Browsing by Subject "kasvihuonekaasut"

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  • Reinikainen, Tapio; Ottelin, Juudit; Finel, Nufar (Finlands miljöcentral, 25.5)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 3sv/2012
    Guiden innehåller anvisningar om myndighetstillsynen för att förhindra utsläpp i atmosfären av gaser som bryter ned ozonskiktet och F-gaser som förstärker växthuseffekten. Tillsynen utgår från Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning (EG) nr 1005/2009 om ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet (ozonförordningen) samt förordning (EG) nr 842/2006 om vissa fluorerade växthusgaser (F-gasförordningen). I Finland har tillsynen enligt dessa förordningar och behörighetsvillkoren i anknytning till dem fastställs i statsrådets förordning 452/2009 om underhåll av anläggningar som innehåller ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet samt vissa fluorerade växthusgaser, i fortsättningen kallad underhållsförordningen. Förordningarna innehåller bestämmelser om skyldigheterna för ägare eller innehavare av anläggningar som innehåller ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet eller F-gaser samt om behörighetsvillkoren för personer eller företag som utför underhåll på anläggningarna.Förordningens tillsynsmyndigheter är ELY-centralerna och de kommunala miljöskyddsmyndigheterna samt hälsoskyddsmyndigheterna, livsmedelstillsynsmyndigheterna och tillsynsmyndigheterna för konsumtionsvaror och konsumenttjänster, vilka ser till att förordningen efterlevs inom de egna verksamhetsområdena. Denna guide kan användas av alla tillsynsmyndigheterna.Guiden beskriver tillsynsarbetet ur ett praktiskt perspektiv och ger anvisningar för fall där brister observeras vid inspektionen. I guiden finns även kortfattad information om avfallshanteringen av anläggningar som innehåller ozonnedbrytande ämnen och F-gaser.
  • Reinikainen, Tapio; Ottelin, Juudit; Finel, Nufar (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2015)
    Miljöförvaltningens anvisningar 3sv/2015
    Den uppdaterade guiden innehåller anvisningar om myndighetstillsynen för att förhindra utsläpp i atmosfären av gaser som bryter ned ozonskiktet och F-gaser som förstärker växthuseffekten. Tillsynen utgår från Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning (EG) nr 1005/2009 om ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet (ozonförordningen) samt förordning (EG) nr 517/2014 om vissa fluorerade växthusgaser (F-gasförordningen). I Finland har tillsynen enligt dessa förordningar och behörighetsvillkoren i anknytning till dem fastställs i miljöskyddslagen (527/2014) och statsrådets förordning 452/2009 om underhåll av anläggningar som innehåller ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet samt vissa fluorerade växthusgaser. Förordningarna innehåller bestämmelser om skyldigheterna för ägare eller innehavare av anläggningar som innehåller ämnen som bryter ned ozonskiktet eller F-gaser samt om behörighetsvillkoren för personer eller företag som utför underhåll på anläggningarna. Förordningarnas tillsynsmyndigheter är NTM-centralerna och de kommunala miljöskyddsmyndigheterna samt hälsoskyddsmyndigheterna, livsmedelstillsynsmyndigheterna och tillsynsmyndigheterna för konsumtionsvaror och konsumenttjänster, vilka ser till att förordningen efterlevs inom de egna verksamhetsområdena. Denna guide kan användas av alla tillsynsmyndigheterna. Guiden beskriver tillsynsarbetet ur ett praktiskt perspektiv och ger anvisningar för fall där brister observeras vid inspektionen. I guiden finns även kortfattad information om avfallshanteringen av anläggningar som innehåller ozonnedbrytande ämnen och F-gaser.
