Browsing by Subject "kiinnostus"

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  • Lemmetty, Taru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    There has been a decline in the interest of children and the young in natural sciences. This phenomenon is worrying because it is known that interest affects learning and performing in science positively. Teaching methods have an impact on interest. This research will focus on science camps that are non-formal science education environments. The study describes the interestingness of the teaching methods used in biology science camps from a child's perspective. The study also investigates the development needs of the activities and the tutors' own development during the camps. In the summer of 2016, the BioPop class of the LUMA science education center organized six biology science camps for two age groups of children: 7–9 years old and 10–12 years old. The material of the research was collected from these science camps, while the researcher herself was a tutor of the science camps. The research material consisted of questionnaires for campers (N=99) and tutors (N=8). The campers evaluated the interestingness of the activities on the Flechen-scale from 1 to 5, and filled out open-ended questions about what they 'liked' and what they did 'not like' in the camps. In addition, the tutors evaluated the interestingness and development needs of the activities, and their own development as tutors. The material was analyzed by using simple statistical key figures. It was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U-test whether gender or previous participation in BioPop camps had any effect on the interestingness of the activities. The open-ended questions were analyzed by theory-based content analysis. The campers were very interested in the activities – lab assignments and experiments, outdoor education, plays and nature videos were the most interesting activities. The results of the research supported previous studies of the relationship between teaching methods and interest in teaching natural sciences: for children, functional, inquiry-based and interactive teaching methods were the most interesting. Child's sense of autonomy, optimal challenge and novelty of the activities seemed to be central to children's interest. There were significant differences between the camps in the interestingness of some activities: activities gained mostly higher interest rates on the second camp week than the first. One possible explanation for this is the development of the activity guidance, in which the tutors think they had advanced during the camps. Especially in the older age group, inquiry-based, pupil-centered and interactive activities were the most interesting among children. The younger age group was more interested in independent and teacher-led activities compared to the older age group. Girls were more interested in independent and teacher-led activities than boys. The results of the research can be utilized in the future when developing science camps more inquiry-based, pupil-centered and interactive learning environments of science education.
  • Peltonen, Else (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tässä työssä on tavoitteena esittää yksi opetuksellinen malli sille, miten fysiikkaa voidaan opettaa huvipuistokontekstissa lukiotasolla. Työssä selvitettiin, millaisia fysiikan ilmiöitä huvipuistossa voidaan havaita, miten huvipuistolaitteita voidaan hyödyntää lukion fysiikan kokeiden tekemisessä ja miten huvipuistovierailua voidaan hyödyntää lukion fysiikan opetuksessa. Työn teoriaosuudessa tarkastellaan kiinnostuksen kehittymistä, johon opettaja voi vaikuttaa valitsemillaan sisällöillä, konteksteilla ja opetustavoilla. Koulun ulkopuolella tapahtuvalla oppimisella voi olla vaikutusta kiinnostukseen ja oppimiseen, ja huvipuisto voi tarjota tällaisen kiinnostusta lisäävän kontekstin. Lisäksi tarkastellaan huvipuistolaitteisiin liittyviä fysiikan ilmiöitä: dynamiikkaa, energiamuutoksia ja sähkömagnetismia. Työssä esitellään erilaisia mittausvälineitä ja älypuhelinsovelluksia, joita huvipuistossa tehtävissä mittauksissa voidaan käyttää, ja niihin liittyviä suureita. Lisäksi esitellään Linnanmäen huvipuistossa mahdollisia mittauksia. Työssä toteutettiin empiirinen tutkimus Linnanmäen huvipuistossa opiskelijaryhmän kanssa. Kolmiosainen vierailu toteutettiin yhteistyössä pääkaupunkiseudulla sijaitsevan lukion kanssa ja siihen sisältyi harjoittelu- ja analysointiosuudet koululla sekä mittausosuus Linnanmäellä. Mittauksissa käytettiin Vernierin LabQuest 2 -laitteistoa. Seuraavissa tutkimuksissa voitaisiin selvittää, missä määrin huvipuistokonteksti lisää kiinnostusta fysiikkaan ja onko huvipuistovierailulla vaikutusta fysiikan oppimiseen.
  • Sainomaa, Aapo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Informal learning is learning that takes place outside the school system. It happens in everyday situations that were not meant to be educational in the first place. Out-of-school environments are considered to produce positive effects on pupils’ interest, motivation and attitudes. The main aim of this study was to find out how math worth and interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) education differed among 12-year-old pupils before and after visiting an Informal Math and Art Exhibition. Additionally, the aim was to find out if it is possible to utilize an out-of-school environment to teach 21st century skills. Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, Mathematics (STEAM) pedagogy aims to improve pupils’ skills in innovation and creativity by combining elements from science and art. STEAM combines reality and education and aims to provide understanding of how things work while simultaneously guiding pupils’ technology skills. The learning context was a Math and Art Exhibition that was part of international CREATIONS-project. In this study, there were 256 12-year-old pupils from five different schools in Jyväskylä, Finland. The research material was gathered in 2 parts: pretests one week before the exhibition visit and posttests around a week after the visit. Nine out of ten students felt that the exhibition increased their interest in STEM. Boys who succeeded well in the Raven-test were the most interest in STEM. The increase in interest was, however, unrelated to gender or prior interest in STEM. Math worth was low among pupils who achieved low grades at school and scored low points on the Raven test. Math worth did not increase because of the exhibition visit, but differences in math worth were diminished. Pupils’ autonomous experience and situational interest were key factors regarding both math worth and interest. According to this study, even short-term out-of-school learning increases interest and evens out pupils’ math worth. In the light of this study the out-of-school learning environment can be seen as a fruitful and interesting way to learn that could also work as an excellent way to teach 21st century skills.
