Browsing by Subject "kidney transplantation"

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  • Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Jager, Kitty J.; Vanholder, Raymond; Stengel, Benedicte; Harambat, Jerome; Finne, Patrik; Tesar, Vladimir; Barbullushi, Myftar; Bumblyte, Inga A.; Zakharova, Elena; Spasovski, Goce; Resic, Halima; Wiecek, Andrzej; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Bruchfeld, Annette; Cozzolino, Mario; Goumenos, Dimitris; Soler, Maria Jose; Rychlik, Ivan; Stevens, Kate; Wanner, Christoph; Zoccali, Carmine; Massy, Ziad A. (2021)
    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major health problem because of its high prevalence, associated complications and high treatment costs. Several aspects of CKD differ significantly in the Eastern European nephrology community compared with Western Europe because of different geographic, socio-economic, infrastructure, cultural and educational features. The two most frequent aetiologies of CKD, DM and hypertension, and many other predisposing factors, are more frequent in the Eastern region, resulting in more prevalent CKD Stages 3-5. Interventions may minimize the potential drawbacks of the high prevalence of CKD in Eastern Europe, which include several options at various stages of the disease, such as raising public, medical personnel and healthcare authorities awareness; early detection by screening high-risk populations; preventing progression and CKD-related complications by training health professionals and patients; promoting transplantation or home dialysis as the preferred modality; disseminating and implementing guidelines and guided therapy and encouraging/supporting country-specific observational research as well as international collaborative projects. Specific ways to significantly impact CKD-related problems in every region of Europe through education, science and networking are collaboration with non-nephrology European societies who have a common interest in CKD and its associated complications, representation through an advisory role within nephrology via national nephrology societies, contributing to the training of local nephrologists and stimulating patient-oriented research. The latter is mandatory to identify country-specific kidney disease-related priorities. Active involvement of patients in this research via collaboration with the European Kidney Patient Federation or national patient federations is imperative to ensure that projects reflect specific patient needs.
  • Tantiyavarong, Pichaya; Kramer, Anneke; Heaf, James G.; Finne, Patrik; Asberg, Anders; Cases, Aleix; Caskey, Fergus J.; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.; Noordzij, Marlies (2020)
    Background. Kidney transplantation should improve abnormalities that are common during dialysis treatment, like anaemia and mineral and bone disorder. However, its impact is incompletely understood. We therefore aimed to assess changes in clinical indicators after the transition from chronic dialysis to kidney transplantation. Methods. We used European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association Registry data and included adult dialysis patients for whom data on clinical indicators before and after transplantation (2005-15) were available. Linear mixed models were used to quantify the effect of transplantation and of time after transplantation for each indicator. Results. In total, 16 312 patients were included. The mean age at transplantation was 50.1 (standard deviation 14.2) years, 62.9% were male and 70.2% were on haemodialysis before transplantation. Total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides increased right after transplantation but decreased thereafter. All other indicators normalized or approached the target range soon after transplantation and these improvements were sustained for the first 4 years of follow-up. In patients with higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels (30-60 and >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), the improvement of haemoglobin, ferritin, ionized calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin and C-reactive protein levels was more pronounced than in patients with a lower eGFR ( Conclusions. Except for total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, all clinical indicators improved after transplantation. These improvements were related to eGFR. Nevertheless, values remained out of range in a considerable proportion of patients and anaemia and hyperparathyroidism were still common problems. Further research is needed to understand the complex relationship between eGFR and the different clinical indicators.
  • Boenink, Rianne; Stel, Vianda S.; Waldum-Grevbo, Bard E.; Collart, Frederic; Kerschbaum, Julia; Heaf, James G.; de Meester, Johan; Finne, Patrik; Garcia-Marcos, Sergio A.; Evans, Marie; Ambuhl, Patrice M.; Arici, Mustafa; Ayav, Carole; Steenkamp, Retha; Cases, Aleix; Traynor, Jamie P.; Palsson, Runolfur; Zoccali, Carmine; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J.; Kramer, Anneke (2020)
    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the improvement in survival seen in patients on kidney replacement therapy reflects the enhanced survival of the general population. Patient and general population statistics were obtained from the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry and the World Health Organization databases, respectively. Relative survival models were composed to examine trends over time in all-cause and cause-specific excess mortality, stratified by age and modality of kidney replacement therapy, and adjusted for sex, primary kidney disease and country. In total, 280,075 adult patients started kidney replacement therapy between 2002 and 2015. The excess mortality risk in these patients decreased by 16% per five years (relative excess mortality risk (RER) 0.84; 95% confidence interval 0.83-0.84). This reflected a 14% risk reduction in dialysis patients (RER 0.86; 0.85-0.86), and a 16% increase in kidney transplant recipients (RER 1.16; 1.07-1.26). Patients on dialysis showed a decrease in excess mortality risk of 28% per five years for atheromatous cardiovascular disease as the cause of death (RER 0.72; 0.70-0.74), 10% for non-atheromatous cardiovascular disease (RER 0.90; 0.88-0.92) and 10% for infections (RER 0.90; 0.87-0.92). Kidney transplant recipients showed stable excess mortality risks for most causes of death, although it did worsen in some subgroups. Thus, the increase in survival in patients on kidney replacement therapy is not only due to enhanced survival in the general population, but also due to improved survival in the patient population, primarily in dialysis patients.
