Browsing by Subject "kemian opetus"

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  • Helsingin yliopisto, Kemian opettajankoulutuksen yksikkö (-2009); Helsingin yliopisto, Kemian opettajankoulutuksen yksikkö (-2009); Aksela, Maija; Pernaa, Johannes; (Kemian opetuksen keskus, Kemian laitos, Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Kemian opetus
  • Tolppanen, Sakari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Chemistry plays a key role in dealing with several of the big environmental problems of the future, but yet, chemistry education is often seen as irrelevant by students. Therefore, it is evident that ways to make chemistry education more relevant are called for. Educational experts have argued that sustainable development is a context that would bring relevance to science education, including chemistry education, as it bridges the gap between science and society. However, research on students perspective on the relevance of sustainable development is scarce. This thesis examines sustainable development and its education from the students viewpoint. This is done by seeking to answer the research problem: What do international students find relevant in sustainable development and its education? To answer this research problem, this thesis breaks down the problem into four research questions. The first research question examines what type of questions students ask about sustainable development, particularly in the area climate change. The second research question examines the kind of actions students take to make the world a better place. The third research question examines students expectations when applying to a non-formal educational program focused on sustainable development. The last research question examines how these expectations were met through the non-formal educational program. To address the research problem, the thesis adopted a multi-method approach, consisting of descriptive research, case studies and elements of grounded theory. The data was collected before, during and after an international youth camp, the Millennium Youth Camp held in the summers of 2010-2014. The participants of the study were 16-19 -year old students from around the world who were interested in science. The thesis consists of six interconnected studies. The first study examines the type of questions students ask about sustainable development and the second study examines the type of questions students ask about climate change, specifically. The data for these two studies were collected through an online survey from the students applying to the international youth camp. The data were analyzed using content analysis. The results indicate that students ask a variety of academic, societal and moral questions related to sustainable development. These questions cover many relevant aspects of sustainable development, and climate change specifically, and build a premise for student-centered education. In the third study, students attending the international youth camp were interviewed on the type of actions they take to make the world a better place. The data was analyzed though inductive and deductive content analysis and the results show that student actions can be categorized into three distinct groups, namely, personal responsible actions, participatory actions and future oriented actions. The fourth study used quantitative methods to address what type of expectations students have in education for sustainable development. The data was collected from students applying to the non-formal education program. The results show that in addition to wanting more knowledge on specific scientific phenomena and the nature of science, students expect to learn about societal impacts of environmental issues and discuss related moral issues. Studies four, five and six examine how the aforementioned expectations of the students can be met through non-formal education. These studies examine what type of structures and programs in the camp made the educational experience relevant for the students. The thesis concludes by asserting that students questions, actions and expectations can be used to make education for sustainable development more relevant in a number of ways. The thesis discusses the possibilities of (i) moving towards more student-centered learning, in which students questions and actions are the foundation of education, (ii) increasing relevant social and societal discussion with peers and experts, and (iii) providing students with opportunities to work on projects that address student interest. The thesis takes examples from the non-formal educational program studied and discusses how these same methods could be implemented into other similar programs or formal education.
  • Tortosa, Montserrat; Skorsepa, Marek; Guitart, Fina; Urban-Woldron, Hildegard; Aksela, Maija Katariina; Tolvanen, Simo Antti; Stratilová-Urvalková, Eva; Smejkal, Petr (European Science Education Research Association ESERA, 2014)
    This study is part of a European project that aims to design new microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) activities to be used in secondary and high school to enhance on students scientific competencies. The aim of this work is to design and to implement research-based teaching materials that take advantage of the use of MBL and promote scientific competencies in students. Researchers from six universities belonging to five EU countries have collaboratively designed a new research-based framework for MBL activities. Activities are context- based and inquiry guided. When students take experimental data, it is proposed a Predict-Observe-Explain (White & Gunstone, 1992) sequence. The main scientific competencies that the designed activities aim to enhance in students are the design of experiments, the interpretation of results and its communication. First versions of activities have been translated into national languages (German, Czech, Slovak, Finnish and Catalan) to be implemented. The study has been conducted with 865 students from five countries who have implemented the activities. Students answered a post-implementation questionnaire to elicit if they believed that they knew the objectives of the activities and if they really did. They were also asked if MBL helped them to interpret the results and if the activity could have been done without such equipment. Results obtained in this study suggest that the research-based learning materials designed to work with MBL are useful and of quality as most students in different countries understand the point of the activities, and most of them think that these activities help them to learn and that the activities could not be done without MBL. Nevertheless, differences in results have been obtained for some activities. The results of this research will be used to refine teaching materials.