  • Lunetta, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Huoli vähentyneestä kiinnostuksesta kemian opiskelua kohtaan on ollut kansainvälisesti esillä viime vuosina etenkin kestävyysvajeeseen liittyvien globaalien ongelmien kontekstissa. Tästä syystä yksi opetussuunnitelmien uudistajien tärkeimmistä tavoitteista kansainvälisesti onkin tehdä luonnontieteistä kiinnostavampia ja relevantimpia oppilaille. Kiinnostuksen tukeminen on listattu kemian opetuksen tavoitteeksi myös kansallisella tasolla peruskoulun sekä lukion opetussuunnitelmien perusteissa. Viime vuosina opetuksen tutkimuksessa on korostunut myös ajatus siitä, että tiedeopetuksessa tulisi korostaa etenkin niitä taitoja, joita nykymaailmassa tarvitaan (engl. 21st century skills). Tämä tarkoittaa muun muassa ajattelutaitojen ja luovuuden korostamista tiedeopetuksessa. Jotta jatkossakin voitaisiin turvautua luovien kemianosaajien ammattitaitoon kestävyysongelmien ratkaisemiseksi, on tärkeää pyrkiä ymmärtämään, millä tavoin lasten ja nuorten kiinnostusta ja luovuutta voidaan tukea, sekä kehittää konkreettisia oppimiskokonaisuuksia tukemaan kiinnostuksen ja luovuuden kehitystä. Myös non-formaalien oppimisympäristöjen tärkeä rooli tiedeopetuksessa on ollut esillä viime vuosina, ja tiedeopetusta on ehdotettu järjestettävän koulujen ohella myös muualla. Kiinnostuksen ja motivaation tukeminen sekä merkityksellinen oppiminen ovat non-formaalin opetuksen tärkeitä tavoitteita. Kiinnostusta kemiaa kohtaan pyritään tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tukemaan eheyttävästi taiteen avulla tiedekerho-oppimisympäristössä. Kemian ja taiteen yhdistämistä ei ole ennen tutkittu non-formaalissa kontekstissa, mutta se on tutkitusti perusteltua kiinnostuksen tukemisen, ajattelutaitojen kehittymisen sekä merkityksellisen oppimisen näkökulmasta. Non-formaalia opetusta on tärkeää kehittää formaalin opetuksen rinnalla, jotta oppilaille voidaan tarjota mahdollisuuksia kiinnostua kemiasta myös koulun ulkopuolella. Tämä pro gradu -työ on toteutettu kehittämistutkimuksena, jossa on kehitetty aiemmasta tutkimuskirjallisuudesta nousseiden asioiden pohjalta kiinnostusta tukeva tiedettä ja taidetta eheyttävä tiedekerhokokonaisuus sekä tutkittu millaiset asiat ja työtavat tiedekerhossa herättivät kiinnostusta tukevia kokemuksia kerholaisissa. Tutkimuksessa vastattiin seuraaviin tutkimuskysymyksiin: 1) Millaisia asioita on otettava huomioon, kun suunnitellaan kemiaa ja taidetta eheyttävää, kiinnostusta tukevaa tiedekerhoa? 2) Millainen on kiinnostusta tukeva kemiaa ja taidetta eheyttävä tiedekerho? sekä 3) Millaiset asiat ja työtavat kemiaa ja taidetta eheyttävässä tiedekerhossa herättivät kiinnostusta tukevia kokemuksia kerholaisissa? Ensimmäiseen tutkimuskysymykseen vastattiin teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin sekä empiirisen ongelma-analyysin pohjalta. Tarveanalyysiin kerättiin aineistoa kerholaisten vanhemmilta sähköpostikyselyn avulla. Todettiin, että tiedekerhon suunnittelussa on tärkeää ottaa huomioon minäpystyvyyden tukeminen, toiminnallisten työtapojen kuten projektioppimisen käyttö sekä tutkimuksellisuuden hyödyntäminen, relevanssi, kemian ja kuvataiteen eheyttäminen, sekä sosiaaliset aspektit. Näiden pohjalta suunniteltiin toiseen tutkimuskysymykseen vastaten kuuden kerhokerran mittainen kemiaa ja kuvataidetta eheyttävä tiedekerho, johon sisällytettiin projektioppimista sekä tutkimuksellisia töitä. Kolmanteen tutkimuskysymykseen liittyvä aineisto kerättiin semistrukturoitujen ryhmähaastattelujen avulla. Kohderyhmänä olivat haastattelukerralla paikalla olevat 3.-6.-luokkalaiset kerholaiset (N = 12). Litteroidulle haastatteluaineistolle tehtiin aineistolähtöinen sisällönanalyysi pelkistämällä aineisto ja ryhmittelemällä analyysiyksiköt alaluokkiin. Tutkimuksessa todettiin, että kerholaiset kokivat kiinnostavaksi etenkin kemian ja taiteen yhdistämisen, siihen liittyvän taiteellisen vapauden, tutkimukselliset työtavat, joissa korostui oppijan autonomia, onnistumisen kokemukset, joita he saivat kemian ja kuvataiteen parissa, ympäristönäkökulmat, linkit arkielämään, sekä esteettiset näkökulmat. Myös kemiallisten reaktioiden yllättävyys ja tarinat koettiin kiinnostaviksi. Lopputuloksena todettiin teoreettisen ongelma-analyysin pohjalta, että asiat ja työtavat, jotka kerholaisissa herättivät kiinnostusta tukevia kokemuksia, ovat linjassa aiemman tutkimuskirjallisuuden kanssa. Tämän tutkielman tuloksia voidaan tulevaisuudessa käyttää pohjana tutkimukselle, jolla pyritään paremmin ymmärtämään tieteen ja taiteen eheyttämiseen liittyviä asioita kiinnostuksen näkökulmasta. Jatkossa olisi syytä tutkia tarkemmin sitä, millaiset tavat eheyttää kemiaa ja taidetta ovat mielekkäimpiä kiinnostuksen tukemisen näkökulmasta. Tämä pro gradu -tutkielma on keskittynyt lähinnä kemian ja kuvataiteen eheyttämiseen, mutta kuvataiteen lisäksi kemian opetuksessa olisi syytä tutkia myös muiden taidemuotojen eheyttämisen hyötyjä monipuolistamaan opetusta, tukemaan kiinnostusta, sekä tarjoamaan onnistumisen kokemuksia nuorille myös non-formaalissa kontekstissa.