  • Helanterä, Ilkka; Snyder, Jon; asberg, Anders; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Bell, Samira; Legendre, Christophe; Tedesco-Silva, Helio; Barcelos, Giovanna Tedesco; Geissbuehler, Yvonne; Prieto, Luis; Christian, Jennifer B.; Scalfaro, Erik; Dreyer, Nancy A. (2022)
    While great progress has been made in transplantation medicine, long-term graft failure and serious side effects still pose a challenge in kidney transplantation. Effective and safe long-term treatments are needed. Therefore, evidence of the lasting benefit-risk of novel therapies is required. Demonstrating superiority of novel therapies is unlikely via conventional randomized controlled trials, as long-term follow-up in large sample sizes pose statistical and operational challenges. Furthermore, endpoints generally accepted in short-term clinical trials need to be translated to real-world (RW) care settings, enabling robust assessments of novel treatments. Hence, there is an evidence gap that calls for innovative clinical trial designs, with RW evidence (RWE) providing an opportunity to facilitate longitudinal transplant research with timely translation to clinical practice. Nonetheless, the current RWE landscape shows considerable heterogeneity, with few registries capturing detailed data to support the establishment of new endpoints. The main recommendations by leading scientists in the field are increased collaboration between registries for data harmonization and leveraging the development of technology innovations for data sharing under high privacy standards. This will aid the development of clinically meaningful endpoints and data models, enabling future long-term research and ultimately establish optimal long-term outcomes for transplant patients.
  • Helanterä, Ilkka; Ibrahim, Hassan N.; Lempinen, Marko; Finne, Patrik (2020)
    Background and objectives Increased donor age is one of the most important risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF), and previous studies suggest that the harmful effect of cold ischemia time is increased in kidneys from older donors. Our aim was to study the association of increased donor age and cold ischemia time with the risk of delayed graft function in a large cohort kidney transplants from the current era. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients was used for this observational, retrospective registry analysis to identify all deceased donor kidney transplantations in the United States between 2010 and September 2018, who were on dialysis pretransplantation (n=90,810). The association of donor age and cold ischemia time with the risk of DGF was analyzed in multivariable models adjusted for recipient characteristics (age, race, sex, diabetes, calculated panel-reactive antibodies, pretransplant dialysis duration) and donor characteristics (cause of death, sex, race, body mass index, creatinine, donation after circulatory death status, history of hypertension, and HLA mismatch). Results Cold ischemia time and donor age were independently associated with the risk of DGF, but the risk of DGF was not statistically significantly lower in donor age categories between 50 and 64 years, compared with donors ?65 years. The harmful association of cold ischemia time was not higher in kidneys from older donors in any age category, not even among donation after circulatory death donors. When donor risk was assessed with kidney donor profile index, although a statistically significant interaction with cold ischemia time was found, no practically meaningful increase in cold-ischemia susceptibility of kidneys with a high kidney donor profile index was found. Conclusions We were unable to demonstrate an association between donor age and DGF. The association of longer cold ischemia time with the risk of DGF was not magnified in older or more marginal donors.
  • Helantera, Ilkka; Gissler, Mika; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Ikonen, Niina; Kanerva, Mari; Lempinen, Marko; Finne, Patrik (2021)
    Seasonal influenza causes morbidity and mortality after organ transplantation. We quantified the detection of laboratory-confirmed influenza among kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population in a nationwide cohort. All laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza and hospitalizations due to influenza among all kidney transplant recipients in our country between 1995 and 2017 were captured with database linkage from statutory national registries. Data from the general population of Finland, population 5.5 million, were used for comparisons. Annual incidences of influenza and hospitalizations due to influenza, and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated. Altogether 3904 kidney transplant recipients with a total follow-up of 37 175 patient-years were included. Incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza was 9.0 per 1000 patient years in 2003-2019, and 18.0 per 1000 patient years during 2015-2019. The risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza was significantly higher among kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population (SIR 5.1, 95% CI 4.5-5.7). SIR for hospitalization due to influenza was 4.4 (95% CI 3.4-4.7). Mortality of the hospitalized patients was 9%, and 5% of the patients with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Detection of laboratory-confirmed influenza is increased fivefold and risk of hospitalization due to influenza more than fourfold among kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population.
