Browsing by Subject "ketoprofen"

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  • Viitasaari, Elina; Hänninen, Laura; Heinonen, Mari; Raekallio, Marja; Orro, Toomas; Peltoniemi, Olli; Valros, Anna (2013)
    The effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen on the post-farrowing phase of sows was studied in a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Ketoprofen (3 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly to 20 healthy sows for 3 days post partum (p.p.). The control group (n=20) received a saline placebo. Backfat, number of days of constipation and days before feed refusal were measured. Body condition (BCS) and shoulder sores were scored during a week p.p. Changes in BCS, backfat and shoulder sore scores were analysed with ANOVA. Blood was collected on days -1, 0, 5 and 14 with respect to medication. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK), haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) were quantified and analysed with a Mann-Whitney U test. BCS and backfat decreased less following ketoprofen administration than with the placebo (-0.08 ± 0.2 vs. -0.8 ± 0.2, 1.0 ± 0.8 mm vs. -2.0 ± 0.9 mm, respectively, P<0.05 for both) during the first 2 weeks of lactation. The shoulder sore score deterioration was milder during days 4-6 p.p with ketoprofen than with the placebo (P<0.05). Duration of constipation was shorter with ketoprofen than with the placebo (5.5 ± 0.3 vs. 6.4 ± 0.3 days p.p. P<0.05). Incidences of feed refusal occurred later in the ketoprofen than in the placebo group (9.6 ± 0.9 vs. 3.8 ± 0.8 days p.p., P<0.05). AST and SAA were higher after ketoprofen than placebo on day 5 p.p. (P<0.05). Ketoprofen benefits sows during the first 2 weeks post farrowing, but apparently causes some tissue irritation.
  • Frondelius, Lilli; Hietaoja, Juha Kalevi; Pastell, Matti; Hänninen, Laura Talvikki; Anttila, Paula; Mononen, Jaakko (2018)
    This Research Communication describes the effect of post-operative pain and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) treatment on heart rate variability (HRV) of dairy cows. Postoperative pain in farm animals is often left untreated, and HRV could be a promising tool for assessing pain. The aim of this study was to assess if postoperative state after subcutaneous surgery affects HRV in dairy cows and to determine whether this could be modulated by NSAID. Nine cows were inserted with an implantable electrocardiograph logger. Cows were divided into the NSAID treatment group and the control group. The cows in the NSAID group had higher HRV than the control group, indicating a higher sympathetic activity in control animals, most likely due to untreated post-operative pain. Besides the ethical need for treating pain in production animals, ongoing pain has an adverse effect on animal productivity. Thus post-operative pain alleviation is recommended.
  • Keltto, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used for the treatment of pain in sheep and swine. Information of correct ketoprofen doses in different animal species is limited. The correct dose cannot be reliably extrapolated based on other species or human. The problem in cases of suspected overdose is knowing whether the given dose was toxic. The objective of the study with sheep was to figure out if the kinetics of ketoprofen is altered by a tenfold overdose, study the effect of the overdose to kidneys and find out a way to diagnose overdose by a simple urine test. The objective of the study with swine was to figure out the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen after oral, intramuscular and intravenous administration. The most important variables were AUC0-_, Cmax and Tmax. Bioavailability was calculated based on intravascular administration. 30 mg/kg ketoprofen was administered intravenously to six sheep. The concentration of ketoprofen in sheep plasma was followed for 24 hours. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated afterwards. Blood and urine samples were analysed to detect enzyme markers indicating possible renal failure. The sheep were finished off 24 hours after the administration and the possible damage to kidneys was evaluated from histological samples. Ketoprofen was also administered to eight swine. The doses were 3 mg/kg of oral, intramuscular and intravascular, and 6 mg/kg of oral ketoprofen. The study was performed as a randomized, cross-over study. The concentration of ketoprofen in swine plasma was followed for 48 hours after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and bioequivalence evaluated afterwards. The in vivo -studies of both of the studies as well as the histological study of the kidneys, and the urine and blood analysis except for the analysis of ketoprofen concentration, were carried out by the researchers of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Plasma ketoprofen concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Drug concentration and pharmacokinetic analysis were carried out in the Faculty of Pharmacy. The tenfold dose of ketoprofen was toxic in sheep. Serum concentrations of urea and creatinine increased. Histological samples revealed acute tubular damage. Many urine enzyme concentrations increased. The rise of urine lactate dehydrogenase (LD) concentration was most significant and earliest. LD appears to be a potential marker of a toxic ketoprofen dose. Compared with the therapeutic dose, overdose did not affect ketoprofen elimination rate from plasma, so the kinetics of ketoprofen was not altered. AUC- and Cmax -values were over tenfold compared to the therapeutic dose, so the values did not rise linearly as the dose reached a toxic level. Bioequivalence of ketoprofen in swine was not observed between different routes of administration. The bioavailability was excellent in all routes of administration. Tmax was slightly over one hour after administration. Cmax and AUC were 5,1 mg/l and 32 mg l-1 h after oral 3 mg/kg dose and 7,6 mg/l and 37 mg l-1 h after intramuscular dose. The increases in AUC and Cmax were linear between the different dosages of oral ketoprofen. The difference of the elimination rates between oral and intravascular administration was statistically significant. Ketoprofen distribution volume and clearance did not differ significantly between different routes of administration.
  • Veit, Christina; Janczak, Andrew M.; Ranheim, Birgit; Vas, Judit; Valros, Anna; Sandercock, Dale A.; Piepponen, Petteri; Dulgheriu, Daniela; Nordgreen, Janicke (2021)
    Poor health is a risk factor for damaging behaviors, but the mechanisms behind this link are unknown. Injection of pigs with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can be used to model aspects of poor health. Recent studies have shown that LPS-injected pigs perform more tail- and ear-directed behavior compared to saline-injected pigs and suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines may play a role in these behaviors. The aims of this study were to test the effect of LPS on the social behavior of pigs and the neurotransmitters and modulators in their brains and to test the effect of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug on the effects of LPS. Fifty-two female pigs (11-12 weeks) were allocated to four treatments comprising two injections: saline-saline (SS), saline-LPS (SL), ketoprofen-saline (KS), and ketoprofen-LPS (KL). Activity was scan-sampled every 5 min for 6 h after the last injection in the pen. Social behavior was observed continuously in 10 x 15-min bouts between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. 1 day before (baseline) and 1 and 2 days after the injection. Saliva was analyzed for cortisol and plasma for tryptophan and kynurenine. The frontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and brain stem were sampled 72 h after the injection and analyzed for cytokines and monoamines. LPS activated the HPA axis and decreased the activity within 6 h after the injection. Ketoprofen lowered the effect of LPS on cortisol release and attenuated the behavioral signs of sickness in challenged pigs. SL pigs manipulated the ears of their pen mates significantly longer than SS pigs 2 days after the injection. LPS had no observed effect on IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-18. At 72 h after the injection, plasma tryptophan was depleted in SL pigs, and tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations in the frontal cortex and brain stem of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in SS pigs. Dopamine concentrations in the hypothalamus of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in SS pigs. Serotonin concentrations in the hypothalamus and noradrenaline concentrations in the hippocampus of SL pigs were significantly lower compared to those in KL pigs. In conclusion, LPS influenced the different neurotransmitters and modulators in the brain that are hypothesized to play an important role in the regulation of mood and behavior.