  • Kallionpää, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    People build their interests and knowledge through a variety of actions in several contexts of action. Meaningful learning does not take place only in school, but also in informal personal interest contexts. The purpose of this study is to examine, describe and interpret the objects of interest-driven learning ecology. The aim is to increase information about young people's interests, the inspiring aspects of those, how the interests spark, as well as the development strategies of self-sustaining actions. The actions that are done related to the interests are manifested in several contexts, and those are also under the research in this study. These themes are viewed in the context of a learning ecology. This qualitative study has been carried out as part of Mind the Gap research project. The data were collected by semi-structured theme interview. Interviews were conducted with 24 eighth-grade youngsters who were selected for interview based on the earlier survey (n= 1350). The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Data analysis was carried out three times, two of which were evidence-based and one theory-bound. Eighth-grader youths told about their emotional, social, goal-oriented and other factors of action that inspired them in their areas of interest. Interests were told to be generated in different contexts. These were the contexts of family, peers, and hobbies. A few interviewees also reported about context, which couldn't be defined in these three contexts. All but one of the interviewees said the area of interest will be a part of their future. The interviewees told about self-sustaining developmental strategies, which included the use of text-based information, media exploration, media creation, participating in structured learning, unstructured practicing, and the building of knowledge networks. The actions within the area of the interest were manifested in several contexts and also crossed boundaries between the contexts. The results support the idea that meaningful learning takes place outside of the school, and the school should take advantage of these skills and knowledge.
  • Ketonen, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Previous studies indicate that positive learning experiences are related to academic achievement as well as to well-being. On the other hand, emotional and motivational problems in studying may pose a risk for both academic achievement and well-being. Thus, emotions and motivation have an increasing role in explaining university students learning and studying. The relations between emotions, motivation, study success and well-being have been less frequently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate what kind of academic emotions, motivational factors and problems in studying students experienced five days before an exam of an activating lecture course, and the relations among these factors as well as their relation to self-study time and study success. Furthermore, the effect of all these factors on well-being, flow experience and academic achievement was examined. The term academic emotion was defined as emotion experienced in academic settings and related to studying. In the present study the theoretical background to motivational factors was based on thinking strategies and attributions, flow experience and task value. Problems in studying were measured in terms of exhaustion, anxiety, stress, lack of interest, lack of self-regulation and procrastination. The data were collected in December 2009 in an activating educational psychology lecture course by using a questionnaire. The participants (n=107) were class and kindergarten teacher students from the University of Helsinki. Most of them were first year students. The course grades were also gathered. Correlations and stepwise regression analysis were carried out to find out the factors that were related to or explained study success. The clusters that presented students' problems in studying as well as thinking strategies and attributions, were found through hierarchical cluster analysis. K-means cluster analysis was used to form the final groups. One-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test and crosstabs were conducted to see whether the students in different clusters varied in terms of study success, academic emotions, task value, flow, and background variables. The results indicated that academic emotions measured five days before the exam explained about 30 % of the variance of the course grade; exhaustion and interest positively, and anxiety negatively. In addition, interest as well as the self-study time best explained study success on the course. The participants were classified into three clusters according to their problems in studying as well as their thinking strategies and attributions: 1) ill-being, 2) carefree, and 3) committed and optimistic students. Ill-being students reported most negative emotions, achieved the worst grades, experienced anxiety rather than flow and were also the youngest. Carefree students, on the other hand, expressed the least negative emotions and spent the least time on self-studying, and like committed students, experienced flow. In addition, committed students reported positive emotions the most often and achieved the best grades on the course. In the future, more in-depth understanding how and why especially young first year students experience their studying hard is needed, because early state of the studies is shown to predict later study success.