  • Cowie, Annette L.; Berndes, Göran; Bentsen, Niclas Scott; Brandão, Miguel; Cherubini, Francesco; Egnell, Gustaf; George, Brendan; Gustavsson, Leif; Hanewinkel, Marc; Harris, Zoe M.; Johnsson, Filip; Junginger, Martin; Kline, Keith L.; Koponen, Kati; Koppejan, Jaap; Kraxner, Florian; Lamers, Patrick; Majer, Stefan; Marland, Eric; Nabuurs, Gert‐Jan; Pelkmans, Luc; Sathre, Roger; Schaub, Marcus; Smith, Charles Tattersall; Soimakallio, Sampo; Van Der Hilst, Floor; Woods, Jeremy; Ximenes, Fabiano A. (Blackwell, 2021)
    GCB Bioenergy 13: 1210-1231
    The scientific literature contains contrasting findings about the climate effects of forest bioenergy, partly due to the wide diversity of bioenergy systems and associated contexts, but also due to differences in assessment methods. The climate effects of bioenergy must be accurately assessed to inform policy-making, but the complexity of bioenergy systems and associated land, industry and energy systems raises challenges for assessment. We examine misconceptions about climate effects of forest bioenergy and discuss important considerations in assessing these effects and devising measures to incentivize sustainable bioenergy as a component of climate policy. The temporal and spatial system boundary and the reference (counterfactual) scenarios are key methodology choices that strongly influence results. Focussing on carbon balances of individual forest stands and comparing emissions at the point of combustion neglect system-level interactions that influence the climate effects of forest bioenergy. We highlight the need for a systems approach, in assessing options and developing policy for forest bioenergy that: (1) considers the whole life cycle of bioenergy systems, including effects of the associated forest management and harvesting on landscape carbon balances; (2) identifies how forest bioenergy can best be deployed to support energy system transformation required to achieve climate goals; and (3) incentivizes those forest bioenergy systems that augment the mitigation value of the forest sector as a whole. Emphasis on short-term emissions reduction targets can lead to decisions that make medium- to long-term climate goals more difficult to achieve. The most important climate change mitigation measure is the transformation of energy, industry and transport systems so that fossil carbon remains underground. Narrow perspectives obscure the significant role that bioenergy can play by displacing fossil fuels now, and supporting energy system transition. Greater transparency and consistency is needed in greenhouse gas reporting and accounting related to bioenergy.
  • Vihanninjoki, Vesa (Finnish Environment Institute, 2014)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 41/2014
    Due to the Arctic climate change and the related diminishing of Arctic sea ice cover, the general conditions for Arctic shipping are changing. The retreat of Arctic sea ice opens up new routes for maritime transportation, both trans-Arctic passages and new alternatives within the Arctic region. Hence the amount of Arctic shipping is presumed to increase. Despite the observed development, the sailing conditions in the Arctic waters will remain challenging. Thus particular attention will be required also in the future with regard to crew, fleet and other infrastructural issues. In addition to other apparent challenges and risks, the increase in Arctic shipping will lead to an increased amount of emissions. The increased emissions may have considerable and unpredictable influences to the particularly sensitive Arctic environment. With regard to emission species, especially black carbon is presumed to have climatic sig-nificance within the Arctic context. Black carbon absorbs solar radiation very effectively, and when deposited to snow or sea ice cover, it may notably alter the radiative equilibrium of the Arctic region. The increased Arctic marine activities produce black carbon emissions, whose climate impacts are assessed in this report.
  • Mattinen, Maija; Hildén, Mikael; Petäjä, Jouko (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    The Finnish Environment 18/2012
    The UN’s climate agreement and European Union necessitate evaluation of the policy sectors, the implementation of policy measures, and the achievement of the set goals. Last reporting about policies and measures for EU was done in 2011. In this report the emission impact calculations of policies and measures targeting on waste sector and F-gases are described. Policy measures of these sectors fall in the remit of ministry of environment in Finland. The procedure of calculations in waste sector is explained in detail from methods and required input data. The calculations include emissions related to solid wastes, waste waters and composting. The scenario calculations are done with the aid of Excel-spreadsheet at the Finnish Environment Institute. In addition, the report discusses briefly the economical assessment of waste sector that has been identified as a target for development. In the second part of the report, the data collection, calculation and reporting process of the F-gases are explained. More detailed explanation of emission scenario calculations has been documented in two reports written at the Finnish Environment Institute. This report presents briefly the main sources in sub-sector emission scenarios and gives and overview about the calculations.
