Browsing by Subject "kielelliset taidot"

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  • Hiekkavuo, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the language skills and the emotional availability of the mother and the child in 2-year-old very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. Also the possible differences of this relationship between the preterm children and the comparison group were evaluated. Earlier studies have shown that mother’s sensitivity and structuring in the early interaction are associated with better language skills of the children. The connection seems to be stronger in children younger than 2 years. The connection of the language skills and the emotional availability of the mother and the child has not been studied before with 2-year-old VLBW children. This study is part of the Development and Functioning of Very Low Birth Weight Infants from Infancy to School Age study ( PIPARI study). Methods Participants were 20 (10 girls and 10 boys) Finnish very-low-birth-weight (birth weight ≤1500 g and/or born < 32 gestational weeks) singletons and 20 (10 girls and 10 boys) full term (> 37 gestational weeks) singletons. The language skills of the children were examined at 2 years of age using Reynell Developmental Language Scales III and MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories. The early interaction of the mother and the child was evaluated with Emotional Availability Scales at the same time point. Conclusions There was no association between the language skills of the VLBW children and the emotional availability of the mother and the child at 2 years of age. With full term children, the receptive language and the involvement of the child were significantly related to each other. The level of the emotional availability was good across both groups, so the interaction between low emotional availability and children´s language skills could not be examined. More research regarding the language skills and the emotional availability of VLBW children is needed.
  • Vornanen, Taru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Kehitysvammaiset ihmiset ovat pitkään olleet avoimien työmarkkinoiden ulkopuolella. Koulutuksen ja kehittyneemmän palvelujärjestelmän ansiosta kehitysvammaisilla ihmisillä on nykyisin mahdollisuus sijoittua tuetusti myös avoimille työmarkkinoille palkkatyön piiriin. Tuetun työllistymisen historia on melko lyhyt. Malli luotiin Suomessa noin 20 vuotta sitten, ja edelleen vain murto-osa työikäisistä kehitysvammaisista ihmisistä on sen piirissä. Tuetusti palkkatyössä työskentelee arviolta 500 kehitysvammaista ihmistä, painottuen nuoriin ja lievemmin kehitysvammaisiin ihmisiin. Jokaisessa työssä tarvitaan vuorovaikutustaitoja. Tiedetään myös, että kehitysvammaisilla ihmisillä saattaa olla kielellisissä ja vuorovaikutuksen taidoissa vaikeuksia vielä aikuisuudessa. Palkkatyössä on myös jonkin verran sellaisia aikuisia, joilla on kehitysvamman lisäksi vielä erillinen kielellinen häiriö. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin minkälaisia viestintätaitoja kehitysvammaiset ihmiset tarvitsevat palkka- tai avotyössä, miten he pärjäävät työssään yksilöllisillä taidoillaan ja minkälaisia keinoja vuorovaikutuksen sujuvoittamiseen työpaikoilla on käytössä. Tutkimus toteutettiin yhteensä kymmenen henkilön teemahaastatteluna. Haastateltavista puolet oli kehitysvammaisia palkka- tai avotyössä olevia ihmisiä ja puolet heidän lähiesimiehiään. Tutkimuksen toteutuksessa kiinnitettiin erityistä huomiota eettisiin ohjeisiin sekä sensitiiviseen haastattelutapaan, haastateltavaryhmän haavoittuvuuden vuoksi. Tutkimuksen keskeisenä tuloksena oli, ettei kehitysvammaisilta työntekijöiltä odoteta kovinkaan kompleksisia kielellisiä- ja vuorovaikutuksen taitoja. Keskeistä oli, että kielen ymmärtäminen oli sillä tasolla, että työtehtävät sujuivat. Kaikkien työntekijöiden työnkuva oli mukautettu siten, että he pärjäsivät työssään kielellisillä taidoillaan. Suurin osa haastateltavista kertoi vuorovaikutuksen työssä olevan sujuvaa ja ongelmatilanteita esiintyvän vain harvoin. Vaikka odotukset kielellisistä taidosta eivät olleet suuria, kaikilla työpaikoilla oli käytössä vuorovaikutusta tukevia keinoja. Kehitysvammaiset ihmiset tarvitsevat työssään monenlaisia vuorovaikutustaitoja. Nämä taitojen käyttö sujuu pääasiassa hyvin, kun työnkuva on yksilölle räätälöity ja tukea on riittävästi. Puheterapeuttisesta tiedosta voisi olla hyötyä työllistymisen ja sujuvan työpaikkaviestinnän tukemisessa.
  • Parkkinen, Kaisla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Past research has shown that hearing impaired adolescents are at a higher risk of experiencing psychosocial difficulties than their hearing peers. The research into the factors related to the psychosocial well-being of hearing-impaired adolescents has not yet come to an unambiguous conclusion. There are indications that the wellbeing of hard-of-hearing youths would be related to their communicative abilities and the functioning of their hearing among other things. This study examines self-perceived psychosocial difficulties and strengths of adolescents with hearing impairment and factors associated with these difficulties and strengths. These results also are being compared to results of psychosocial well-being obtained from Finnish adolescents. Methods. 12 11-17-year-old youths with hearing impairment filled in the Finnish version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-Fin) and a background questionnaire. Adolescents with other sensory deficits or disabilities were excluded from this study. Statistical analysis was performed to search for associations between psychosocial well-being and its related factors. Results and conclusions. The participants experienced more psychosocial difficulties than their Finnish peers. Emotional symptoms and peer problems were emphasized in the reports of participants. They also experienced more strengths in psychosocial well-being compared to their peers. In this study girls experienced more difficulties than boys. Participants experienced fewer difficulties in psychosocial wellbeing when their communicative abilities were good. These results can be used to improve and develop rehabilitation of hearing-impaired children and youths.