  • Juntunen, Marianne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Chemistry plays an important role in making the future more sustainable and solving the related global issues. Curricula, national and international educational strategies, research literature and chemical industry are all focusing on sustainable development. We need more environmentally literate chemists, chemistry teachers and students future citizens, who are to solve the numerous environmental challenges that face the whole world. The main aim of this design research study was to find out what are the features of holistic and inquiry-based education for sustainable development in chemistry. At the same time, the aim was to foster students environmental literacy, argumentation skills and positive attitudes towards chemistry. Education for sustainable development in chemistry is related to socio-scientific issues, e.g., life-cycle thinking and green chemistry. Theoretical problem-analysis of the study was used to investigate the approaches that are of key importance to the study presented in this dissertation: sustainable development, green chemistry, the life-cycles of different products, environmental literacy, socio-scientific education, and the pedagogical methods of inquiry-based learning and argumentation. The empirical design phase sought an answer to the main research question: What are the main features of holistic and inquiry-based education for sustainable development in chemistry? The main focus of the research was in teaching life-cycle analysis, which is one of the key elements in the Finnish national curriculum. The design research project constituted of three phases, which were conducted during the years 2010 2014. The first empirical phase was conducted in four chemistry teachers in-service training courses. During these courses, a total of 20 chemistry teachers created new inquiry-based methods for teaching life-cycle analysis in chemistry. This development process was based on theoretical problem analysis. The second empirical phase focused on creating a collaboratively-developed design solution based on the teachers concepts and the effects of this solution. The participants in this second phase were 105 9th grade students, whose environmental literacy, argumentation skills and attitudes towards chemistry learning were evaluated. The third phase was theoretical. It consisted of comparing the gained empirical knowledge to theoretical literature in order to answer the main research question. The methods of data analysis included content analysis of texts, semi-structured interviews and quantitative surveys. The validity of the results of the conducted cyclic design research project is enhanced by theoretical literature analysis, methodological triangulation, researcher triangulation, the testing of the developed teaching concept in authentic environments and the systematic, visualised documentation of the design phases. The design phases resulted in three types of knowledge: 1) new chemistry teaching concepts for sustainability education that use life-cycle thinking and inquiry-based learning methods, and a collaboratively-developed design solution (Article I), 2) knowledge about how inquiry-based learning of life-cycle analysis affects students environmental literacy, argumentation skills and attitudes towards chemistry (Articles II and III) and 3) domain knowledge about holistic and inquiry-based education for sustainable development in chemistry (Article IV). Holistic and inquiry-based education for sustainable development in chemistry includes interdisciplinary and socio-scientific issues. Socio-constructivist and contextual chemistry education is bound to societal actors and co-operational, real-life activities. Learning occurs in social interaction, through argumentation and self-reflection, for example. The students themselves may choose the focus of inquiry, and it may relate to raw materials, consumer