Browsing by Subject "kasvinviljelytiede"

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  • Zou, Ling (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) is a potential oilseed crop, with a very high protein content (40–45%) and 15–20% oil content. It is valued as an alternative protein source for both human and animal consumption, and like several other lupin species, has a potential role in phytoremediation. Previous experience in central and southern Europe has shown the crop to have low and unstable yields with high sensitivity to heat and drought during the grain–filling stage. The species may therefore be more suitable for cool–temperate climates, as it comes from similar altitudes and latitudes as potato. Therefore, an experiment was set out to quantify the responses of Andean lupin to heat stress, using both gradually and suddenly rising temperatures during grain filling. In preliminary tests 60 accessions from 4 germplasm banks were screened for time to flowering and daylength sensitivity. For this experiment, 3 accessions were chosen, 478435, 457972, 457977, with vegetative phase durations of 44, 53, 64 days from sowing to first flower, respectively. Forty two plants of each accession were sown and reduced to 30 on the basis of uniformity. Plants were grown in a glasshouse with 22 °C, 18 h days and 18 °C, 6 h nights until about 25 days after flowering. Ten plants of each accession were subjected to one of the following treatments: control (continuing in the same glasshouse conditions), sudden heat stress (transferred to a growth chamber and subjected to 38 °C from 11:00 to 15:00) or gradual heat stress (transferred to a growth chamber and subjected to temperature increases of 4 °C day temperature and 2 °C night temperature, with the final two days at 38 °C from 11:00 to 15:00). The plants were returned to the glasshouse and when mature, the seeds were harvested and pooled into 3 replicates per accession and treatment for quality analysis. Seed protein, oil, soluble sugar, ash and moisture content were determined. Data were calculated on the basis of percentage of overall seed mass and also on a milligrams per seed basis in order to reflect the seed physiology at grain–filling stage. Sudden heat stress had greater effects on seed composition than gradual heat stress. When compared with control, sudden heat stress resulted in more loss of every component than gradual heat stress, on a per–seed basis, in all 3 accessions and the responses of the accessions to the sudden stress were not statistically different. Under sudden heat stress, mean seed weight declined by 70%, protein content by 70%, oil content by 85%, ash content by 50%, and soluble sugar content by 75%. The accessions responded differently, however, to the gradual heat stress. Accession 478435 experienced significantly greater reduction in seed weight, protein and ash content than accessions 457972 and 457977. Oil content per seed and soluble sugar content per seed were also lower in 478435 than in the other two cultivars, but the difference was not significant. On the flour basis, sudden heat stress increased ash content and decreased oil content and soluble sugar content significantly in all accessions. Accession 478435 had highest value in ash content at significant level. Under gradual stress, protein and ash content were increased while oil mass and soluble sugar mass were decreased. 478435 had significantly higher protein mass and ash mass in flour with respectively 57% and 5.1%, 457977 had significantly higher soluble sugar content with 112 mg/g. The results showed that heat stress can have a significant effect on the quantity and quality of seed yield in Andean lupin. While all tested accessions were severely susceptible to sudden heat stress, gradual stress identified differences between accessions, with one being much more susceptible than the other two. The most susceptible accession was the earliest to flower. Gradual heat stress allows better resolution than sudden heat stress when screening germplasm for heat tolerance.