  • Bonsdorff, Akseli; Sallinen, Ville; Räihä, Juulia; Ekstrand, Agneta; Nordin, Arno; Lempinen, Marko; Helanterä, Ilkka (2021)
    Background Simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPK) carries a high risk of major postoperative complications, but knowledge on early warning signs and surrogate markers for postoperative complications is scarce. Aims Our aim was to analyze the complication-predictive value of different laboratory tests in pancreas transplantation. Materials & Methods All SPKs in Finland between January 2010 and February 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Levels of first three-day plasma amylase, drain fluid amylase, C-reactive protein, C-peptide, plasma trypsinogen, and white blood cell count were assessed for their performance predicting cumulative postoperative complications (assessed using the Comprehensive Complication Index) within 90 days from transplantation by using ROC analyses. Results Of the 164 SPK patients included, 39 suffered at least one complication requiring laparotomy. First-day plasma amylase had the best value in predicting complications based on its high AUC value and easy clinical applicability, with an optimum cutoff of six times the upper normal limit. Negative predictive values (NPVs) and positive predictive values of this cutoff were 0.81 and 0.71 for any relaparotomy, and 0.91 and 0.71 for the Comprehensive Complication Index >47.7 (which equals the morbidity of two relaparotomies), respectively. Conclusion In conclusion, first-day plasma amylase could be able to detect patients at risk of complications after SPK.
  • Vink, P.; Torrell, J.M.R.; Fructuoso, A.S.; Kim, Sung-Joo; Kim, Sang-Il; Zaltzman, J.; Ortiz, F.; Plana, J.M.C.; Rodriguez, A.M.F.; Rodrigo, H.R.; Marti, M.C.; Perez, R.; Roncero, F.M.G.; Kumar, D.; Chiang, Y.-J.; Doucette, K.; Pipeleers, L.; Morales, M.L.A.; Rodriguez-Ferrero, M.L.; Secchi, Antonio; McNeil, S.A.; Campora, L.; Di Paolo, E.; El Idrissi, M.; López-Fauqued, M.; Salaun, B.; Heineman, T.C.; Oostvogels, L. (2020)
    Background. The incidence of herpes zoster is up to 9 times higher in immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients than in the general population. We investigated the immunogenicity and safety of an adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) in renal transplant (RT) recipients ≥18 years of age receiving daily immunosuppressive therapy. Methods. In this phase 3, randomized (1:1), observer-blind, multicenter trial, RT recipients were enrolled and received 2 doses of RZV or placebo 1-2 months (M) apart 4-18M posttransplant. Anti-glycoprotein E (gE) antibody concentrations, gE-specific CD4 T-cell frequencies, and vaccine response rates were assessed at 1M post-dose 1, and 1M and 12M post-dose 2. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) were recorded for 7 and 30 days after each dose, respectively. Solicited general symptoms and unsolicited AEs were also collected 7 days before first vaccination. Serious AEs (including biopsy-proven allograft rejections) and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were recorded up to 12M post-dose 2. Results. Two hundred sixty-four participants (RZV: 132; placebo: 132) were enrolled between March 2014 and April 2017. gE-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were higher in RZV than placebo recipients across postvaccination time points and persisted above prevaccination baseline 12M post-dose 2. Local AEs were reported more frequently by RZV than placebo recipients. Overall occurrences of renal function changes, rejections, unsolicited AEs, serious AEs, and pIMDs were similar between groups. Conclusions. RZV was immunogenic in chronically immunosuppressed RT recipients. Immunogenicity persisted through 12M postvaccination. No safety concerns arose. © The Author(s) 2019.