products, food substances or water, for example. As the knowledge of chemistry is combined with possibilities for societal action, the importance of chemistry becomes apparent to the students. They gain competence to act towards building a more sustainable future. The improved scientific and ecological argumentation skills reflect their environmental literacy and competence in societal thinking. The holistic and inquiry-based chemistry education presented in this dissertation supports versatile studying and citizenship skills in a new way. It motivates students to study chemistry and guides them to take sustainable development into account. Education for sustainable development is needed at all school levels. The approaches presented in this study may be applied on all levels of education. The results may be used to promote sustainable development in the planning of chemistry education and the education of chemistry teachers. Keywords: chemistry education, sustainable development, green chemistry, teaching concepts, design research
  • Pernaa, Johannes (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Kemiaa on kaikkialla elinympäristössämme. Käsittelemällä hyönteisten kemiaa opetuksessa voidaan mielekkäästi tuoda esille kemian yhteys arkielämään ja luontoon. Sen avulla voidaan laajentaa oppilaiden kuvaa kemian merkityksestä luonnossa ja innostaa oppilaita kemian opiskeluun. Oppilaiden kemian kiinnostuksen tukeminen on yksi kemian opetuksen tärkeitä tavoitteita valtakunnallisten kemian opetussuunnitelmien perusteiden mukaisesti. Aikaisemman tutkimustiedon mukaan suomalaiset oppilaat eivät ole hyvin kiinnostuneita kemiasta oppiaineena. Tarvitaan uusia lähestymistapoja mielekkääseen kemian opetukseen ja sen tutkimusta. Tässä tutkimuksessa kehitettiin kehittämistutkimuksen kautta uusi tutkimuspohjainen verkkomateriaali lukion kemian mielekkään opetuksen tueksi. Tutkimus sisälsi neljä vaihetta: 1) tarveanalyysi, 2) oppimateriaalin tekeminen, 3) oppimateriaalin arviointi ja 4) oppimateriaalin kehittäminen. Tutkimusta ohjasi kaksi päätutkimuskysymystä: 1) Miten hyönteisten kemiaa opetetaan lukiossa? ja 2) Minkälainen on mielekäs verkko-opetusmateriaali aiheesta? Ensimmäiseen tutkimuskysymykseen etsittiin vastausta suorittamalla käytössä olevien lukion oppikirjojen sisällönanalyysi (nk. tarveanalyysi, 1. tutkimusvaihe). Tutkimuksen toisessa vaiheessa rakennettiin uudenlainen verkkomateriaali lukion kemian opettajien käyttöön tarveanalyysin tulosten ja mielekkään kemian oppimisen teorian pohjalta. Se sisältää hyönteisten kemian teoriaa, useita tehtäviä (esimerkiksi kokeellisia ja molekyylimallinnustehtäviä) ja kuvia. Siihen kehitettiin navigointijärjestelmä käsitekarttatekniikkaa apuna käyttäen mielekkään oppimisen tukemiseksi, aiheen kokonaisuuden hahmottamiseksi ja tiedon etsimisen helpottamiseksi. Käsitekartta on graafinen tiedonesitys työkalu, joka on kehitetty mielekkään oppimisen teorian sovelluksena. Käsitekarttojen hyödyntämisestä verkkomateriaalien elementtinä on olemassa vähän aiempaa tutkimustietoa. Tutkimuksen kolmannessa vaiheessa kehitetty verkkomateriaali arvioitiin kyselytutkimusta apuna käyttäen. Arviointiin osallistui yhteensä 17 kemian opettajaa. Tutkimus suoritettiin syksyllä 2007 MAOL ry:n syyspäivien molekyylimallinnuspajan sekä LUMA -keskuksen molekyylimallinnuspajan yhteydessä. Tapaustutkimus osoitti kehitetyn verkkomateriaalin saavuttaneen sille asetetut tavoitteet. Vastaajat kokivat materiaalin olevan kemian tasoltaan kiitettävä ja sisällöltään riittävän laaja. Käsitekarttoja pidettiin verkkomateriaalin vahvuutena. Käsitekarttojen koettiin antavan laajalle sisällölle selkeyttä ja tehostavan oppimista. Kehitetty verkko-opetusmateriaali on yksi esimerkki mielekkään kemian opetuksen tutkimuspohjaisesta tukemisesta. Tutkimus toi esille myös lisätutkimusaiheita. Materiaalin käyttöä kouluopetuksessa ja sen vaikutusta oppilaiden mielekkääseen kemian oppimiseen olisi tärkeää tutkia jatkossa.