  • Lizarazo Torres, Clara Isabel (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that causes significant reductions in crop yield, and thus hinders the food security of the growing world population. In consequence, it is urgent to select crops able to resist drought, maintain high yield and have a good nutritive content. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the responses of different accessions of Andean lupin to drought stress, and identify if there are significant differences in their physiological responses. To identify germplasm for further investigation, thirty accessions of Lupinus mutabilis Sweet. and one accession of L. albococcineus Hort. were screened in two sets, A of 15 and B of 16 accessions. From these sets, four lines were chosen on the basis of extreme values in the measurements, and this set of four was investigated in depth (set C). In all experiments, ten seeds of each chosen accession were sown in pots and grown in a glasshouse with 22°C, 18 h days and 18°C, 6 h nights, and were well watered until day 50 after planting. The pots were arranged in a randomized complete block design. The eight most uniform plants were chosen, and four were exposed to water stress while watering of the other four was continued. Water stress consisted of controlled water loss from the soil, 20% water holding capacity at 2% per day over 9 days, so the soil reached 2% moisture content and was held at this level for 2 days more. In all experiments, leaf temperature, stomatal conductance, relative water content, water potential, ion membrane leakage, and shoot dry weight were measured and transpiration efficiency was calculated. In set C, carbon isotope discrimination, root length, root dry matter, proline content and soluble sugar content were also determined. The analysis of set A and B revealed significant differences between treatments for all the parameters measured, except for relative water content, and there were also differences amongst accessions in certain parameters. PI 457972 and PI 457981 were selected for further investigation because of their low stomatal conductance under water stress conditions and low water use, and PI 510572 was selected as sensitive to drought stress due to its high water use, ion membrane leakage and water potential under water stress conditions. In addition AC 2792 (L. albococcineus) was selected due to its low stomatal conductance and water use, and high leaf temperature under water stress conditions. In the final experiment, PI 457981 and PI 457972 appeared to avoid drought through appropriate stomatal characteristics. PI 457981 showed low stomatal conductance, high leaf temperature and also high root length, similarly, accession PI 457972 showed low water potential, low stomatal conductance, low carbon isotope discrimination and accumulation of soluble sugars. Accession PI 510572 contrasted for these stomatal traits, but interestingly it showed low membrane ion leakage, high proline content and soluble sugars content, suggesting that it was capable of drought tolerance by osmotic adjustment. Finally, accession AC2792 showed low water use, low water potential and low carbon isotope discrimination. This survey thus identified accessions of Andean lupin that were able to avoid drought stress through stomatal traits and root traits, and other that were able to tolerate drought through the accumulation of osmotically active substances. Thus, there are good prospects for breeding of Andean lupin to improve its drought resistance.
  • Muurinen, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Nitrogen (N) is one of the main inputs in cereal cultivation and as more than half of the arable land in Finland is used for cereal production, N has contributed substantially to agricultural pollution through fertilizer leaching and runoff. Based on this global phenomenon, the European Community has launched several directives to reduce agricultural emissions to the environment. Trough such measures, and by using economic incentives, it is expected that northern European agricultural practices will, in the future, include reduced N fertilizer application rates. Reduced use of N fertilizer is likely to decrease both production costs and pollution, but could also result in reduced yields and quality if crops experience temporary N deficiency. Therefore, more efficient N use in cereal production, to minimize pollution risks and maximize farmer income, represents a current challenge for agronomic research in the northern growing areas. The main objective of this study was to determine the differences in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) among spring cereals grown in Finland. Additional aims were to characterize the multiple roles of NUE by analysing the extent of variation in NUE and its component traits among different cultivars, and to understand how other physiological traits, especially radiation use efficiency (RUE) and light interception, affect and interact with the main components of NUE and contribute to differences among cultivars. This study included cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Field experiments were conducted between 2001 and 2004 at Jokioinen, in Finland. To determine differences in NUE among cultivars and gauge the achievements of plant breeding in NUE, 17-18 cultivars of each of the three cereal species released between 1909 and 2002 were studied. Responses to nitrogen of landraces, old cultivars and modern cultivars of each cereal species were evaluated under two N regimes (0 and 90 kg N ha-1). Results of the study revealed that modern wheat, oat and barley cultivars had similar NUE values under Finnish growing conditions and only results from a wider range of cultivars indicated that wheat cultivars could have lower NUE than the other species. There was a clear relationship between nitrogen uptake efficiency (UPE) and NUE in all species whereas nitrogen utilization efficiency (UTE) had a strong positive relationship with NUE only for oat. UTE was clearly lower in wheat than in other species. Other traits related to N translocation indicated that wheat also had a lower harvest index, nitrogen harvest index and nitrogen remobilisation efficiency and therefore its N translocation efficiency was confirmed to be very low. On the basis of these results there appears to be potential and also a need for improvement in NUE. These results may help understand the underlying physiological differences in NUE and could help to identify alternative production options, such as the different roles that species can play in crop rotations designed to meet the demands of modern agricultural practices.