  • Bergström, Irina (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 38
    The carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from aquatic sediments have recently received considerable interest because of the role of these gases in enhancing climate warming. CO2 is the main end product of aerobic respiration and CH4 is produced in large amounts under anaerobic conditions. Shallow, vegetated sediments are an important source of both gases. CH4 may be transported via rhizomes and aerenchymal tissues of aquatic plants from the sediment to the atmosphere, thus avoiding oxidation in the aerated sediment surface and water column. Temperature is known to be a key factor affecting benthic CO2 and CH4 flux rates, but the interplay between other factors that may affect the fluxes from sediments is still poorly known. In order to study the spatial and temporal variability of carbon gas fluxes in boreal aquatic sediments, the area-based CO2 production rates in lake and brackish water sediments and CH4 emissions in vegetated lake littorals were measured in this work. The effects of temperature, sediment quality, plant species, zoobenthos and seasonal variation on flux rates were also estimated. The range of CO2 production rates measured in the field was 0.1–12.0 mg C m–2 h–1 and that of CH4 emission rates 0–14.3 mg C m–2 h–1. When incubated at elevated temperatures (up to 30 °C) in the laboratory, the CO2 production rates increased up to 70 mg C m–2 h–1. Temperature explained 70–94% of the temporal variation in the CO2 production in lake sites and 51% in a brackish water site. In the lake mesocosm, temperature explained 50–90% of the variation of CH4 emission. By contrast, CH4 oxidation rate was not dependent on temperature. The CH4 fluxes through the plants of six emergent and floating-leaved plant species were studied in the field (temperature range 20.4–24.9 °C). Stands of the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australis emitted the largest amounts of CH4 (mean emission 13.9 ± 4.0 (SD) mg C m-2 h–1), the mean emission rate being correlated with mean net primary production (NPP) and mean solar radiation. In the stands of floating-leaved Nuphar lutea the mean CH4 efflux (0.5 ± 0.1 (SD) mg C m–2 h–1) was negatively correlated with mean fetch and positively with percentage cover of leaves on the water surface. On a regional level, stands of the emergents P. australis and Equisetum fluviatile emitted 32% more CH4 than natural open peatland during the growing season, although their areal coverage in the study region was only 41% of that of peatland area. Climate warming will presumably increase the carbon gas emission from vegetated littorals. The model-based estimated increase of CO2 production rate in June was 29% and for CH4 emissions as much as 65% for the time interval of 110 years from 1961–1990 to 2071–2100. The results indicate that carbon gas fluxes from aquatic sediments, especially from vegetated littorals, are significant at the landscape level. They are linked to temperature but also to several other interacting factors such as e.g. water and bottom quality and ecosystem composition. Detailed investigation of the overall links between the causes and effects is urgently needed in order to understand and predict the changes caused by warming climate.
  • Fronzek, Stefan; Johansson, Margareta; Christensen, Torben R.; Carter, Timothy R.; Friborg, Thomas; Luoto, Miska (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 3/2009
  • Seppälä, Jyri; Grönroos, Juha; Koskela, Sirkka; Holma, Anne; Leskinen, Pekka Juhani; Liski, Jari; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Laurila, Tuomas; Turunen, Jukka; Lind, Saara; Maljanen, Marja; Matikainen, Pertti; Kilpeläinen, Antti (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 16/2010
    In recent years there has been a lively debate in Finland and Sweden on the climate impact of peat fuel utilization. The aim of this study was to clarify the contradictions between the Finnish and Swedish studies and provide a better basis for energy policy decision-making by summarizing the recent scientific knowledge about the climate impacts of peat fuel utilization chains based on the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. A starting point for this study was to carry out a critical review of Finnish and Swedish life cycle studies of the climate impacts of peat fuel utilization chains. The critical review was conducted according to the recommendations of international standards and its aim was to ensure that the methods, data and interpretation of results were carried out in a scientifically and technically valid way. During the review the available data (mostly published) on the greenhouse gas (GHG) balances and the radiative forcing impacts of GHGs were gathered and updated.  The re-calculations showed that the climate impact of "Pristine mire – afforestation" utilization chain is similar to the climate impact of coal utilization, whereas the result of the peat utilization chain "Pristine mire – restoration" is slightly worse than for the coal utilization chain. The results were similar in the reviewed studies. The peat utilization chain "Forestry-drained peatlands – afforestration" causes a slightly higher climate impact on average than the coal utilization chain does. From the viewpoint of peat utilization the result was similar to the result of Finnish study. According to the reviewed studies the use of cultivated peatlands causes the lowest climate impact compared to the climate impacts of the other peatlands. However, cultivated peatlands do not play important role as an extraction area for peat utilization. From the viewpoint of peat utilization the result of cultivated peatland was worse compared to the result produced by the Finnish and Swedish studies. The climate impacts of peat fuel utilization chains are mostly caused by the carbon dioxide released by peat combustion. These emissions are known quite  well. However, the emission assessments of different peat types include large uncertainty before, during and after peat extraction. In spite of that it can be said that land change options related to peat extraction and after-treatments have very limited effects on the climate impacts of peat utilization chain.
