Browsing by Subject "kielitiede, fraseologia"

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  • Helomaa, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In this contrastive research German, French and Finnish proverbs are compared primarily based on the concepts of convergence and divergence in regard to their structural similarities and differences and their phraseological equivalents. This kind of research has not been done before on the above mentioned three languages. The corpus of the comparison, 958 proverbs consisting of 345 German, 342 French and 271 Finnish proverbs, is based on different collections of proverbs, but also the Internet was used to compare equivalence and meaning. The method of research used is the model of equivalence by Korhonen/Korhonen (1995). This model has been expanded in order to make it more suitable for classifying proverbs. The objective of this research is to find out if an equivalent for a German proverb can be found easier in the French or the Finnish languages and what kind of proverbs are similar in form in these languages. Based on the comparison, the research aims to find out if the differences in proverbs are caused by different ways of expressing the same thing or if it is a question of a different expression due to e.g. culture or religion, because often there is no equivalent with the same meaning in another language. According to the results 74.6% of the proverbs are in some way similar in all three languages, of which 43% are either similar (e.g. Love is blind) or almost similar and 17.6% totally different. The zero equivalence of 7.7% occurs almost only in the Finnish language in which no equivalents for either German or French proverbs were found. According to the comparison it can be stated that the proverbs of the three languages are based on the common Western cultural heritage. From the point of view of Finnish proverbs, Western European cultural contacts with Sweden and especially Germany have had more importance than just the geographical proximity. Despite the fact that Russia is a neighbouring country of Finland and that Finland was an autonomous part of Russia for over one hundred years, there are only a few proverbs of Russian origin in the contemporary Finnish language. Nowadays the adoption of proverbs has changed: new proverbs are adopted to most languages in almost the same form directly from the English language (e.g. [The] early bird catches the worm). Geographical position does not matter, but economic and cultural relations are more important.