  • Weseslindtner, Lukas; Hedman, Lea; Wang, Yilin; Strassl, Robert; Helanterä, Ilkka; Aberle, Stephan W.; Bond, Gregor; Hedman, Klaus (2020)
    In kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) replication may progress to polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (PVAN). In this retrospective study, we assessed the chemokine CXCL10 in urine and blood samples consecutively acquired from 85 KTRs who displayed different stages of BKPyV replication and eventually developed PVAN. In parallel to progression toward PVAN, CXCL10 gradually increased in blood and urine, from baseline (prior to virus replication) to BKPyV DNAuria (median increase in blood: 42.15 pg/ml, P = 0.0156), from mere DNAuria to low- and high-level BKPyV DNAemia (median increase: 52.60 and 87.26 pg/ml, P = 0.0010 and P = 0.0002, respectively) and peaked with histologically confirmed PVAN (median increase: 145.00 pg/ml, P <0.0001). CXCL10 blood and urine levels significantly differed among KTRs with respect to simultaneous presence of human cytomegalovirus (P <0.001) as well as in relation to the clinical severity of respective BKPyV DNAemia episodes (P = 0.0195). CXCL-10 concentrations were particularly lower in KTRs in whom BKPyV DNAemia remained without clinical evidence for PVAN, as compared to individuals who displayed high decoy cell levels, decreased renal function and/or biopsy-proven PVAN (median blood concentration: 266.97 vs. 426.42 pg/ml, P = 0.0282). In conclusion, in KTRs CXCL10 rises in parallel to BKPyV replication and correlates with the gradual development of PVAN.
  • Sinisalo, Aino (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    End stage renal disease (ESRD) burdens both society and patient trough lower quality of life and the cost of treatment, as well as through lost productivity. In 2012, the incidence of ESRD was 81 patients per one million inhabitants in Finland. Annual number of kidney transplantations range from 150 to 210. The costs of specialized medical care, adherence to medication and health related quality of life (HRQoL) of kidney transplant patients were analyzed in this study. The aim of the study was to provide research to support the improvement of the kidney transplant patients' health care process and future research on the cost-effectiveness of kidney transplantation. In addition, the aim was to produce information to support health care decision making and resource allocation. The study population included 320 patients who had received a kidney transplant in HYKS. Of the included patients, 198 answered the questionnaire and 122 formed a control population of which only cost data was available. The cost data was collected from the HUS Ecomed-database. Medication adherence was measured with the BAASIS- and VAS-instruments and the HRQoL with the generic 15D-instrument. Forty-three per cent of the patients were non-adherent. There was no statistical difference in the adherence of patients with different dialysis modalities. The correct timing of taking the immunosuppressive medication proved to be its biggest challenge. The average quality of life for kidney transplant patients was measured at 0.87. There were no statistically significant differences in the 15D scores between adherent and non-adherent patients or different dialysis modalities. Instead, there were statistically significant differences between dialysis modalities in some of the 15 dimensions. The 15D score was on average lower among patients with a higher MRCI-score or a longer dialysis period prior to transplantation. The average cost for the specialized medical care of the kidney transplant patients was 34 331 euros on the year prior to the transplant, 52 834 euros one year after the transplant and 8 537 and 7 791 euros on the second and third year after the transplant, respectively. Average costs for all three years after the transplantation combined were 68 932 euros. Based on the results of this study, non-adherence to medication proved to be a considerable issue for kidney transplant patients. The HRQoL after a kidney transplantation was moderately high, although lower than in the age standardized general population. Adherence to medication, HRQoL or the dialysis modality were not associated with cost of the specialized medical care after the kidney transplantation and there was no single factor associated with these post transplant costs. The strength of the study is a comprehensive longitudinal analysis of special care costs and the factors associated with them. On the other hand, health related quality of life is only measured once, which is a limitation. The cost analysis would have been more comprehensive if all the health care cost and other direct costs such as travel and time cost as well as indirect costs such the loss of productivity had been included.
  • Perasaari, Juha P.; Kyllonen, Lauri E.; Salmela, Kaija T.; Merenmies, Jussi M. (2016)
    Sensitive screening methods have revealed that many patients have donor-specific human leucocyte antigen antibodies (DSAs) prior to transplantation, regardless of negative crossmatch results. The clinical significance of pre-transplant (pre-Tx) DSAs for early graft function has remained unclear. Our aim was to examine the association of DSAs with delayed graft function (DGF). Pre-Tx sera of 771 patients who received kidney transplants in our single-centre study were retrospectively screened. All transplantations were performed after negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) crossmatch. DSAs were detected in 13% of the patients. The overall DGF rate in our study was 29%. Patients with DSAs had a higher incidence of DGF when compared with non-sensitized patients (48 and 26%, respectively; P <0.0001). Third-party antibodies had no effect for DGF incidence (28%; P = 0.6098). The relative risk (RR) of DGF for patients with DSAs in the multivariate analysis was 2.039 (95% CI 1.246-3.335; P = 0.0046). Analyses of the cumulative mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) value of the DSAs revealed a rate of DGF more than two times higher in patients with a cumulative value of 3000-5000 MFI compared with a cumulative value of 1000-3000 (65 versus 31%; P = 0.0351). DSAs against any loci showed an elevated DGF incidence of 44-69% when compared with patients without DSA (27%). The risk of DGF is twice as high in patients having pre-formed DSAs. Pre-Tx DSAs is a modifiable risk factor that can be obviated with careful organ allocation relying on careful pre-Tx analysis of non-accepted mismatches determined with sensitive solid phase methods.