  • Salo, Marja; Nissinen, Ari (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2017)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 30/2017
    Climate change mitigation requires action in all spheres of society. The role of household consumption is often overlooked. However, 72% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are related to household consumption, while the rest stem from government consumption and investments. The result from a Finnish study is quite similar: households accounted for 68% of the GHG emissions of domestic final consumption in Finland, whereas government consumption and investments were responsible for the other 32% The key question in this report is: How much can a typical Finn decrease one’s GHG emissions with consumption decisions? To address this question, we took the average GHG emissions from consumption as a starting point. In Finland in 2010, the average per capita GHG emissions from consumption expenditure was 11.5 tonnes of CO2e. Between 2000 and 2013, the average per capita GHG emissions fluctuated from 9.6 tonnes to 11.8 tonnes. The per capita consumption carbon footprint in Finland is on the high end of the European scale but smaller compared to Australia and the United States, for instance. We listed measures that an ordinary Finnish consumer can use to decrease their GHG emissions with existing technology and solutions, and estimated the potential to avoid emissions with these activities. We focused on the most important sources of GHG emissions in Finland, including housing and especially energy-related emissions, private car travel and food choices. We also examined the consumption of goods and services, although in that particular category the emissions consist of a wide range of goods and services, and the potential of single or small numbers of actions is challenging to define. The GHG emissions include housing, travel, food, consumption of other goods and services. We used the consumption perspective, i.e. the emissions of consumption in Finnish households were taken into account regardless of their geographic origin. Therefore, the embodied emissions of imported goods were included. We estimated that the carbon footprint of an average Finn could be decreased from 11.5 tkg of CO2e to 7.2 tkg. In this paper, we present the measures for housing, travel, food, and goods and services that can be used to reach these savings. While consumption choices have potential in mitigating climate change, we note that there are barriers in reducing GHG emissions with consumption choices. The solutions to overcome the barriers can be market-based, i.e. business models in which the product or service produces less GHG emissions. Informational measures such as labelling help consumers choose products and services with lower GHG emissions. Public policies also play a role in speeding up product development, as shown by the examples of energy labelling of home appliances and phasing out inefficient lighting solutions. Informational measures can also include tools such as carbon footprint calculators and campaigns to raise awareness and engage people to take action. In this report we focused on the GHG emissions. However, other environmental footprints and indicators also show the unsustainability of current consumption patterns.
  • Grönroos, Juha; Mattila, Pasi; Regina, Kristiina; Nousiainen, Jouni; Perälä, Paula; Saarinen, Kristina; Mikkola-Pusa, Johanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    The Finnish Environment 8/2009
    Agriculture is the main source of ammonia (NH3) emissions in Finland comprising ca. 90% of the total emissions annually. Agriculture is also an important source of nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas for which agriculture is responsible for ca. 50% of emissions. The main source for ammonia is livestock manure whereas for N2O its importance is much smaller. However, the same activity data are needed to assess both NH3 and direct N2O emissions from animal husbandry. In addition to this, indirect emissions of N2O are calculated based on NH3 and NO emissions. NH3 and N2O emissions are annually reported according to international reporting classifications. The aims of the study were 1) to construct a calculation model for gaseous agricultural nitrogen emissions thereby developing and updating the emission calculation procedure to better reflect the development of these emissions in Finland, and 2) to improve correspondence of the emission inventory reporting with the reporting classifications. In 2007, the Finnish emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources totalled 30,686 tonnes, of which more than 60% originated from cattle manure. Time series for ammonia emissions from agriculture show that there have been no large changes in the total emissions during the last two decades. Despite the decreased number of cattle during that period the emissions have remained near the present level, mainly because of the increased nitrogen excretion of cattle. Emission projections for the years 2008–2050 show no significant changes in emissions in the future. As for ammonia, no significant changes for nitrous oxide emissions from animal husbandry have taken place, and no big changes can be expected in the future as long as there are no drastic alterations in animal production. Despite the development of emission modelling, the emission estimates still include significant sources of uncertainty, which is mainly related to information on the distribution of manure management systems and the use of different manure application methods as well as to information on ammonia evaporation in different manure management phases in Finland.