  • Ärilä, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Children’s participation as learners and members of the community has become an important pedagogical value in preschool education and in the whole educational system. Hearing children’s views has also been emphasized within the sphere of science but learning has remained a subject and study area mainly defined by adults. The aim of this study is to bring out the children’s own perspective and to describe what kind of things the preschool children are interested to learn and what they themselves tell about learning, transmitted by the pedagogical documentation method. 26 children and two adult interviewers from one day-care center in Uusimaa region participated in this study. The research data consisted of 156 learning wishes drawn by the children and of videotaped interviews in which the learning wishes and children’s thoughts about preschool were discussed, led by the adults’ questions. Based on the inductive analysis process the research was directed at children’s interest and narration about learning. The study was carried out as a case study with child perspective, combining narrative thematic analysis and content analysis methods. The children were mostly interested to learn action-based and visible skills which originated from children’s environment, communities and their own experiences. The most popular were physical skills and the biggest group of cognitive skills was reading and writing, chosen largely by girls. The children were also interested in concrete challenges and ability experiences offered by the preschool exercises. This had narrative resemblance to children’s other positive expressions of their readiness to learn and to develop their skills. Narrated by the children, learning appeared as the increase of skills, knowledge and autonomy, whereas play and exploration had a little role in the children’s own descriptions. It would be useful to support children’s awareness of their cognitive learning in preschool, to reinforce children’s positive self-image as learners. It is also important to strengthen both boys’ and girls’ interest in reading and multiliteracy skills, in ways that are meaningful to children. It is possible to aim at supporting children’s resilience, co-operation, thinking and self-image as learners by their own learning objectives. Children’s objectives also create opportunities to build connections between children’s communities and learning environments, from children’s own perspective.
  • Hännikäinen, Pipsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this research was to find out which factors affect the educational choice of law students. It was investigated how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and interest are expressed in the research data. The second research question was about how professionalism affects the career choices of law students. The third research question was about the timing of the career choice. The research group consisted of 108 law students. The research method was qualitative data analysis based on a questionaire which was obligatory to all new law students. The method used was grounded theory and theories about motivation and career choice were used in addition to the empirical material. The career choice of law students was most often based on a wide range of job opportunities and good employment rate. In addition to that new students mentioned interest to law and social sciences. New students emphasized the general nature of the education. Both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were guiding the choices of the law students. The professionalism was seen in the way the students emphasized the wide range of career possibilities. However, many students thought that the general nature of the study degree suits their career purposes. Three groups can be formed considering the timing of the career choice. Some students told that being a lawyer was their dream job as a kid while others decided to become a lawyer during high school. A lot of students had already studied a higher university degree and wanted additional education. Many students had studied some other major at the university and changed to study law. This thesis was a detailed analysis of law students. The results were both similar as in earlier studies and different. Law students emphasized the career opportunities and possibilities to learn new skills. Only few students randomly ended up to study law. Most students were very sure about their career choice. It could be possible to compare the results to students at other fields of study at the university or make quantative analysis from the same data. The results of this study can be used in the development of the law education.
  • Pernaa, Johannes (2020)
    Kunskap om kemi är viktig. Kemi spelar en nyckelroll i att lösa alla stora utmaningar, såsom rent vatten, näring och global uppvärmning. Sektorn är enorm och mycket socialt betydelsefull och erbjuder en mängd olika jobb och jobb. Kemi sker över hela världen, så kemisten kan anställas i Finland eller något annat land.
  • Utriainen, Elisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aims of the study. Academic procrastination is a prevalent problem among students whose everyday life is often filled with deadlines. As up to 95 % of procrastinating students would like to decrease their delaying behaviour, and procrastination has many negative outcomes, it is important to study antecedents of procrastination and develop interventions. The current study employs Klingsieck's (2013) definition of procrastination which states that procrastination is "the voluntary delay of an intended and necessary and/or personally important activity, despite expecting potential negative consequences that outweigh the positive consequences of the delay". The purpose of the present study is to extend the current knowledge about motivational and volitional psychology perspective of procrastination, and the following research questions were answered: 1. What factors influence the study motivation of the procrastinating students? 2. What kind of interest do the procrastinating students express in their studies? 3. How do the procrastinating students perceive their self-efficacy to perform their studies? 4. What kind of volitional factors do the procrastinating students mention? Methods. The data consists of transcripted interviews of eight students identified as procrastinators in a previous study. The study is conducted as a qualitative, data-driven content analysis including the development of a category system for each research question. Additionally, these categories are used to create a student profile for each informant. Results and conclusions. The results indicate that procrastinating students had several factors which motivated them to study and they also expressed interest towards their studies. However, only two students expressed strong individual interest. Procrastinating students had doubts about their ability to succeed in their studies and found especially the beginning of their studies difficult due to insufficient skills to study at university. Finally, some of the students had self-regulative problems, and the profiles revealed that students' motivational and volitional features differed from each other. This study supports the view that students have individual patterns for the antecedents of procrastination and for that reason also different kinds of interventions should be available to them.
