Browsing by Subject "kaupunkimaantiede"

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  • Ratvio, Rami (Helsingfors universitet, 2005)
    The urban development of Helsinki Region is characterized by both centralization and decentralization. Concern has recently been expressed in political debate regarding the effects of urban decentralization. Current housing policy has lead to a situation where single-family houses – which are also preferred by wealthy taxpayers – are mainly built in the surrounding municipalities. The growth on the periphery of the region is shaping the city toward a more decentralized, multi-nuclei form. Community structure is organized in region composed of functionally differentiated spaces that are no longer extensions of the traditional city. A functionally differentiated city is suggested to be a new form of urban morphology. These polynucleated areas are not dominated by any central city. Traditional core-periphery relations are replaced by periphery-periphery connections. It has been stated that this emergence of new postsuburban areas has also created a new postsuburban way of life. This research studies urban transformation processes at the periphery of the Helsinki Region. Transformation of urban space is studied through the locations where local residents work, go shopping, make social contacts and concentrate on their hobbies. The study areas are newly built single-family house neighbourhoods Sundsberg in Kirkkonummi and Landbo in Sipoo. The chosen areas are similar for their locational factors but different in their characteristics and thus ideal for a comparative study. The main information presented in this study was obtained from interviews completed in study areas. The data is analysed using quantifying qualitative analysis and presented as maps. Residents’ travel paths seem to follow postsuburban lifestyle patterns closely in both areas, which can be related to urban decentralization. According to this study, if postsuburban neighbourhoods described above become more common, citizens’ moving patterns will change accordingly. Policy on controlling urban decentralization will greatly affect the future of Helsinki Region.
  • Bernelius, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The differentiation of public schools and the growing popularity of school choice in Helsinki have become widely discussed issues in Finland marked by internationally acclaimed PISA-results during recent years. At the same time researchers have documented a noticeable growth in the spatial socioeconomic and ethnic segregation within the city. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to analyse the effects of growing spatial segregation to schools and study the mechanisms by which the differentiation of schools and individual pupils outcomes is connected to the changing socio-spatial structure of the city. The theoretical standpoint is one of the central questions in the field of urban geography: the way in which urban socio-spatial structure affects individuals and social processes. The main research question is, whether internationally described processes of urban segregation and school segregation can be shown to operate also in the egalitarian Finnish context, and whether there are signals of neighbourhood effects or school effects within the neighbourhoods and schools of Helsinki. The quantitative research has been conducted through several individual research designs, which have been designed to focus on the key mechanisms linked to processes of segregation. The research shows that the changing patterns of spatial socioeconomic and ethnic differentiation have a profound effect to the conditions in which the urban schools operate, especially through the differentiation of the schools student base. Similarly the schools reputation and popularity are connected to the socio-spatial characteristics of the neighbourhoods in ways which shape school choices and housing choices the made by educationally motivated families. One of the key observations is that the rejection of schools in relatively disadvantaged neighbourhoods is particularly consistent. The results provide evidence of processes of segregation in the neighbourhoods and schools in Helsinki, as well as suggest that there is a possibility of a trend of polarisation through the relative disadvantage and advantage of certain neighbourhoods and schools in the observed processes. The interconnected developments can affect both urban schools and neighbourhoods in the future, if the (un)popularity of certain schools influences not only the school choices, but also the housing choices of urban families.