  • Hirvonen, Janne; Heljo, Juhani; Jokisalo, Juha; Kurvinen, Antti; Saari, Arto; Niemelä, Tuomo; Sankelo, Paula; Kosonen, Risto (Elsevier, 2021)
    Sustainable Cities and Society 70 (2021), 102896
    Finland and the European Union aim to reduce CO2 emissions by 80–100 % before 2050. This requires drastic changes in all emissions-generating sectors. In the building sector, all new buildings are required to be nearly zero energy buildings. However, 79 % of buildings in Finland were built before 2000, meaning that they lack heat recovery and suffer from badly insulated facades. This study presents four large-scale building energy retrofit scenarios, showing the emission reduction potential in the whole Finnish building stock. Six basic building types with several age categories and heating systems were used to model the energy demand in the building stock. Retrofitted building configurations were chosen using simulation-based multi-objective optimisation and combined according to a novel building stock model. After large-scale building retrofits, the national district heating demand was reduced by 25–63 % compared to the business as usual development scenario. Despite a large increase in the number of heat pumps in the system, retrofits in buildings with direct electric heating can prevent the rise of national electricity consumption. CO2 emissions in the different scenarios were reduced by 50–75 % by 2050 using current emissions factors.
  • Turtiainen, Joona (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 27/2008
  • Pakarinen, Suvi (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2009)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 11/2009
  • Kangas, Ari; Lund, Charlotta; Liuksia, Saku; Arnold, Mona; Merta, Elina; Kajolinna, Tuula; Carpen, Leena; Koskinen, Pertti; Ryhänen, Tapio (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2011)
    Suomen ympäristö 17/2011
    SYKEn ja VTTn yhteisessä tutkimusprojektissa ”TERMOS – Energiatehokas lietteenkäsittely” selvitettiin jätevesilietteiden energiatehokkaita käsittelytapoja. Nykyään Suomessa puhdistamolietteen vallitsevana käsittelymenetelmänä on isoilla jätevedenpuhdistamoilla mesofiilinen mädätys (35 °C), mutta termofiilinen prosessi (55 °C) on suuremman tehokkuutensa ansiosta noussut mielenkiintoiseksi vaihtoehdoksi. Yksi tutkimuksen päätavoite oli tutkia mesofiilisen prosessin muuttamista termofiiliseksi sekä mesofiilisen ja termofiilisen prosessin kuormitettavuuseroja. Tämä tehtiin kokeellisesti pilot-mittakaavan mädätysreaktoreilla HSY:n Suomenojan jätevedenpuhdistamolla sijaitsevalla SYKE:n tutkimusasemalla Espoossa. Tulosten mukaan prosessin saattaminen termofiiliselle lämpötila-alueelle onnistuu nopeasti ja ilman häiriöitä. Termofiilinen prosessi havaittiin hajottavan orgaanista ainetta mesofiilista tehokkaammin ja tuottavan enemmän kaasua sekä myös hygienisoivan lietettä, toisaalta termofiilisesti mädätetyllä lietteellä on huonompi kuivattavuus ja huonolaatuisemmat rejektivedet. Kokeilujen aikana havaittiin myös fermentaatioon perustuva autoflotaatioilmiö, jonka esikäsittelyvaikutusta lietteeseen tutkittiin. Tulosten mukaan esifermentaatio parantaa oleellisesti kaasun yksikkötuottoa molemmissa mädätysprosesseissa, mutta vie termofiilisen prosessin edun. Tutkimuksen toisena päätavoitteena oli vertailla erilaisia käsittelyvaihtoehtoja energiatalouden, kasvihuonekaasupäästöjen ja kustannusten näkökulmasta. Tämä tehtiin case-pohjaisena järjestelmäanalyysina. Lietteen polttoa vertailtiin mädätysprosesseihin eri loppukäsittelyvaihtoehdoilla. Tarkasteltiin myös esisaostuksen ja rinnakkaissaostuksen vaikutuksia käsittelyketjuihin. Biokaasun tuotannon tehostaminen siirtymällä mesofiilimädätyksestä termofiiliprosessiin voisi olla jätevedenpuhdistamolle taloudellisesti kannattavaa erityisesti, mikäli laitos saa tuotetulle sähkölle syöttötariffin mukaiset lisätulot. Energiatalouden kannalta kompostointi olisi edullisin mädätteen käsittelytapa. Energiataseisiin perustuen lietteen poltto olisi päästöjen kannalta edullinen lietteen käsittelytapa sillä edellytyksellä, että tuotettu lämpöenergia voidaan hyödyntää esimerkiksi kaukolämmityksessä. Lietteenkäsittelyketjujen kasvihuonetaseet ja kustannustalous eivät kaikissa tapauksissa kulkeneet käsi kädessä. Yleisesti voidaan todeta, että kaikki tarkastelussa saadut tulokset ovat tapauskohtaisia ja riippuvaisia paikallisista olosuhteista.