  • Tomperi, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Both nationally and internationally, teachers professional development is a current research topic. According to international teaching and learning survey TALIS, Finnish teachers interest to participate in long-lasting in-service teacher training programs, focusing on professional development, is decreasing. In order to implement inquiry-based practical work into classroom practice, new in-service training models are needed. This thesis examines the design and development process of a professional training course, which implemented the SOLO-taxonomy. The training course was meant for chemistry teachers working at the upper-secondary school and it focused on inquiry-based chemistry instruction. The research was done using design research. The main research questions were formed according to the three central areas of design research (Edelson, 2002): 1) Problem analysis: What kind of challenges does inquiry-based practical chemistry bring to chemistry teachers at the upper secondary school, 2) Design process: What kind of possibilities and challenges does the SOLO-taxonomy offer for the support of inquiry-based practical chemistry instruction and 3) Design solution: What are the characteristics of teachers professional development that promotes inquiry-based practice in chemistry at the upper secondary school? The eight-phase design research employed qualitative research methods, including observations, surveys and interviews. The data was analyzed using content analysis. From this data, two main research results were obtained. First, information was obtained on the implementation of inquiry-based chemistry into practice, and about teachers professional development using the SOLO-taxonomy. Second, information on the characteristics of research-based training model promoting inquiry-based practical chemistry instruction was obtained. The findings show that inquiry is challenging for teachers due to its constructivist view on learning, teachers inexperience to act in modern learning environments and not practicing implementing inquiry in the classroom during training. The findings also show that using the SOLO-taxonomy supported professional development in many ways. For example, it worked as a tool in designing and modifying written instructions, it motivated teachers to develop their practices, it increased teachers ownership to the produced written instructions, it supported teachers understanding of inquiry and it acted as a model to support higher-order thinking skills. The created research-based training model, meant to promote inquiry in practical chemistry instruction, was based on a theoretical and empirical problem analysis. The main features incorporated into the training model are (i) personalized learning which considers the teachers current knowledge (ii) expanding teacher s role from merely a dispenser of knowledge to the roles of a researcher and a learner, (iii) using a theoretical framework to support research-based instruction, higher-order thinking skills and interaction-based sharing of ideas, (iv) creating meaningful inquiry-based material, done using the SOLO-taxonomy, (v) peer-support (vi) reflection and incorporation of action research, (vii) practicing implementing inquiry-based practical work, which is of collaborative and cognitive nature increasing understanding of the nature of science. The research results show that teachers need training models of various durations. If the teacher s view of learning is congruous with the inquiry-based approach, they can begin to practice the implementation of inquiry already during a short training. However, if the teachers view on learning does not support constructive learning methods, the accommodation process requires more time. The research results of this doctoral dissertation can be applied (i) in the implementation of new national core curriculum, (ii) in planning and designing new learning material for inquiry-based practical chemistry (iii) in training that supports teachers life-long learning, and (iv) in international exportation of education. Keywords: Design research, professional development, SOLO-taxonomy, research-based training, inquiry-based practical chemistry
  • Vartiainen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Inquiry-based learning is a major approach in promoting the studying and learning of chemistry and science for small children. It has been argued to support the children s learning as well as positive attitudes, interests and motivation towards learning science. Non-formal learning environments for children, such as science clubs (where science can be studied experimentally) have so far not been designed in research-based practices remarkably. The possibilities of digitalism in supporting the learning of small children have been acknowledged in previous researches. On the other hand, learning environments based on virtual videos have been used only a little in the nonformal, inquiry-based learning of science for children below school age. In this research, the main objective of children s inquiry-based learning is to practice basic science process skills needed in experimenting (such as observation and coming up with questions), through the inquiry and playfulness. This doctoral thesis reports a design-based research that responds to the need of developing a science club environment (not connected to time or place) for small children (3-6 year olds). Through inquiry-based learning, a child is able to practice his/her science process skills in the context of science, especially through every-day phenomena in chemistry. This design-based research, which consists of 5 cycles, was conducted in two phases. Both of these phases can be divided into three parts, which are all characteristic of a development research: 1) problem analysis, 2) design process and 3) design solution. This research was conducted as a qualitative, descriptive research that consists of all in all six empirical or theoretical sub researches (so called problem analysis). It was conducted as a part of the operation of the University of Helsinki s LUMA centre (part of LUMA centre Finland. The research was guided by a main research question: What kinds of properties should be included in a science club learning environment (not connected to time or place) that aims to promote children s inquiry-based learning of science (the design solution)? The following sub questions support the above mentioned: 1) What kind of is children s inquiry- based learning of science in a science club learning environment and what kind of support does it need (problem analysis? 2) What kinds of challenges and possibilities does a virtual science club learning environment introduce to support children s inquiry-based learning (problem analysis? 