  • Kirkkari, Anna-Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Naked oat (Avena sativa f.sp. nuda L.) is the highest quality cereal in northern growing conditions. However the cultivation area of naked oat is remarkably small. Major challenges for naked oat production are to observe its nakedness. The caryopsis of naked oat is sensitive to mechanical damage at harvest, especially at high grain moisture content. The greater the grain moisture content of naked oat at harvest, the more loses of germination capacity was caused by threshing. For producing high quality naked oat seed, it is recommended that harvesting be done at as low grain moisture content as possible. However, if this is not possible, better germination can be ensure with gentle harvest by reducing the cylinder speed. In spite of conventional oat s excellent fat and amino acid composition in animal feed use, as far as nutritional value is concerned, the total energy yield of oat is weaker than other cereals because of the hulls. Also with naked oat the dehulling is not complete, while hull content on different cultivars mostly varied between one to six percent. In addition to genotype, environmental conditions markedly control the expression of nakedness. Thresher settings had only limited effects on hull content. The function of hulls is to protect the groat, but this was confirmed only for Finnish, small grain, cultivar Lisbeth. The oat kernel is generally covered with fine silky hairs termed trichomes. The trichomes of naked oat are partly lost during threshing and handling of grains. Trichomes can cause itchiness in those handling the grains and also accumulate and form fine dust and can block-up machinery. The cultivars differed considerably in pubescence. Some thresher settings, including increased cylinder speed, slightly increased grain polishing such that grains had some areas completely free of trichomes. Adjusting thresher settings was generally not an efficient means of solving the problems associated with naked oat trichomes. The main differences in cultivation costs between naked and conventional oat lie in the amount of seeds required and the drying costs. The main differences affecting the economic result lie in market prices, yield level and feed value. The results indicate that naked oat is financially more profitable than conventional oat, when the crop is sold at a specific price at all yield levels and when the crop is used as feed at highest yield level. At lower yield levels, conventional oat is, in spite of its lower feed value, the more profitable option for feed use. Dehulled oat did not achieve the same economic result as naked oat, as the cost of dehulling, including the hull waste, was considerable. According to this study naked oat can be cultivated successfully under northern conditions, when taking into consideration the soft, naked grain through cultivation chain.
  • Jokela, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) is one of the most important forage grass species grown at high latitudes. Its sward canopy structure determines the quantity and quality of the silage yield. Nonetheless, processes behind the transition to flowering, as well as the formation of stems and the connection with forage quality have not been studied in detail for timothy. Seven experiments were conducted to explore the effect of vernalization, photoperiod and gibberellin treatments on flowering and canopy structure in different cultivars or accessions. In addition, the expression of key regulator genes, VRN1 and VRN3, as well as the flowering repressors VRN2 and MADS10 were studied, and the connection between these and flowering induction and stem formation was revealed. Results showed that photoperiod is the most important regulator of flowering in timothy. In addition, vernalization response was reported in most of the tested accessions, which was seen as faster flowering. It was found that the application of GA3 could not replace the LD requirement for flowering. Moreover, results showed that the requirement for flowering and stem elongation vary. Flowering is also associated with decreased digestibility of grass stems. Our results showed, however, that flowering induction was not required for the development of the lignified sclerenchyma ring in developing stems, but rather lignin accumulation was as a result of stem elongation and requirements for mechanical support. At molecular level, novel vernalization-related partial cDNAs were identified through sequencing. Both PpVRN1 and PpVRN3 homologs induced the transition to reproductive development, but PpVRN3 was required for flowering. These results support the theory of universal flowering-promoting system between species. The expression of the putative repressor homolog, PpMADS10, was connected to the developmental stage of the apex. Results obtained in this thesis shed new light on the regulation of flowering and canopy structure in timothy. It is concluded that large variation exists among accessions in their responses to vernalization and photoperiod. This information can be utilized in breeding for high-yielding new cultivars for different growing conditions at high latitudes and for different harvesting strategies.