  • Juntheikki, Joni (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Purpose of this thesis is to estimate the carbon sequestration potential in eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. This study also aims to show how beneficial these plantations are for carbon sinks. The aim of this research is calculate total carbon balance in eucalyptus plantations and compare the results to degraded lands. This study is first-of-its-kind study in Uruguay, but not unique globally. The objective was to use a modeling approach to formulate the results. The methodology of this study is based to the dynamic growth model (CO2fix V3.1). Model is developed to calculate and estimate forest carbon fluxes and stocks. In this study the model was utilized for estimating how much carbon is sequestered in eucalyptus plantations and soils. In this thesis the model was used to simulate eucalyptus forest plantations that stem from numerous studies and different data. Ad hoc Excel model was generated to form calculated results from the simulated data. A separate sensitivity analysis is also formulated to reveal a possible different outcome. The framework is based on a stand-level inventory data of forestry plantations provided by the Ministry of Uruguay (MGAP) and companies. Also multiple scientific reports and previous studies were used as guidelines for simulations and results. The forest stand, yield, soil and weather data used for this study are from three different departments. There are over 700 000 hectares of different species of eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. The theoretical framework was tested computationally with eleven simulations. CO2fix was parameterized for fast-growing eucalyptus species used in different parts of Uruguay. The model gave outputs per hectare and then this result was scaled up to the national level. This study will also estimate how much grassland (Pampa) and former pasture land could sequester carbon. Situation prior to plantation is a baseline scenario and it is compared to the expected carbon sequestration of plantations. The model is also used to calculate the effect of changing rotation length on carbon stocks of forest ecosystem (forest vegetation and soil) and wood products. The results of this study show that currently the 707,674 hectares of eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay have the potential to sequester 65 million tonnes of carbon and reduce 238 million tonnes of CO2. The calculated carbon storage is 38 and simulated 25 million tonnes of C, products are deducted from the equation. During 22 years (1990–2012) the annual carbon sequestration benefit (afforestation-baseline) without products is 1 757 847 Mg C. The results suggest that it is reasonable to establish eucalyptus plantations on degraded, grassland (Pampa) and abandoned pasture land. The implications of the results are that eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay actually enhance carbon sequestration, are carbon sinks and store more carbon than grassland and abandoned pasture land. Plantations have a vast sequestration potential and are important in mitigating of CO2 emission and effects of the climate change. The findings endorse the significance of plantations to increase carbon sinks and this role will broaden in the future. The most relevant findings of this study are that afforestation increases the soil carbon in 10-year rotation plantations by 34% (101.1>75.6) and in 12-year rotation 38% (104.4>75.6 Mg Cha-1) in a 60-year simulation. The net (afforestation-baseline) average carbon stock benefit in the soil is 25.5 Mg C ha?1 in a 60-year simulation. The (CO2Fix) model indicate that the total average carbon sequestration for eucalyptus plantations is 92.3 Mg Cha?1. The average total carbon storage ranges from 25.8–138.5 Mg Cha?1 during a 60-year simulation. The simulations show that the net annual carbon storage in the living biomass is 29.1, 25.5 (soil) and 37.6 Mg C (products) on the average scenario. There is some fluctuation in the sequestration results in other 10 simulations. Previous studies have showed that the average carbon stock for eucalyptus plantations varies from 30–60 Mg C ha-1, when soil and products are deducted. The capacity of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon in the long run could be even more strengthened if a rotation length increases. Extending rotation from 10 to 12 years increased the average soil carbon stock from 25.5 to 28.8 Mg C (by 13%) in 60 year simulation. The results also indicate that mean annual precipitation (MAP) alters the carbon sinks of the forest ecosystem. There are some limitations in this study and they are clearly explained and analyzed. Hence, most of the results are estimations. Ministry and companies need to prolong planting of trees and even intensify annual programs in order to achieve carbon sequestration targets. Further research is needed to get an estimate of the total forest ecosystem carbon storages and fluxes.