3) How are we able to develop a learning environment as a shared activity (design process? Children and their guardians, who take part in a science club learning environment, were the topic of research in this design research. In the first phase of research, there were 20 science club entities (224 children attending) for small children arranged during 2013 - 2014. On the second phase of research in the spring of 2015, two different children s virtual science clubs were arranged in order to collect data. 335 families or kindergarten groups took part in these virtual science clubs. The research was organized as a qualitative explanatory and descriptive research, where a number of different data collecting and -analyzing methods were used. Main data collecting methods used were different kinds of interviews, narratives and video recording. Theory-and data-based content analysis were used in analyzing data. To improve reliability, multiple triangulation was used with methods, time and researchers; and discussions with the guardians about the results of the research was conducted. Three kind of knowledge was acquired from the research: (i)knowledge about the possibilities and needs in designing and developing the science club learning environments (theoretical and empirical problem analysis,(ii)knowledge about design process as a shared activity and(iii)knowledge about what kind of an outcome does the design lead to and how does it promote children s inquiry-based learning and the practicing of the science process skills. A virtual science club learning environment with different activities(Jippo -virtual science club) was designed. The virtual science club learning environment is widely used through LUMA for teaching science to small children. According to research, the following characteristics are important in the planning and carrying out of a virtual science club for small children (Science Education Model): 1) a child s previous experiences and questions are taken into consideration in the activities 2) the themes, for activities that help the children practice their science process skills, are connected to current science phenomena occurring in the child s daily life 3) a playful approach with the help of stories and drama gives the child a context and therefore makes it easier for the child to talk about the topic that is being discussed 4) in inquiry-based science learning and practicing science process skills, it is important for a child to have the possibility to interact with peers and a person with higher cognitive level 5) the role of an instructor is to model the science process skills for a child, and to inquiry, wonder and get excited together with the child 6) it is important to begin a small child s inquiry-based learning with practicing observation, which then builds a base for learning other science process skills. A small child s observation contains the following parts: (i) describing an observation, (ii) making an interpretation of the observation and (iii) communicating with others about the observation. 7) cooperation with the developer of the activities in the learning environment and with guardians should be close, so that a child s previous and future empirical world can be connected to the activities in a science club 8) the child s instructor needs support in planning how to carry out inquiries with the child. An instructor s need for support can be divided into three factors: i) the affective factor ii) the knowledge and skills factor and iii) the organizing factor. A design process was conducted as a shared activity, where in addition to the researcher as a developer, there was a group of teaching professionals, club instructors, kindergarten teachers and through the researcher: children and guardians. This process produced a non-formal science club learning environment (as the design solution) that can be applied also in formal learning environments such as in kindergarten teacher education and in kindergartens. The strength of design process as a shared activity was that with it, the development process could be examined from many different points of view. Research encourages towards small children s inquiry-based learning of science and practicing the science process skills from early on both in non-formal and formal learning environments. Science clubs are also good places for developing and analyzing educational innovations. There, innovations can be spread out to the field and are ready for possible onward developing and analyzing. A developed virtual learning environment gives out new possibilities for developing children s science education and for studying science at home, in kindergartens, in schools, in teacher training, in science clubs and in further education. A virtual science club learning environment for small children also creates possibilities for the international exporting of education.
  • Kolehmainen, Kati; Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija (2013)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli kehittää opiskelijoita kiinnostava nanoteknologian opetusmateriaali, joka toisi esille kemian ja teknologian merkityksen yhteiskunnassa ja tukisi luonnontieteellisen lukutaidon kehittymistä. Tutkimus toteutettiin kehittämistutkimuksena, joka sisälsi neljä vaihetta: 1) teoreettinen ongelma-analyysi, 2) kehittämisvaihe, 3) kehittämistuotos ja sen arviointi ja 4) tuotoksen jatkokehittäminen. Teoreettisessa ongelma-analyysissä tutustuttiin aikaisempaan tutkimuskirjallisuuteen ja asetettiin tutkimuksen kehittämistavoitteet. Aikaisemman tutkimuksen perusteella havaittiin, että opiskelijat ovat kiinnostuneita nanoteknologian visualisoinneista ja arkielämän sovelluksista. Kehitettävä materiaali rakennettiin opetusvideomuotoon, koska siitä pyrittiin tekemään teknisesti käytettävä ja helposti levitettävä. Materiaali jaellaan käyttäjille interaktiivisen blogin välityksellä. Aikaisemman tutkimustiedon pohjalta materiaalin keskeiseksi kehittämisteemaksi valittiin nanoteknologian visualisoinnit, mihin myös kehittämistuotoksen arviointi perustui. Opetusmateriaali arvioitiin laadullisena tapaustutkimuksena, jossa aineisto kerättiin tutkimushaastatteluilla. Arvioijina toimivat 16-19-vuotiaat opiskelijat, joilta kerättiin tietoa kehitetyn materiaalin kiinnostavuudesta, ja siitä, miksi materiaali kiinnosti opiskelijoita. Opetusmateriaalin arvioinnissa saatiin selville, että videoissa esiintyneistä visualisoinneista opiskelijoita kiinnostivat eniten makrotason visualisoinnit, koska ne auttoivat hahmottamaan kokoluokkaa. Myös nanoteknologisia rakenteita ja arkielämän nanosovelluksia käsittelevät visualisoinnit kiinnostivat opiskelijoita. Rakennevisualisoinnit auttoivat hahmottavansa aineiden rakenteita ja arkielämän visualisoinnit olivat tuttuja omasta elämästä, mikä koettiin motivoivana. Tutkimuksen pohjalta voidaan todeta, että nanoteknologia on opiskelijoita kiinnostava poikkitieteellinen aihealue, joka soveltuu hyvin integroitavaksi kemian opetukseen. Materiaali on vapaasti kaikkien käytössä osoitteessa: http://nanoteknologia.blogspot.fi.