  • Steffen, Hannah L. M.; Anderson, Josephine L. C.; Poot, Margot L.; Lei, Yu; Connelly, Margery A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Öörni, Katariina; Tietge, Uwe J. F. (2021)
    Lipoprotein-proteoglycan binding is an early key event in atherosclerotic lesion formation and thus conceivably could play a major role in vasculopathy-driven chronic graft failure and cardiovascular mortality in renal transplant recipients. The present study investigated whether lipoproteinproteoglycan binding susceptibility (LPBS) of apoBcontaining lipoproteins and levels of the classical atherosclerosis biomarker LDL-C were associated with cardiovascular mortality (n = 130) and graft failure (n = 73) in 589 renal transplant recipients who were followed up from at least 1 year after transplantation for 9.5 years. At baseline, LPBS was significantly higher in patients who subsequently developed graft failure than in those with a surviving graft (1.68 +/- 0.93 vs. 1.46 +/- 0.49 nmol/mmol, P = 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed an association between LPBS and chronic graft failure in an age-and sex-adjusted model (hazard ratio: 1.45; 95% CI, 1.14-1.85; P = 0.002), but no association was observed with cardiovascular mortality. LDL-C levels were not associated with graft failure or cardiovascular mortality. This study shows that measurement of cholesterol retention outperformed the traditionally used quantitative parameter of LDL-C levels in predicting graft failure, suggesting a higher relevance of proatherogenic function than the quantity of apoBcontaining lipoproteins in chronic kidney graft failure.
  • Kivelä, Jesper M.; Lempinen, Marko; Holmberg, Christer; Jalanko, Hannu; Pakarinen, Mikko P.; Isoniemi, Helena; Lauronen, Jouni (2019)
    It has been proposed that the liver protects the kidney in CLKT. However, few studies have examined long-term renal function after CLKT and contrasted renal function of CLKT patients to KT patients beyond one year after transplantation. We studied long-term renal function of CLKT patients and compared renal function of CLKT patients to KT patients between one and five years after transplantation. Patients who underwent CLKT between 1993 and 2011 were included (n = 34; 11 children and 23 adults). Ninety-six (27 children and 69 adults) KT patients were selected as controls. GFR was estimated (eGFR) and measured (mGFR) with Cr-51-EDTA clearance. Mean mGFR was 63 at one and 70 at ten years after pediatric CLKT. Mean eGFR was 75 at one and 50 at ten years after adult CLKT. Difference in mean mGFR between pediatric CLKT and KT patients was 8 (95% CI -7 to 23) and 11 (95% CI -4 to 26) at one and five years after transplantation, respectively. Difference in mean eGFR between adult CLKT and KT patients was 8 (95% CI -5 to 20) and 1 (95% CI -10 to 12) at one and five years after transplantation, respectively. Longitudinal changes in GFRs were somewhat similar in CLKT and KT patients in both age-groups but pediatric CLKT patients had on average higher GFRs than pediatric KT patients. In long-term follow-up, renal function remains stable in pediatric CLKT patients but declines in adult CLKT patients.
  • Bonthuis, Marjolein; Cuperus, Liz; Chesnaye, Nicholas C.; Akman, Sema; Melgar, Angel Alonso; Baiko, Sergey; Bouts, Antonia H.; Boyer, Olivia; Dimitrova, Kremena; Carmo, Carmen do; Grenda, Ryszard; Heaf, James; Jahnukainen, Timo; Jankauskiene, Augustina; Kaltenegger, Lukas; Kostic, Mirjana; Marks, Stephen D.; Mitsioni, Andromachi; Novljan, Gregor; Palsson, Runolfur; Parvex, Paloma; Podracka, Ludmila; Bjerre, Anna; Seeman, Tomas; Slavicek, Jasna; Szabo, Tamas; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Torres, Diletta D.; Van Hoeck, Koen J.; Ladfors, Susanne Westphal; Harambat, Jérôme; Groothoff, Jaap W.; Jager, Kitty J. (2020)
    One of the main objectives of the European health policy framework is to ensure equitable access to high-quality health services across Europe. Here we examined country-specific kidney transplantation and graft failure rates in children and explore their country- and patient-level determinants. Patients under 20 years of age initiating kidney replacement therapy from January 2007 through December 2015 in 37 European countries participating in the ESPN/ERA-EDTA Registry were included in the analyses. Countries were categorized as low-, middle-, and high-income based on gross domestic product. At five-years of follow-up, 4326 of 6909 children on kidney replacement therapy received their first kidney transplant. Overall median time from kidney replacement therapy start to first kidney transplantation was 1.4 (inter quartile range 0.3-4.3) years. The five-year kidney transplantation probability was 48.8% (95% confidence interval: 45.9-51.7%) in low-income, 76.3% (72.8-79.5%) in middle-income and 92.3% (91.0-93.4%) in high-income countries and was strongly associated with macro-economic factors. Gross domestic product alone explained 66% of the international variation in transplantation rates. Compared with high-income countries, kidney transplantation was 76% less likely to be performed in low-income and 58% less likely in middle-income countries. Overall five-year graft survival in Europe was 88% and showed little variation across countries. Thus, despite large disparities transplantation access across Europe, graft failure rates were relatively similar. Hence, graft survival in low-risk transplant recipients from lower-income countries seems as good as graft survival among all (low, medium, and high risk) graft recipients from high-income countries.