  • Mäkelä, Leena (Etelä-Savon ympäristökeskus, 2008)
    ESAra 3/2008
    Tässä selvityksessä on laskettu Etelä-Savon kuntien kasvihuonekaasupäästöt ja -tase vuonna 2005. Lisäksi on määritetty alueen energiatasetta kuvaava energiantuotanto ja -kulutus samalta vuodelta. Vastaava laskelma on tehty myös vuonna 2000. Mallin laskennassa on noudatettu IPCC:n (Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change) metodiikkaa ja Suomen päästöinventaarioiden laskentaparametreja. Päästöt on laskettu Kuntaliiton toimittamalla kuntatason kasvihuonekaasu- ja energiatasemalli Kasvenerin avulla. Kasvihuonekaasujen (hiilidioksidi, metaani ja typpioksiduuli) aiheuttamat päästöt on laskettu erikseen seuraaville sektoreille; sähkö- ja kaukolämmöntuotanto, teollisuuden oma energiantuotanto, kuntaan ostettu sähkö, rakennusten erillislämmitys, liikenne, teollisuusprosessit, karjatalous, maanviljely, jäteveden puhdistus ja kaatopaikat. Lisäksi on tarkasteltu polttoaineiden käytöstä aiheutuvien hiilimonoksidi- ja typenoksidipäästöjä eli ns. välillisiä kasvihuonekaasuja. Tässä työssä ei ole huomioitu tuotteisiin ja palveluihin liittyvää välillistä energiankulutusta eikä tästä johtuvia kasvihuonekaasupäästöjä. Lisäksi tässä selvityksessä on laskettu maankäytön (metsät, suot ja vesistöt) aiheuttamat kasvihuonekaasupäästöt ja nielut. Nämä on laskettu kirjallisuudesta löytyvien keskimääräisten arvojen perusteella. Myös työssä esitetyt primäärienergian lähteisiin ja kulutuksiin perustuvat energiataseet on laskettu Kasvener-ohjelman avulla. Kasvihuonekaasupäästöt on laskettu sekä energiantuotannon että energiankulutuksen mukaan. Etelä-Savon kulutusperusteiset päästöt sisältävät alueelle tuotavan sähkön tuotannossa syntyneet päästöt. Nämä päästöt olivat vuonna 2005 hiilidioksidiekvivalentteina noin 1 208 500 tonnia. Tuotantoperusteiset päästöt (eivät sisällä sähköntuonnin päästöjä) olivat vuonna 2005 hiilidioksidiekvivalentteina noin 1 161 500. Vuonna 2000 vastaavat luvut olivat kulutusperusteisten päästöjen osalta noin 1 262 800 hiilidioksidiekvivalenttia ja tuotantoperusteiset noin 1 175 000 hiilidioksidiekvivalenttia. Asukasta kohden muutettuina tuotantoperusteisia päästöjä oli noin 7,2 t ja kulutusperusteisia päästöjä noin 7,5 t. Vuonna 2000 tuotantoperusteisia päästöjä oli asukasta kohden noin 7,1 t ja kulutusperusteisia noin 7,6 t. Tuotantoperusteiset päästöt ovat nousseet hiukan vuodesta 2000 vuoteen 2005 ja kulutusperusteiset puolestaan hiukan laskeneet. Etelä-Savon väkiluku on puolestaan vähentynyt samassa ajassa noin 3 %. Euroopan Unionin jäsenmaissa kasvihuonekaasupäästöt vuonna 2004 olivat keskimäärin 10,6 t/asukas, Suomessa vuonna 2005 noin 13,2 t/asukas ja vuonna 2004 Pohjois-Karjalassa 9,2 t/asukas. Verrattuna vuoteen 2000 uusimpien hakkuumäärien mukaan vuoden 2007 nieluvaikutus olisi noin 2 090 000 tonnia CO2 -ekv eli mikäli päästöjen määrä pysyy samana, jäisi nieluvaikutus päästöjen jälkeen enää aavistuksen positiiviseksi. Nielujen määrään vaikuttavat voimakkaasti hakkuumäärät sekä puuston sen hetkinen ikä. Mikäli metsiemme hakkuita lisättäisiin esimerkiksi suunnitellut 1,5 miljoonaa kuutiota vuodessa, puuston nieluvaikutus olisi enää noin 81 000 tonnia CO2 -ekv.