  • Neuman, Alex (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Programming became part of basic education in Autumn 2016. The goal of this study was to examine the experiences from programming at elementary school, and to determine motivation towards programming and the factors that affect it. The study attempted to answer if programming was found exciting, which is a goal stated in the national core curriculum for basic education. The study examined experiences from various technologies, including Scratch programming environment and Lego Mindstorms robot. The study was conducted by interviewing the pupils and teacher from a single sixth grade class. The class in question had programmed using various technologies and participated in the First Lego League programming challenge. A total of 19 pupils participated in the study. The interview was based on themes related to experiences from and inclination towards programming. Pupils were interviewed in groups ranging between 2 and 4 pupils. The analysis was performed using content analysis. The data was coded using codes based on existing theories. The content of the codes and the quantity of responses in them were then examined. The results show that pupils had alternative experiences from programming. The study reveals that pupils had gained at least a basic level of programming ability while having a mixed response to the quantity and quality of the teaching. The results reveal that pupils had different responses to technologies, with every technology having various perceived weaknesses and strengths. The study suggests that majority of the pupils had extrinsic motivation towards programming. The interest in and the perceived usefulness of programming varied. Five different attitudes were determined: excited and demanding, dependent on task, indifferent, reserved, and reluctant. It was concluded that programming was found interesting and exciting by a portion of the pupils. The study implies that arousing interest in programming for the naturally uninterested is a challenge and that some pupils may never have interest in programming.
  • Nuutila, Katariina; Tapola, Anna; Tuominen, Heta; Kupiainen, Sirkku; Pásztor, Attila; Niemivirta, Markku (2020)
    In this study, we examined how situational interest, self-efficacy, and performance predict each other during task engagement, and how they, in turn, contribute to continued interest. Finnish fourth-graders (N = 263) did a computerized inductive reasoning task consisting of two sections. Before and after each section, the students reported their situational interest and self-efficacy, and at the end of the task, students stated whether they would like to do similar tasks again (i.e., continued interest). Students’ domain-specific interest and self-concept in mathematics, and gender differences were controlled. A cross-lagged reciprocal effects model with repeated measures, control variables, and outcomes within the structural equation modeling framework was estimated. The results showed situational interest to have a stronger effect on self-efficacy than vice versa, and that they both partly contributed to task performance. Continued interest was influenced only by situational interest at the end of the task. The patterning of predictions across the different stages of the task suggests these effects to be somewhat sensitive to task characteristics.
  • Heikkinen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Recent studies show that motivation, emotion, and interest are engaged in learning. Engagement to learning is a complex entity in which the dynamic interaction between the student and the learning environment is central. In addition, students` ability to influence their own learning, mutual cooperation, and meaningful experience in learning strengthens engagement in learning. Recent curriculum on behalf of transversal competence underlines central meaning of these factors in teaching. This is also topical, as the learning outcomes and motivation of children and young people have fallen in recent years. The purpose of this thesis is to study the factors involved engagement in comprehensive school setting during science learning project on 5.–6. grades. The data (n = 74) was collected in spring 2018 from a local school in a metropolitan area during the phenom-enal science learning process in classes 5–6, which was carried out according to inquiry-based learning. The Experience Sampling Form was developed for this thesis in order to study the students' internal experiences during the learning process. Students responded to the questionnaire six times during the five-week working pe-riod, and field notes were also used during analysis of the thesis. Experience Sampling data was used to gener-ate sum variables (motivation, academic emotions, and interest factors), the interconnection was examined by the Spearmans` rank correlation coefficient. On the second phase, the link between the variables and the stages of work (inquiry based learning) was examined by the Kruskall Wallis test and the paired Mann-Whitney U test. The connection between variables and working methods (researching team, whole class) were examined with Cross-Tabulation Analysis, also observations from field notes were produced and compared with the work stages (teacher guidance, information retrieval, evaluation). The formed variables´ correlation is statistically significant to a large extent with each other, so it is justified to investigate these synergies. On the other hand there were no statistically significant differences between work phases and variables, exception was apathy variable, which had statistically significant difference be-tween question making and evaluation. In terms of working habits, students' experiences (somewhat, much) were evenly distributed with activity, insertion and ability variables. Apathy was less experienced and student experienced both ways of working mainly rewarding. Experience of import was less experienced during the en-tire class work and student had less autonomy experience during both working methods. According to findings, interaction and concentration were the most abundant during the work of the research team. The results of this thesis confirm that learning is not about individual factors, but about the complex process of the student and the learning environment. In addition, the students' ability to actively influence their own work and the students’ mutual work reinforce engagement in learning. In summary, it can also be said that phe-nomenal learning according to inquiry-based learning strengthens students' autonomy, interaction and engage-ment to learning. This is significant, because the current curriculum in particular challenges the implementation of teaching to be more cooperative. However, more information about learning is still needed. The purpose of this thesis could be applied more widely in the field of education research so that the engagement in learning could be explored longer term and in among several classes.