  • Söderberg, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on ollut tutkia kemian opetuksen haasteita vaativan erityisen tuen luokissa opettajien kokemana. Luonnontieteiden ymmärrys on tärkeää yksilön tietoyhteiskunnassa täysvaltaisena jäsenenä toimimisen kannalta. Koulun tehtävänä on pyrkiä herättämään kiinnostus luonnontieteisiin ja ympäröiviin yhteiskunnallisiin aiheisiin. Opiskeluunsa tukea vaativien oppilaiden määrä on kasvussa samalla kun pienluokkia pyritään vähentämään. Tutkimustietoa erityisopetuksessa olevien oppilaiden saamasta kemianopetuksesta on kuitenkin vain vähän saatavilla. Tämän pro gradun tarkoituksena on koota tietoa tätä marginaaliryhmää opettavien opettajien kemian opetuksen kokemuksista. Tutkimus toteutettiin tapaustutkimuksena, jonka kohdejoukon muodostivat yläkoulun vaativan erityisen tuen piirissä oleville opiskelijoille kemiaa opettavat opettajat. Tutkimuksen aineisto on kerätty sähköisenä lomakekyselynä syys- ja lokakuussa 2020. Tutkimuksen tavoitteet määriteltiin tutkimuskysymyksittäin, jotka olivat: 1. Kokevatko opettajat kemian opettamisen mielekkääksi? 2. Mitä mahdollisuuksia ja haasteita kemian opetukseen liittyy? 3. Toteutuuko yhdenvertaisuus opetuksessa? Vastauksia saatiin 46 opettajalta. Tutkimuskysymykset analysoitiin laadullisen analyysin keinoin. Tutkimuksen hypoteesit ja niiden pohjalta luodut tutkimuskysymykset toivat esille merkittäviä haasteita vaativan erityisen tuen kemian opetuksessa. Kemian opiskelu koettiin yleisesti ottaen oppilaille hyödylliseksi erityisesti arjen ja ajattelun taitojen kehittymisen kannalta. Vastaukset kuitenkin osoittavat, että vaativan erityisen tuen oppilaiden kemian opetuksen resurssit ovat merkittävästi yleisopetuksen resursseja heikommat, minkä koetaan muodostuvan haasteeksi kemian opetukselle. Resurssien heikkous heijastui opettajien kokemaan opetuksen mielekkyyteen. Tulosten perusteella korostui myös aineenopettajien ja erityisluokanopettajien yhteistyön merkitys oppilaiden yhdenvertaisen opetuksen mahdollistajana. Oppilaat voivat saada yhdenvertaista, muiden ikäistensä tasoista kemian opetusta vain, jos vaativan erityisen tuen opetuksen edellytykset voidaan taata riittävällä tasolla kaikilla opetuksen osa-alueilla.
  • Pernaa, Johannes (2020)
    Kunskap om kemi är viktig. Kemi spelar en nyckelroll i att lösa alla stora utmaningar, såsom rent vatten, näring och global uppvärmning. Sektorn är enorm och mycket socialt betydelsefull och erbjuder en mängd olika jobb och jobb. Kemi sker över hela världen, så kemisten kan anställas i Finland eller något annat land.