  • Kinnunen, Susanna; Karhapää, Pauli; Juutilainen, Auni; Finne, Patrik; Helanterä, Ilkka (2018)
    Background and objectives Infections are the most common noncardiovascular causes of death after kidney transplantation. We analyzed the current infection-related mortality among kidney transplant recipients in a nationwide cohort in Finland. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Altogether, 3249 adult recipients of a first kidney transplant from 1990 to 2012 were included. Infectious causes of death were analyzed, and the mortality rates for infections were compared between two eras (1990-1999 and 2000-2012). Risk factors for infectious deaths were analyzed with Cox regression and competing risk analyses. Results Altogether, 953 patients (29%) died during the follow-up, with 204 infection-related deaths. Mortality rate (per 1000 patient-years) due to infections was lower in the more recent cohort (4.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 6.1) compared with the older cohort (9.1; 95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 10.7); the incidence rate ratio of infectious mortality was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.68). The main causes of infectious deaths were common bacterial infections: septicemia in 38% and pulmonary infections in 45%. Viral and fungal infections caused only 2% and 3% of infectious deaths, respectively (such as individual patients with Cytomegalovirus pneumonia, Herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis, Varicella zoster virus encephalitis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection). Similarly, opportunistic bacterial infections rarely caused death; only one deathwas caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and two were caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only 23 (11%) of infection-related deaths occurred during the first post-transplant year. Older recipient age, higher plasma creatinine concentration at the end of the first post-transplant year, diabetes as a cause of ESKD, longer pretransplant dialysis duration, acute rejection, low albumin level, and earlier era of transplantation were associated with increased risk of infectious death in multivariable analysis. Conclusions The risk of death due to infectious causes after kidney transplantation in Finland dropped by one half since the 1990s. Common bacterial infections remained the most frequent cause of infection-related mortality, whereas opportunistic viral, fungal, or unconventional bacterial infections rarely caused deaths after kidney transplantation.
  • Abd ElHafeez, Samar; Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Bell, Samira; Savoye, Emilie; Abad Diez, Jose Maria; Lundgren, Torbjorn; Reisater, Anna Varberg; Kerschbaum, Julia; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Ortiz, Fernanda; Collart, Frederic; Palsson, Runolfur; Arici, Mustafa; Heaf, James G.; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J. (2021)
    In this study we aimed to compare patient and graft survival of kidney transplant recipients who received a kidney from a living-related donor (LRD) or living-unrelated donor (LUD). Adult patients in the ERA-EDTA Registry who received their first kidney transplant in 1998-2017 were included. Ten-year patient and graft survival were compared between LRD and LUD transplants using Cox regression analysis. In total, 14 370 patients received a kidney from a living donor. Of those, 9212 (64.1%) grafts were from a LRD, 5063 (35.2%) from a LUD and for 95 (0.7%), the donor type was unknown. Unadjusted five-year risks of death and graft failure (including death as event) were lower for LRD transplants than for LUD grafts: 4.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.6) and 10.8% (95% CI: 10.1-11.5) versus 6.5% (95% CI: 5.7-7.4) and 12.2% (95% CI: 11.2-13.3), respectively. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, associations disappeared with hazard ratios of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87-1.13) for patient survival and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.94-1.14) for graft survival. Unadjusted risk of death-censored graft failure was similar, but after adjustment, it was higher for LUD transplants (1.19; 95% CI: 1.04-1.35). In conclusion, patient and graft survival of LRD and LUD kidney transplant recipients was similar, whereas death-censored graft failure was higher in LUD. These findings confirm the importance of both living kidney donor types.