  • Silander, Kristian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Lähes kaikki arjen ilmiöt ja tapahtumat liittyvät jollakin tavalla kemiaan. Makroskooppisella tasolla kemialliset reaktiot, kuten palamisreaktio ja suolan liukeneminen veteen, tai aineen olomuodonmuutokset, kuten jään sulaminen, tuntuvat usein itsestään selviltä. Niiden selittäminen ja ymmärtäminen submikroskooppisella ja abstraktilla tasolla on silti monelle erittäin hankalaa. Draamassa oppilaat voivat esittää esimerkiksi hiukkasia kemiallisissa ilmiöissä ja tapahtumissa, jolloin he muuntavat abstraktit käsitteet ja submikroskooppisen tason ihmisen aistein havaittavalle tasolle. Dramatisointiin liittyy myös vahvat luomisen, tulkitsemisen, tekemisen ja kokemisen tunteet, jotka tehostavat dramatisoinnissa syntyviä assosiaatioita ja muistijälkiä. Oppilaat kokevat draamamuotoiset opetusmenetelmät kiinnostavina ja motivoivina. Draaman soveltuvuutta opetusmenetelmänä onkin tutkittu jo monen vuosikymmenen ajan, mutta siitä huolimatta draamaa käytetään melko harvoin opetustilanteissa. Viime vuosina oppilaiden hiipuva kiinnostus ja motivaatio koulua ja luonnontieteitä kohtaan on aiheuttanut suurta huolta. Mahdollista ratkaisua etsitään draaman lisäksi pelillistämisestä, joka on viimeisimpinä vuosina opetusta käsittelevässä kirjallisuudessa esiin noussut termi. Pelillistäessä opetuksen monia perinteisiä osa-alueita, kuten luentoihin osallistumista, tehtävien tekemistä ja/tai oppimispäiväkirjojen palauttamista, muutetaan pisteytettäväksi arvomerkinnöin palkittavaksi peliksi, minkä on havaittu kohentavan oppilaiden kiinnostusta ja motivaatiota. Tässä työssä tehtiin systemaattinen analyysi draamaa ja pelillistämistä koskevasta kirjallisuudesta luonnontieteiden opetuksen näkökulmasta. Draaman ja pelillistämisen ajatellaan tukevan ja syventävän oppimista, mutta missä määrin aihetta käsittelevä kirjallisuus tukee väitteitä? Kirjallisuuden systemaattisen analyysi hakuprosesseineen ja tuloksineen esitellään ja niistä keskustellaan. Systemaattisessa analyysissä hyväksytyt artikkelit kategorisoidaan ja ryhmitetään niiden aiheen, opetusmetodin ja tutkimuskysymyksen perusteella, jonka jälkeen ryhmittymiä verrataan toisiinsa. Analyysistä käy ilmi, että lähes kaikissa julkaisuissa draamamuotoisen opetusmenetelmä oli oppilaiden mieleen ja sillä saatiin positiivisia oppimistuloksia. Draaman “hyvyyttä” on kuitenkin vaikea osoittaa tilastollisesti. Sitä vastoin kvalitatiivista ja deskriptiivistä näyttöä löytyy oppimiselle, käsitteiden hallinnalle ja muillekin hyödyille, kuten oppilaiden kiinnostuksen, motivaation ja osallisuuden lisäämiselle sekä sosiaalisten taitojen karttumiselle. Vaikka pelillistäminen on uusi nostetta kokeva ja draama hyväksi todettu opetusmenetelmä, on draamamuotoisten opetusmenetelmien pelillistäminen harvinaista. Yhdistelmän potentiaalia olisi syytä tutkia lähemmin.
  • Niilekselä, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Entrance to academic studies does not automatically lead to commitment in one's studies. There may be differences in student commitment across different learning environments. In the present study, combinations of problems in studying medical students experience were investigated in a lecture-based learning environment (n = 246) and in a problem-based learning environment (n = 231). Also differences between the combinations in task avoidance and differences between the combinations in academic achievement were investigated in each learning environment. Medical students were classified in different learning environments by K-means cluster analysis by cases into groups based on the following variables: exhaustion, lack of self-regulation, lack of interest and distress. Three groups of commitment among medical students were identified in the lecture-based learning environment: committed, carefree and dysfunctional students. The profiles were related to task avoidance but not to study success. The committed students expressed less task avoidance than the carefree students and the dysfunctional students. The latter two groups of medical students did not differ from each other in this case. Also three groups of commitment among medical students were identified in the problem-based learning environment: committed, committed carefree and dysfunctional students. The profiles were related to task avoidance and study success. The dysfunctional students expressed more task avoidance than the committed carefree students and the committed students. The latter two groups of medical students did not differ from each other in this case. The committed students and the committed carefree students gained better grades than the dysfunctional students. However, the former two groups of medical students did not differ from each other in this case. The implications of the study for research are discussed.