  • Manninen, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract Objectives. Previous research has shown that different types of speech and language impediments are very common amongst young offenders. These difficulties can affect different linguistic subskills, such as speaking, understanding, reading and writing. They are often undiagnosed and can be confused with other afflictions, for example, behavioural problems. Difficulties can affect education and can weaken an offender’s ability to cope in different situations during the judicial process and prison sentences. In previous international studies, speech and language difficulties have been apparent both using objective measurements and also according to the offenders’ own opinions of their capabilities. In Finland, this is the first study of its kind. The objective of this study was to investigate Finnish-speaking young adult offenders’ own perspectives of their language and literacy skills. In addition, the aim was to investigate how possible language and literacy difficulties have had an effect on them in different situations, and whether these young adult offenders are willing to improve their skills. This study also investigated whether they are interested in receiving external support, such as speech and language therapy Methods. This was an empirical, qualitative research project, and the data was collected using semi-structured interviews. In total, ten Finnish-speaking young adult (male) offenders aged between 18 and 29 from two prisons in Finland participated in this study. Findings and conclusions. Young adult offenders mostly assessed their own language and literacy skills to be average, though they also mentioned different problems affecting their speech, understanding, reading and writing skills. Such difficulties had an impact on their interactions with different authorities, but also their abilities to cope within the judicial process and any prison sentence. They felt that their lawyers had provided important help in linguistically challenging situations. Most of the participants were keen to develop their language and literacy skills with external support. The results show that it is important to recognise offenders with language and literacy difficulties in the Finnish legal system, and to train authorities and staff working with them to recognise these difficulties more effectively. This could be a task for a speech-language therapist (SLT) or a special legal interpreter with the guidance of an SLT. Recognising language and literacy difficulties and supporting offenders who struggle with them can help to create a non-discriminatory judicial process, improving offenders’ commitment to rehabilitative activities and promoting their integration in society.
  • Varjola, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the dimensionality of linguistic skills in eight-year-old Finnish-speaking children. The study aimed to replicate a three-factor structure, consisting of low and high cognitive load phonological skills and other linguistic skills, that was previously found in a study conducted with English-speaking children. This study also explored whether familial risk for dyslexia is associated with an atypical structure of language abilities since the low performance of dyslexics in phonological tasks supports this possibility. Methods. The sample of this study consisted of 152 first grade children of which 84 were at increased familial risk for dyslexia (at-risk group). Language abilities were assessed with neurocognitive tests that measured phonological skills, rapid automatized naming, retrieval of words, understanding of instructions and working memory. A model of the dimensions of linguistic abilities was formed based on previous research by dividing the tests into low cognitive load phonological skills, high cognitive load phonological skills and other linguistic skills. Results and conclusions. Confirmatory factor analysis that was conducted to the entire sample did not support the hypothesized factor structure. According to explorative factor analyses threefactor structure fit the data in both groups but the observed factor structures were not consistent with the hypothesis. In both groups the observed factor structure contained factors that represented short-term memory and rapid automatized naming indicating that these skills are partially separate from other language abilities. In addition to these, in the control group the factor structure contained a factor that represented complex linguistic skills including both phonological and other language skills. In the at-risk group the observed factor structure did not include an equivalent factor but instead a factor that represented specifically phonological skills. The results indicate that in the control group phonological skills interweave with other complex language skills whereas in the at-risk group phonological skills form a separate set of abilities.
  • Illi, Anniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Background and objectives. There is still little research about the screen time of parents, and it is also partly contradictory. Also, there aren’t any previous studies about the relationship between the screen time of the mother and the child’s performance in linguistic tests. Previ-ous studies have shown that the screen time of the mother decreases the interaction be-tween the mother and the child, which could also affect the language development of the child. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the quantity and quality of the screen time of the mother and the linguistic skills (receptive/expressive) of their 3- to 4-year-old child. This thesis was done as part of the LEINIKKI-study. Participants and methods. The participants were 49 (25 girls and 24 boys) 3- to 4-year-old, neurotypical, Finnish-speaking children, and their mothers. The language skills of the chil-dren were examined using the Finnish version of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales III and the LEINIKKI-method. The quantity and the quality of the mother’s screen time were assessed using the screen time questionnaire. The data was analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results and conclusions. There was no statistically significant relationship between the quantity of the mother’s screen time and the linguistic skills of the child. However, a statisti-cally significant result concerning the quality of the screen time was found: The children whose mothers had four hours or more of work-related screen time on a weekday managed weaker in the LEINIKKI-method than those whose mothers had less than four hours of work-related screen time. The results of this master’s thesis give us precursory information about the negative relationship between heavy screen time of the mother and the development of the child’s linguistic skills. Future research would be important because of the lack of re-search in this subject matter.