  • Räihä, Juulia; Ortiz, Fernanda; Mannonen, Laura; Loginov, Raisa; Lempinen, Marko; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Helanterä, Ilkka (2021)
    Cytomegalovirus continues to be a concern after transplantation despite prophylaxis regimens. Our aim was to analyse post-prophylaxis primary cytomegalovirus infections among kidney transplant recipients after 6-month valganciclovir prophylaxis and to determine the usefulness of surveillance after prophylaxis. Data from all cytomegalovirus D+/R- kidney transplant recipients from January 2004 to October 2018 at our center who received 6-month prophylaxis with valganciclovir were retrospectively analysed (N = 481). Detailed analyses were performed for 136 patients who were monitored every 2-4 weeks for DNAemia after the discontinuation of prophylaxis. Post-prophylaxis primary cytomegalovirus infection occurred in 182/481 (38%) patients median 264 days after transplantation (IQR: 226-367) and median 84 days after the end of prophylaxis (IQR: 46-187). In 49% patients, cytomegalovirus infection occurred over 3 months after the end of prophylaxis. Cytomegalovirus infection was not associated with lower patient or graft survival and no independent risk factors for infection were found. From patients monitored closely, 71/136 (52%) patients developed post-prophylaxis primary cytomegalovirus infection. Altogether, 52/136 (38%) patients were diagnosed with probable post-prophylaxis cytomegalovirus disease and 19/136 (14%) patients had asymptomatic CMV infection. Recurrent infection occurred in 38/71 (39%) patients. The incidence of post-prophylaxis primary cytomegalovirus infection among D+/R- kidney transplant recipients remains high despite 6-month prophylaxis. Surveillance after prophylaxis was challenging as a considerable portion of the infections occurred late and already symptomatic.
  • Boenink, Rianne; Astley, Megan E.; Huijben, Jilske A.; Stel, Vianda S.; Kerschbaum, Julia; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai; Asberg, Anders A.; Lopot, Frantisek; Golan, Eliezer; Castro de la Nuez, Pablo; Rodriguez Camblor, Marta; Trujillo-Aleman, Sara; Ruiz San Millan, Juan Carlos; Ucio Mingo, Pablo; Diaz, Juan Manuel; Bouzas-Caamano, M. Encarnacion; Artamendi, Marta; Aparicio Madre, Manuel; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Slon Roblero, Maria Fernanda; Zurriaga, Oscar; Stendahl, Maria E.; Bell, Samira; Idrizi, Alma; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Debska-Slizien, Alicja; Galvao, Ana A.; De Meester, Johan M.; Resic, Halima; Hommel, Kristine; Radunovic, Danilo; Palsson, Runolfur; Lassalle, Mathilde; Finne, Patrik; De los Angeles-Garcia Bazaga, Maria; Gjorgjievski, Nikola; Seyahi, Nurhan; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Ortiz, Alberto; Jager, Kitty J.; Kramer, Anneke (2022)
    Background Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease were collected by the European Renal Association (ERA) Registry via national and regional renal registries in Europe and countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This article provides a summary of the 2019 ERA Registry Annual Report, including data from 34 countries and additional age comparisons. Methods Individual patient data for 2019 were provided by 35 registries and aggregated data by 17 registries. Using these data, the incidence and prevalence of RRT, the kidney transplantation activity and the survival probabilities were calculated. Results In 2019, a general population of 680.8 million people was covered by the ERA Registry. Overall, the incidence of RRT was 132 per million population (p.m.p.). Of these patients, 62% were men, 54% were >= 65 years of age and 21% had diabetes mellitus as primary renal disease (PRD), and 84% had haemodialysis (HD), 11% had peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 5% had pre-emptive kidney transplantation as an initial treatment modality. The overall prevalence of RRT on 31 December 2019 was 893 p.m.p., with 58% of patients on HD, 5% on PD and 37% living with a kidney transplant. The overall kidney transplant rate was 35 p.m.p. and 29% of the kidney grafts were from a living donor. The unadjusted 5-year survival probability was 42.3% for patients commencing dialysis, 86.6% for recipients of deceased donor grafts and 94.4% for recipients of living donor grafts in the period 2010-14. When comparing age categories, there were substantial differences in the distribution of PRD, treatment modality and kidney donor type, and in the survival probabilities.