  • Saarinen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Nuorten kiinnostus luonnontieteitä kohtaan on ollut jo pitkään laskussa. Non-formaaleilla oppimisympäristöillä on tutkimusten mukaan positiivinen vaikutus lasten ja nuorten kiinnostukseen luonnontieteitä kohtaan. Aiemmissa tutkimuksissa on havaittu, että varhaislapsuudessa koetut kiinnostusta herättävät kokemukset tukevat myöhempää kiinnostuksen kehittymistä. Tiedejuhlissa lapset ovat iältään 5-11 vuotiaita, joten ne tarjoavat hyvän mahdollisuuden tutkia erityisesti nuorempien lasten kiinnostuksen kehittymistä. Tiedejuhlat ovat non-formaalioppimisympäristö. Niitä ei kuitenkaan ole aiemmin tutkittu. Teoreettisessa viitekehyksessä tarkastellaan non-formaaleja oppimisympäristöjä ja kiinnostusta. Non-formaaleista oppimisympäristöistä käytetään esimerkkeinä tiedekerhoja ja tiedeleirejä. Kiinnostuksesta käsitellään kiinnostuksen kehittymistä ja painotetaan tilannekohtaisen kiinnostuksen herättämistä. Lisäksi käsitellään vanhempien vaikutusta lasten kiinnostukseen luonnontieteitä kohtaan. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, millaisia mahdollisuuksia tiedejuhlat tarjoavat kiinnostuksen tukemiselle. Tähän tavoitteeseen pyrittiin vastaamaan kolmen tutkimuskysymyksen avulla. Nämä tutkimuskysymykset olivat 1) Millaiset aktiviteetit olivat lasten mielestä kiinnostavia? 2) Mitkä ovat tiedejuhlien parhaat puolet ja kehittämiskohteet vanhempien mielestä? 3) Miksi perheet valitsevat tiedejuhlat? Tutkimuksen aineisto kerättiin lapsilta ryhmähaastattelulla ja vanhemmilta kyselylomakkeella. Aineisto koostuu 27:sta tiedejuhlasta. Aineisto analysoitiin aineistolähtöisellä sisällöanalyysillä. Tiedejuhliin liittyvät ilmiöt ovat hyvin samansuuntaisia kuin tiedeleirien ja tiedekerhojen. Vanhemmat ja lapset pitivät eniten tiedejuhlien laboratorio-osuudesta ja siitä, että lapset saivat tehdä itse paljon. Myös ohjaajan roolia pidettiin tärkeänä. Lasten mielestä kiinnostavimmat aktiviteetit sisälsivät paljon tilannekohtaista kiinnostusta lisääviä tekijöitä kuten yllätyksellisyyttä ja valinnan vapautta. Tiedejuhlien havaittiin kokonaisuudessaan sisältävän paljon tilannekohtaista kiinnostusta lisääviä tekijöitä. Tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan todeta tiedejuhlien herättävän lapsissa tilannekohtaista kiinnostusta. Kehityskohteita vanhemmat eivät nimenneet kuin muutamia. Tästä voidaan päätellä tiedejuhlien olevan jo tällä hetkellä onnistunut konsepti. Tiedejuhlien valintaperusteista esille nousivat erilainen ja kiinnostava ohjelma. Lisäksi vanhemmat toivat esille halun tukea lapsen omaa kiinnostusta luonnontieteitä kohtaan. Tämä tutkimus toi esille paljon tiedejuhliin liittyviä ilmiöitä, joita on mahdollista tutkia tarkemmin tulevissa tutkimuksissa. Jatkotutkimusten tekeminen aiheesta olisi tärkeää aiheen merkittävyyden takia.
  • Merenheimo, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Nuorten kiinnostus luonnontieteiden opiskelua kohtaan on heikentynyt sekä Suomessa että kansainvälisesti ja nuoria hakeutuu luonnontieteellisille aloille yhä vähemmän. Samaan aikaan Eurooppaan tarvitaan yli 700 000 uutta tutkijaa. Eräänä syynä nuorten kiinnostuksen puutteeseen luonnontieteiden opiskelua kohtaan pidetään nuorten stereotyyppistä tutkijakuvaa. Tutkijakuvalla tarkoitetaan henkilön mielikuvia ja käsityksiä tutkijoista. Stereotyyppiseen tutkijakuvaan kuuluvat käsitykset laboratoriotakkiin ja silmälaseihin pukeutuneista miehistä, jotka työskentelevät laboratoriossa tehden kokeita ympärillään monenlaisia tutkimusvälineitä. Stereotyyppisen tutkijakuvan väitetään vaikuttavan negatiivisesti nuorten asenteisiin ja kiinnostukseen luonnontieteiden opiskelua kohtaan ja jopa heidän halukkuuteensa hakeutua opiskelemaan luonnontieteellisille aloille. Suomalaisten lasten ja nuorten tutkijakuvaa ei ole aiemmin kartoitettu. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää suomalaisten lasten ja nuorten käsityksiä tutkijoista. Tutkimuskohteena olivat Helsingin yliopiston LumA-tiedekasvatuskeskuksen kesän 2017 tiedeleireille osallistuneet lapset ja nuoret (N=455). Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin sukupuolen, iän sekä tiedeleirin teeman yhteyttä leiriläisten tutkijakuvaan. Tutkimusmenetelmänä käytettiin kyselylomaketutkimusta, jossa vastaajat piirsivät omiin mielikuviinsa pohjautuvan kuvan tutkijasta. Piirroksia käsiteltiin määrällisenä aineistona. Jokainen piirustus analysoitiin tarkistuslistan avulla, johon listattiin kirjallisuudesta ja aineistosta nostettuja stereotyyppiseen tutkijakuvaan liittyviä piirteitä. Tulokset analysoitiin deskriptiivisellä analyysillä. Sukupuolten välisiä eroja tarkasteltiin khiin neliö -testien ja Mann-Whitneyn U-testin avulla. Iän yhteyttä tutkijakuvaan selvitettiin Kruskal-Wallis -testillä. Tutkimuksen luotettavuutta tarkasteltiin validiteetin ja reliabiliteetin avulla. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että suomalaisilla lapsilla ja nuorilla on stereotyyppisinä pidettyjä käsityksiä tutkijoista, vaikkakin stereotyyppisiä piirteitä esiintyi piirroksissa vähemmän aiempiin tutkimuksiin verrattuna. Tyypillisimmät piirroksissa esiintyneet stereotyyppiset piirteet olivat työskentely sisällä, miestutkija sekä erilaiset tutkimuksen symbolit ja teknologiavälineet. Sukupuolella oli yhteys tutkijakuvaan tyttöjen piirtäessä merkitsevästi enemmän naistutkijoita ja hymyileviä tutkijoita kuin pojat. Vastaajan ikä ei ollut yhteydessä stereotyyppisten piirteiden määrään, toisin kuin aiemmissa tutkimuksissa. Leirin teema oli vahvasti yhteydessä niihin tarvikkeisiin, joita tutkijan ympärille piirrettiin. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin piirrosten tulkinnan olevan subjektiivista ja vaikuttavan tutkimuksen tuloksiin. Siten nuorten tutkijakuvaa tulisi jatkossa kartoittaa useiden metodien avulla. Tämä tutkimus antaa viitteitä tiedeleirien potentiaalista lasten ja nuorten tutkijakuvan muovaamisessa. Tutkimuksen tuloksia voidaan hyödyntää luonnontieteiden opetuksen kehittämisessä sekä formaalissa että nonformaalissa tiedekasvatuksessa: tiedostamalla nuoren oman tutkijakuvan muodostuminen voidaan opetuksessa tarjota oppijalle mahdollisuuksia muodostaa realistisempaa ja monipuolisempaa tutkijakuvaa esimerkiksi tutkijavierailujen ja toiminnallisten aktiviteettien kautta. Tämä voi lisätä nuorten kiinnostusta ja minäpystyvyyttä tutkijan uraa kohtaan.