  • Vesterinen, Veli-Matti; Aksela, Maija; Sundberg, Markku R. (2009)
    The aim of this study was to discover how current chemistry syllabi in the frame curricula for up- per secondary education in three Nordic countries (Finland, Norway, and Sweden) take into account topics related to the nature of chemistry. By qualitative content analysis, the statements related to the nature of chemistry were divided into categories. Conclusions and implications for improving the frame curricula under study were made by comparing results with research into the nature of science. Chemistry syllabi from the Nordic frame curricula analyzed take into account the aims related to the nature of chemistry in a very similar manner. The ideas that should be made more explicit in all of the analyzed curricula are: i) the limits of the chemical models and theories, ii) the relationship between chemistry and other natural sciences, iii) the importance of creativity in chemical research, iv) the concepts of evidence in science texts, v) the social nature of chemical research, and vi) chemistry as a technological practice.
  • Kärnä, Pirkko; Harmoinen, Sari; Vesterinen, Veli-Matti Juhana; Aksela, Maija (2018)
    Tässä etnografisessa tutkimuksessa havainnoitiin ja haastateltiin kahta peruskoulun fysiikan ja kemian opettajaa, joiden opetuksen korkea taso oli näkynyt sekä oppimistuloksissa että oppilaiden myönteisissä asenteissa fysiikan ja kemian opiskelua kohtaan. Molemmat opettajat olivat löytäneet vahvuuksiensa mukaisen lähestymistavan opetukseen. Toinen opettaja tuki aktiivisesti oppilaan itsenäistä työskentelyä kun taas toisen opettajan tunnit olivat strukturoidumpia. Hänellä oli taito selittää asiat selkeästi ja mielenkiintoisesti. Tutkimuksen opettajat ohjasivat kokeellista työskentelyä eri tavoin tekemällä siitä oppilaalle merkityksellisen. Havainnoinnin perusteella opettajan puheen tehtävänä on käsitteiden muodostamisen tukeminen luomalla merkityksellisiä yhteyksiä, oppilaan ymmärryksen tarkistaminen, sekä vuorovaikutuksen rakentaminen. Näistä tehtävistä keskeisin oli vuorovaikutuksen rakentaminen, mikä näkyi keskustelunomaisena puheena oppitunneilla.
  • Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija (2013)
    Tässä artikkelissa perehdytään sähköisten kemian oppimisympäristöjen historialliseen kehittymiseen, esitellään niiden nykytila ja pohditaan tulevaisuuden kehittämistarpeita. Tutkimus on luonteeltaan teoreettinen kirjallisuustutkimus. Sen tavoitteena on selvittää, miten kemian oppimisympäristöihin liittyvät tarpeet ovat ajan kuluessa muuttuneet. Ymmärtämällä niiden historiaa, voidaan tukea myös tulevaisuuden kehittämistarpeita nopeasti muuttuvassa teknologiakentässä. Tarkastelun kohteena ovat sekä teknologiaan että kemian opetukseen liittyvät muutokset. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena viitekehyksenä käytetään sulautuvan oppimisen teoriaa. Teoriaosassa se yhdistetään mahdollisuuksiin, joita tieto- ja viestintätekniikka (TVT) tuo kemian opetukselle ja oppimiselle. Artikkelin historiallisessa viitekehyksessä esitetään TVT-pohjaisten kemian oppimisympäristöjen tarpeiden ja mahdollisuuksien muuttuminen kemian opetuksen lähihistoriassa. Siinä erotetaan kolme ajanjaksoa: 1) TVT:n käyttö ennen vuotta 2000, 2) käyttö vuosina 2000-2010 ja 3) käyttö vuodesta 2011 eteenpäin. Jokaiselta aikakaudelta nostetaan esiin kyseisen ajanjakson yhden merkittävimmän TVT-työkalun mahdollisuudet kemian opetukselle. Tutkimuksen analyysiosassa esimerkkejä peilataan sulautuvan kemian oppimisen teoriaan sekä teknologian kehittymiseen. Artikkelin lopuksi esitellään kolme ohjetta, joita voidaan käyttää kemian oppimisympäristöjen käytössä ja kehittämisessä. Ohjeistus tukee teknologisesti pitkäkestoisten ja TVT:n mahdollisuuksia monipuolisesti hyödyntävien kemian oppimisympäristöratkaisujen kehittämistä.
  • Helsingin yliopisto, Kemian osasto; Helsingin yliopisto, Kemian osasto; Aksela, Maija; Pernaa, Johannes; Rukajärvi-Saarela, Maija; ; (Kemian opetuksen keskus, Kemian laitos, Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Kemian opetus