  • Kramer, Anneke; Boenink, Rianne; Noordzij, Marlies; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; Stel, Vianda S.; Beltran, Palma; Ruiz, Juan C.; Seyahi, Nurhan; Comas Farnes, Jordi; Stendahl, Maria; Garneata, Liliana; Winzeler, Rebecca; Golan, Eliezer; Lopot, Frantisek; Korejwo, Grzegorz; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Lassalle, Mathilde; Slon Roblero, Maria F.; Kuzema, Viktorija; Hommel, Kristine; Stojceva-Taneva, Olivera; Asberg, Anders; Kramar, Reinhard; Hemmelder, Marc H.; De Meester, Johan; Vazelov, Evgueniy; Andrusev, Anton; Castro de la Nuez, Pablo; Helve, Jaakko; Komissarov, Kirill; Casula, Anna; Magaz, Angela; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Bubic, Ivan; Traynor, Jamie P.; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Idrizi, Alma; Palsson, Runolfur; des Grottes, Jean-Marin; Spustova, Viera; Tolaj-Avdiu, Miloreta; Jarraya, Faical; Nordio, Maurizio; Ziginskiene, Edita; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J. (2020)
    Background. This article presents a summary of the 2017 Annual Report of the European Renal Association-European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry and describes the epidemiology of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 37 countries. Methods. The ERA-EDTA Registry received individual patient data on patients undergoing RRT for ESRD in 2017 from 32 national or regional renal registries and aggregated data from 21 registries. The incidence and prevalence of RRT, kidney transplantation activity and survival probabilities of these patients were calculated. Results. In 2017, the ERA-EDTA Registry covered a general population of 694 million people. The incidence of RRT for ESRD was 127 per million population (pmp), ranging from 37 pmp in Ukraine to 252 pmp in Greece. A total of 62% of patients were men, 52% were >= 65 years of age and 23% had diabetes mellitus as the primary renal disease. The treatment modality at the onset of RRT was haemodialysis for 85% of patients. On 31 December 2017, the prevalence of RRT was 854 pmp, ranging from 210 pmp in Ukraine to 1965 pmp in Portugal. The transplant rate in 2017 was 33 pmp, ranging from 3 pmp in Ukraine to 103 pmp in the Spanish region of Catalonia. For patients commencing RRT during 2008-12, the unadjusted 5-year patient survival probability for all RRT modalities combined was 50.8%.
  • Kramer, Anneke; Boenink, Rianne; Stel, Vianda S.; Santiuste de Pablos, Carmen; Tomovic, Filip; Golan, Eliezer; Kerschbaum, Julia; Seyahi, Nurhan; Ioanou, Kyriakos; Beltran, Palma; Zurriaga, Oscar; Magaz, Angela; Slon Roblero, Maria F.; Gjorgjievski, Nikola; Garneata, Liliana; Arribas, Federico; Galvao, Ana A.; Bell, Samira; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai; Munoz-Terol, Jose M.; Winzeler, Rebecca; Hommel, Kristine; Asberg, Anders; Spustova, Viera; Palencia Garcia, Maria Angeles; Vazelov, Evgueniy; Finne, Patrik; ten Dam, Marc A. G. J.; Lopot, Frantisek; Trujillo-Aleman, Sara; Lassalle, Mathilde; Kolesnyk, Mykola O.; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Idrizi, Alma; Andrusev, Anton; Comas Farnes, Jordi; Komissarov, Kirill; Resic, Halima; Palsson, Runolfur; Kuzema, Viktorija; Garcia Bazaga, Maria Angeles; Ziginskiene, Edita; Stendahl, Maria; Bonthuis, Marjolein; Massy, Ziad A.; Jager, Kitty J. (2021)
    Background. The European Renal Association - European Dialysis and Transplant Association (ERA-EDTA) Registry collects data on kidney replacement therapy (KRT) via national and regional renal registries in Europe and countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This article summarizes the 2018 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report, and describes the epidemiology of KRT for kidney failure in 34 countries. Methods. Individual patient data on patients undergoing KRT in 2018 were provided by 34 national or regional renal registries and aggregated data by 17 registries. The incidence and prevalence of KRT, the kidney transplantation activity and the survival probabilities of these patients were calculated. Results. In 2018, the ERA-EDTA Registry covered a general population of 636 million people. Overall, the incidence of KRT for kidney failure was 129 per million population (p.m.p.), 62% of patients were men, 51% were >= 65years of age and 20% had diabetes mellitus as cause of kidney failure. Treatment modality at the onset of KRT was haemodialysis (HD) for 84%, peritoneal dialysis (PD) for 11% and pre-emptive kidney transplantation for 5% of patients. On 31 December 2018, the prevalence of KRT was 897 p.m.p., with 57% of patients on HD, 5% on PD and 38% living with a kidney transplant. The transplant rate in 2018 was 35 p.m.p.: 68% received a kidney from a deceased donor, 30% from a living donor and for 2% the donor source was unknown. For patients commencing dialysis during 2009-13, the unadjusted 5-year survival probability was 42.6%. For patients receiving a kidney transplant within this period, the unadjusted 5-year survival probability was 86.6% for recipients of deceased donor grafts and 93.9% for recipients of living donor grafts.