  • Norppa, Miika (Helsingin yliopisto, geotieteiden ja maantieteen laitos, 2017)
    Department of Geosciences and Geography C12
  • Eskelä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Cities are striving to attract and retain talented workers in order to increase their competitiveness in the new economy, which is highly dependent on innovation and knowledge. Residential satisfaction has been identified as a key determinant of whether a person stays or moves to another location. However, given the tendency to focus on the housing of immigrant groups with a lower socio-economic status, the factors that affect the residential satisfaction of skilled migrants remain understudied. This article-based dissertation in the field of urban geography examines the determinants of residential satisfaction among skilled migrants living in the Helsinki metropolitan area (HMA), Finland. The research setting is intended to maximise the cultural and socio-economic as well as locational diversity within the limits of recognised skilled migrant groups. The analysis focuses on how the interplay between individuals norms and the situational conditions is manifested when immigrants assess a single housing market, the HMA. The study is qualitative in nature and draws on 70 semi-structured interviews with skilled migrants and with experts on migration and housing in the city region. Despite the cultural, socioeconomic and locational heterogeneity of the interviewees, their experiences of housing in the HMA were notably similar: the uppermost assessment was that it is expensive, cramped and uniform. On the other hand, they appreciated the overall safety and functionality of the city region, as well as the natural environment: the predominant influence, for them, is the family life cycle rather than the urban amenities that are often assumed to be highly important for the creative class . The results also show that homeownership is not a simple indicator of the intention to stay in or leave the region, which contradicts earlier findings on ethnic-minority housing. The study underlines the importance of the social environment in creating residential satisfaction among skilled migrants. Whereas earlier studies revealed the essential nature of social networks and personal trajectories in the location decisions of skilled workers, the results of this study indicate that the supply of local, neighbourhood-based social ties is particularly limited in the case of the HMA, and that this has a negative impact on the residential satisfaction of skilled migrants. Furthermore, the structural element of housing seemed to have an effect on local social ties: among international students the extent of such ties varied according to the housing form. Although many skilled migrants are in a good socio-economic position, they are not immune to problems related to finding suitable housing. Housing availability, quality and affordability are therefore significant factors in enhancing residential satisfaction among such groups. Furthermore, as local social ties serve a mediating role with regard to the residential area as well as to society, the formation of such ties would promote the integration of migrants. These aspects of housing should be acknowledged in the strategies of cities wishing to accommodate and retain global talent. Keywords: skilled migrants, housing, residential satisfaction, social ties, Helsinki metropolitan area
  • Hentunen, Teemu (Helsingfors universitet, 2003)
    Tämä Pro gradu -tutkielma käsittelee Krakovan kaupungin teknomusiikkiin pohjautuvaa kaupunkikulttuurin osasta - Krakovan teknoheimoa. Antropologisella kenttätyömetodilla kerätyn aineiston pohjalta olen pyrkinyt selittämään kaupunkikulttuurin toimintaa nykyaikaisessa kulttuuriteollisuuden ja postfordistisen kapitalismin määrittämässä kaupungissa. Kaupungissa, joka on vuoden 1989 jälkeen, Puolan sosialistisen järjestelmän romahdettua, ajautunut jälleen mukaan globaalin kapitalismin pyörteisiin. Kapitalismin saapumisen myötä kaupunki ja sen elämä ovat saamassa lisääntyvissä määrin vahvistuvasta urbanisoitumisesta ja postmodernin kiistellystä epookista kertovia tunnusmerkkejä. Näistä tunnusmerkeistä selvin on Michel Maffesolin tunnistama ilmiö kaupunkielämän heimottumisesta. Postmodernien kaupunkikulttuurien leimaamissa kaupungeissa ihmisten yhteisöllisyys on muodostunut eri lähtökohdista kuin perinteisissä naapurustoihin pohjautuvissa kaupungeissa. Heimottuneissa yhteiskunnissa yhteisöllisyys muodostuu kuluttamisen ja ekstaattisen yhdessäolon kautta. Krakovassa on selviä merkkejä siitä, että kaupunkiheimot ovat korvaamassa perinteisen katoliseen kirkkoon pohjautuvan yhteisön. Yksi kaupunkiheimoista on teknomusiikkiin - elektroniseen tanssimusiikkiin-pohjaava kaupunkikulttuuri. Krakovan teknoheimo on globaalin teknokulttuurin ja paikallisen tilan ehdoilla toimiva yhteisö. Sen olemassaolo perustuu toisaalta tiettyjen, dominoivien henkilöiden haluun ansaita elantonsa teknomusiikin kautta ja toisaalta heimon jäsenten tarpeesta kokea yhteisöllisyyttä muiden samanlaisen maun omaavien henkilöiden kanssa. Teknomusiikin ja -heimon tarina on alkanut vasta 1980- luvun puolen välin paikkeilla Lontoosta, mutta kuitenkin alle 20 vuodessa se on levittäytynyt lähes koko maapallon alueelle. Nopea levittäytymistahti kertoo omaa tarinaansa nykyisen kulttuuriteollisuuden voimasta. Sen kyvystä omaksua uusien, mielenkiintoisten kulttuurien tavat, symbolit ja asenteet ja tehdä niistä kulutushyödykkeitä. Tämä on selvästi nähtävissä myös Krakovan teknoheimon elämässä. Kaupungissa on toisaalta nähtävissä teknoheimon taso, jossa harrastuneisuus ja aito innostus musiikkia ja tanssimista kohtaan on määräävässä asemassa, mutta myös kulttuurikoneisto, joka yrittää markkinoida teknoheimon elämäntavan helposti omaksuttavia osia mahdollisimman laajalle yleisölle. Teknoheimon kautta puolalaisen yhteiskunnan muutos kohti urbaanimpaa ja globalisoituneempaa maailmaa on selvästi nähtävissä. Se on ollut yksi niistä monista silloista, joita pitkin kapitalismin leimaamaa kaupunkikulttuuria on rakennettu entiseen sosialismin saarekkeeseen.