  • Rutanen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Global warming caused by the warming effect of greenhouse gases (GHGs) induces permafrost thaw, which could alter Arctic ecosystems from prominent carbon sinks to potential sources of GHG emissions when polar microorganisms become metabolically more active and have access to carbon compounds that were previously largely unavailable. Polar microbes can have significant contributions to the growing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and therefore, studies on their metabolism are important. The aim of my study was to investigate polar microbial community composition and diversity as well as functional potential that was related to GHG-cycling in a subarctic environment with genome-resolved metagenomics. Soil cores were collected at the Rásttigáisá fell that is located in Northern Norway. After DNA extraction, ten mineral soil samples were sequenced. Metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed using either the combination of human-guided binning and automatic binning or human-guided binning only. Taxonomy was assigned to the MAGs and the functional potential of the MAGs was determined. I recovered dozens of good-quality MAGs. Notably, the MAGs from the mostly unknown phyla Dormibacterota (formerly candidate phylum AD3) and Eremiobacterota (formerly candidate phylum WPS-2) were reconstructed. There were MAGs from the following bacterial phyla as well: Acidobacteriota, Actinobacteriota, Chloroflexota, Gemmatimonadota, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobiota. In addition to the bacterial MAGs, MAGs from the group of ammonia-oxidizing archaea were recovered. Most of the MAGs belonged to poorly studied phylogenetic groups and consequently, novel functional potential was discovered in many groups of microorganisms. The following metabolic pathways were observed: CO2 fixation via the Calvin cycle and possibly via a modified version of 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle; carbon monoxide oxidation to CO2; CH4 oxidation and subsequent carbon assimilation via serine pathway; urea, ammonia and nitrite oxidation; incomplete denitrification as well as dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. My study demonstrates how genome-resolved metagenomics provides a valuable overview of the microbial community and its functional potential.
  • Hildén, Mikael; Mattinen, Maija; Mäenpää, Ilmo (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2012)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 14/2012
  • Karhinen, Santtu; Peltomaa, Juha; Riekkinen, Venla; Saikku, Laura (Elsevier, 2021)
    Global Environmental Change 67 (2021), 102225
    Local governments have set highly ambitious greenhouse gas emission reduction targets on a strategic level, in some cases influenced by intermediary networks. Yet, the quantitative impacts of climate strategies or the sharing of best practices on emissions still remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of an intermediary network on municipal greenhouse gas emissions. This was done through an econometric analysis of the emissions of municipalities that are members of the Finnish Hinku (Towards Carbon Neutral Municipalities) network, and through comprehensive qualitative interviews conducted in 40 of those municipalities. Our quantitative results show that Hinku network membership has successfully led to the lowering of greenhouse gas emission levels in participating municipalities. The qualitative interviews suggest that this is due to systematic local level climate work, enhanced by network membership. The network functions as an intermediary in two ways: by providing expertise and enabling peer-support. In addition, it has also succeeded in legitimising local level climate action. Ambitious local level climate action can also affect the ambition of national climate policy, which in turn may reflect on the amount resources allocated to local climate action.
  • Isomäki, Eija; Dahlbo, Helena (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2007)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 2/2007