  • Turakainen, Marja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2007)
    Selenium (Se) has been demonstrated to be an essential trace element for maintenance of animal and human health. Although it has not been confirmed to be an essential micronutrient in higher plants, there is increasing evidence that Se functions as an antioxidant in plants. Selenium has been shown to exert a beneficial effect on crop growth and promotes stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, the specific physiological mechanisms that underlie the positive effects of Se in plants have not been clearly elucidated. The aims of this study were to determine the Se concentration in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and the effects of Se on the accumulation of carbohydrates, growth and yield in potato plants. An additional aim was to study the impact of Se on the total glycoalkaloid concentration in immature potato tubers. The distribution of Se in different biochemical Se fractions and the effect of storage on the Se concentration were studied in Se-enriched tubers. Furthermore, the effect of Se on raw darkening and translocation of Se from seed tubers to the next tuber generation was investigated. Due to the established anti-ageing properties of Se, it was of interest to study if Se affects physiological age and growth vigour of seed tubers. The Se concentrations in the upper leaves, roots, stolons and tubers of potato increased with increasing Se supplementation. The highest Se concentration was reached in young upper leaves, roots and stolons, indicating that added selenate was efficiently utilized and taken up at an early stage. During the growing period the Se concentration declined in the aerial parts, roots and stolons of potato plants whereas an intensive accumulation took place in immature and mature tubers. Selenium increased carbohydrate accumulation in the young upper leaves and in stolons, roots and tubers at maturity. This could not be explained by increased production of photoassimilates as net photosynthesis did not differ among Se treatments. The Se treated plants produced higher tuber yields than control plants, and at the highest Se concentration (0.3 mg kg-1) lower numbers of larger tubers were harvested. Increased yield of Se treated plants suggested that Se may enhance the allocation of photoassimilates for tuber growth, acting as a strong sink for both Se and for carbohydrates. Similarly as for other plant species, the positive impact of Se on the yield of potato plants could be related to its antioxidative effect in delaying senescence. The highest Se supplementation (0.9 mg kg-1) slightly decreased the glycoalkaloid concentration of immature tubers. However, at this level the Se concentration in tubers was about 20 µg g-1 DW. A 100 g consumption of potato would provide about 500 mg of Se, which exceeds the upper safe intake level of 400 µg per day for human dietary. The low Se applications (0.0035 and 0.1 mg kg-1) diminished and retarded the degree of raw darkening in tubers stored for one and eight months, which can be attributed to the antioxidative properties of Se. The storage for 1 to 12 months did not affect the Se concentrations of tubers. In the Se enriched tubers Se was allocated to the organic Se fraction, indicating that it was incorporated into organic compounds in tubers. Elevated Se concentration in the next-generation tubers produced by the Se enriched seed tubers indicated that Se could be translocated from the seed tubers to the progeny. In the seed tubers stored for 8 months, at high levels, Se had some positive effects on the growth vigour of sprouts, but Se had no consistent effect on the growth vigour of seed tubers of optimal physiological age. These results indicate that Se is a beneficial trace element in potato plants that exerts a positive effect on yield formation and improves the processing and storage quality of table potato tubers. These positive effects of Se are, however, dependent on the Se concentration and the age of the potato plant and tuber.
