3 and N2O emissions are annually reported according to international reporting classifications. The aims of the study were 1) to construct a calculation model for gaseous agricultural nitrogen emissions thereby developing and updating the emission calculation procedure to better reflect the development of these emissions in Finland, and 2) to improve correspondence of the emission inventory reporting with the reporting classifications. In 2007, the Finnish emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources totalled 30,686 tonnes, of which more than 60% originated from cattle manure. Time series for ammonia emissions from agriculture show that there have been no large changes in the total emissions during the last two decades. Despite the decreased number of cattle during that period the emissions have remained near the present level, mainly because of the increased nitrogen excretion of cattle. Emission projections for the years 2008–2050 show no significant changes in emissions in the future. As for ammonia, no significant changes for nitrous oxide emissions from animal husbandry have taken place, and no big changes can be expected in the future as long as there are no drastic alterations in animal production. Despite the development of emission modelling, the emission estimates still include significant sources of uncertainty, which is mainly related to information on the distribution of manure management systems and the use of different manure application methods as well as to information on ammonia evaporation in different manure management phases in Finland.
  • Seppälä, Jyri; Heinonen, Tero; Pukkala, Timo; Kilpeläinen, Antti; Mattila, Tuomas; Myllyviita, Tanja; Asikainen, Antti; Peltola, Heli (Elsevier, 2019)
    Journal of Environmental Management 247 (2019), 580-587
    A displacement factor (DF) may be used to describe the efficiency of using wood-based products or fuels instead of fossil-based ones to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the DFs of individual products and their production volumes could not be used alone to evaluate the climate impacts of forest utilization. For this reason, in this study we have developed a methodology to assess a required displacement factor (RDF) for all wood products and bioenergy manufactured and harvested in a certain country in order to achieve zero CO2 equivalent emissions from increased forest utilization over time in comparison with a selected baseline harvesting scenario. Input data for calculations were produced with the simulation model, Monsu, capable of predicting the carbon stocks of forests and wood-based products. We tested the calculations in Finnish conditions in a 100-year time horizon and estimated the current average DF of manufactured wood-based products and fuels in Finland for the interpretation of RDF results. The results showed that if domestic wood harvesting will be increased by 17–33% compared to the basic scenario, the RDF will be 2.0 to 2.4 tC tC−1 for increased wood use in 2017–2116. However, the estimated average DF of manufactured wood-based products and fuels currently in Finland was less than 1.1 tC tC−1. The results indicate strongly that the increased harvesting intensity from the current situation would represent a challenge for the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy from the viewpoint of climate change mitigation. For this reason, there is an immediate need to improve reliability and applicability of the RDF approach by repeating corresponding calculations in different circumstances and by improving estimations of DFs on country levels.
  • Kuhn, Thomas; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Kokkola, Harri; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Laakso, Anton; Tonttila, Juha; Van Dingenen, Rita; Kulovesi, Kati; Karvosenoja, Niko; Lehtonen, Kari E.J. (EGU, 2020)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20 9 (2020)
    We use the ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model to assess the effects of black carbon (BC) mitigation measures on Arctic climate. To this end we constructed several mitigation scenarios that implement all currently existing legislation and then implement further reductions of BC in a successively increasing global area, starting from the eight member states of the Arctic Council, expanding to its active observer states, then to all observer states, and finally to the entire globe. These scenarios also account for the reduction of the co-emitted organic carbon (OC) and sulfate (SU). We find that, even though the additional BC emission reductions in the member states of the Arctic Council are small, the resulting reductions in Arctic BC mass burdens can be substantial, especially in the lower troposphere close to the surface. This in turn means that reducing BC emissions only in the Arctic Council member states can reduce BC deposition in the Arctic by about 30 % compared to the current legislation, which is about 60 % of what could be achieved if emissions were reduced globally. Emission reductions further south affect Arctic BC concentrations at higher altitudes and thus only have small additional effects on BC deposition in the Arctic. The direct radiative forcing scales fairly well with the total amount of BC emission reduction, independent of the location of the emission source, with a maximum direct radiative forcing in the Arctic of about −0.4 W m−2 for a global BC emission reduction. On the other hand, the Arctic effective radiative forcing due to the BC emission reductions, which accounts for aerosol–cloud interactions, is small compared to the direct aerosol radiative forcing. This happens because BC- and OC-containing particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei, which affects cloud reflectivity and lifetime and counteracts the direct radiative forcing of BC. Additionally, the effective radiative forcing is accompanied by very large uncertainties that originate from the strong natural variability of meteorology, cloud cover, and surface albedo in the Arctic. We further used the TM5-FASST model to assess the benefits of the aerosol emission reductions for human health. We found that a full implementation in all Arctic Council member and observer states could reduce the annual global number of premature deaths by 329 000 by the year 2030, which amounts to 9 % of the total global premature deaths due to particulate matter.
  • Hirvonen, Janne; Heljo, Juhani; Jokisalo, Juha; Kurvinen, Antti; Saari, Arto; Niemelä, Tuomo; Sankelo, Paula; Kosonen, Risto (Elsevier, 2021)
    Sustainable Cities and Society 70 (2021), 102896
    Finland and the European Union aim to reduce CO2 emissions by 80–100 % before 2050. This requires drastic changes in all emissions-generating sectors. In the building sector, all new buildings are required to be nearly zero energy buildings. However, 79 % of buildings in Finland were built before 2000, meaning that they lack heat recovery and suffer from badly insulated facades. This study presents four large-scale building energy retrofit scenarios, showing the emission reduction potential in the whole Finnish building stock. Six basic building types with several age categories and heating systems were used to model the energy demand in the building stock. Retrofitted building configurations were chosen using simulation-based multi-objective optimisation and combined according to a novel building stock model. After large-scale building retrofits, the national district heating demand was reduced by 25–63 % compared to the business as usual development scenario. Despite a large increase in the number of heat pumps in the system, retrofits in buildings with direct electric heating can prevent the rise of national electricity consumption. CO2 emissions in the different scenarios were reduced by 50–75 % by 2050 using current emissions factors.
  • Turtiainen, Joona (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 27/2008
  • Pakarinen, Suvi (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2009)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 11/2009