  • Känkänen, Hannu (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 2010)
    Disadvantages of invariable cereal cropping, concern of nutrient leaching and prices of nitrogen (N) fertilizer have all increased during last decades. An undersown crop, which grows together with a main crop and after harvest, could mitigate all those questions. The aim of this study was to develop undersowing in Finnish conditions, so that it suits for spring cereal farming as well as possible and enhances taking care of soil and environment, especially when control of N is concerned. In total, 17 plant species were undersown in spring cereals during the field experiments between 1991-1999 at four sites in South and Central Finland, but after selection, eight of them were studied more thoroughly. Two legumes, one grass species and one mixture of them were included in long-term trials in order to study annually repeated undersowing. Further, simultaneous broadcasting of seeds instead of separate undersowing was studied. Grain yield response and the capacity of the undersown crop to absorb soil N or fix N from atmosphere, and the release of N were of greatest interest. Seeding rates of undersown crops and N fertilization rates during annually repeated undersowing were also studied. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., IR) absorbed soil nitrate N (NO3-N) most efficiently in autumn and timothy (Phleum pratense L.) in spring. The capacity of other grass species to absorb N was low, or it was insufficient considering the negative effect on grain yield. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) suited well in annually repeated undersowing, supplying fixed N for cereals without markedly increased risk of N leaching. Autumn oriented growth rhythm of the studied legumes was optimal for undersowing, whereas the growth rhythm of grasses was less suited but varied between species. A model of adaptive undersowing system was outlined in order to emphasize allocation of measures according needs. After defining the goal of undersowing, many decisions are to be done. When diminishing N leaching is primarily sought, a mixture of IR and timothy is advantageous. Clovers suit for replacing N fertilization, as the positive residual effect is greater than the negative effect caused by competition. A mixture of legume and non legume is a good choice when increased diversity is the main target. Seeding rate is an efficient means for adjusting competition and N effects. Broadcasting with soil covering equipment can be used to establish an undersown crop. In addition, timing and method of cover crop termination have an important role in the outcome. Continuous observing of the system is needed as for instance conditions significantly affect growth of undersown crop and on the other hand N release from crop residues may increase in long run.
  • Tuulos, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Winter turnip rape is a biennial crucifer oilseed. A problem associated with winter turnip rape is early sowing time in July, when farms are short of available land. The aim of this study was to determine if winter turnip rape can be established by undersowing with spring cereals without decreasing cereal and winter turnip rape yields. It was also studied, if cutting the vegetative leaves of winter turnip rape in autumn could be performed without affecting the yield and whether the composition of leaf material was nutritionally acceptable to be used as forage. The ability of winter turnip rape to act as a mineral nitrogen scavenging catch crop was studied as well. Field experiments were conducted at University of Helsinki experimental farm in Finland during 2009-2011. Winter turnip rape was either undersown with spring cereal or as pure stands. Cereals were six-row barley, two-row barley, oat and wheat. One third of the winter turnip rape plots were cut after cereal harvest to simulate forage harvest. Winter turnip rape yield and its quality was not compromised due to undersowing with a cereal, when the overwintering conditions following cereal harvest were favorable. Cutting the winter turnip rape stands in autumn decreased seed yield in the following year. Winter turnip rape leaf forage has very high crude protein content and low crude fibre content. The glucosinolate content of winter turnip rape leaf forage is comparable to other forage crucifers. Cereal yield was not decreased by the undersown winter turnip rape and quality of wheat was only slightly affected. Seed yield of six-row barley and oat was increased by the undersown winter turnip rape, indicating a facilitative interaction between the species. Undersown winter turnip rape decreased subsoil nitrate content effectively in late autumn under moist conditions that favored mineralization. Winter turnip rape can be established by undersowing to a cereal without decreasing the yields of both crops. Some cultivars of barley and oat may even benefit from the undersown winter turnip rape possibly due to root interactions. Even though winter turnip rape is nutritionally suitable as forage, autumn forage cuts should be avoided. Winter turnip rape seems to be an effective catch crop, which may decrease the leaching of soil nitrate.