  • Nuorteva, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The new Finnish curriculum (FNBE, 2014) calls for active and engaging learning that supports students' agency and active role in their own learning. It emphasizes creating meaningful contexts that interrelate also with students' out-of-school interests. Research shows participating with organized out-of-school activities has a positive relation to school grades. In addition, it seems that school engagement is low among Finnish 6th graders (Salmela-Aro et al., 2016). However, little is known of what currently interests Finnish pupils and how their topics of interest are related to academic well-being. This study explores the topics of interest and interest-driven participation and further, their relation to school engagement, school burnout and grades (GPA) of 6th graders. The study was part of Mind the Gap project (Academy of Finland #265528) and the participants (n=735) were 6th graders from Helsinki. I conducted content categorization of the whole sample that showed a rich variation of interests, largest categories being sports (43.8%) and arts (27.9%). The quantitative analyses looked at the intensity and form of the activities. I identified three interest profiles with two-step cluster analysis: Organized team participators, Informal individualistic participators and Intensive participators. The Organized team participators were most interested in team sports. They reported high school engagement, low burnout and high GPA whereas Informal individualistic participators had lower school engagement, high GPA and moderate school burnout. They were the most interested in music and arts. Intensive participators, who were especially interested in social interaction, were engaged to school, but had higher levels of burnout and the lowest GPA. The results indicate lack of supporting interest-driven participation in schools: only Intensive participators were almost as active inside as outside of school. It may be difficult for teachers to adopt new practices that call for supporting interest-driven participation. However, it would be important to use students' personal interests to bridge between school world and students' lives and to promote student agency and support school engagement.
  • Laiho, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract This Master's Thesis originated with an assignment from LUMA2020-program to create mathematics materials to primary education. Previous studies have shown interest to be a major factor in learning mathematics. Therefore, the goal of the material is to be interesting. This thesis leaned on the model by Aunio and Räsäsen (2016) about the development of mathematic skills in children under the age of 8, so that the material could be developed to fit the zone of proximal development. This thesis examines the factors that influence interest in mathematics material. The goal of the thesis is to create interesting mathematical materials for children in primary education. This Master's thesis has been implemented as a design research. Empirical problem analysis has collected data on the aspirations of mathematics materials from teachers and educators who participated in the LUMA2020 program in primary education. The poll was sent to 126 people in total. Based on the responses to this survey (total of 18) and previous research, I created the first design solution. This design solution was assessed as a case study by interviewing the five people who tried the material. Based on the results of the interviews, I created another design solution. According to this master's thesis, meaningful and interesting mathematics material aimed at children in primary education is of the right level and it makes it possible to stream pupils. Functionality and an interesting story that makes actions logical increases interest towards the material. Good and clear instructions for children and adults affect positively to commitment and interest towards the material.
  • Tikkala, Aiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective of the study. Medicine and dentistry are some of the oldest professions in the world and in addition to that also very popular study fields in Finland. Previous research has shown that especially interest in the field of study, altruistic motives and job opportunities are the main reasons why students study medicine or dentistry. Most of the previous studies have been concentrating in the quantitative analysis of study motives. In this study, the centercentre of attention is in the study motives which the students have themselves articulated. The study aims to analyse how these motives express students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Studying the quality of study motivation is crucial since especially intrinsic motivation has been showed to lead to the well-being of the students and better study outcomes. Methods. The research material was collected in the faculty of medicine, the University of Helsinki. The research material was collected with an internet based questionnaire as a part of a study module for first year medicine and dentistry students. The study was conducted by analysing the study motives of 149 students using qualitative abductive content analysis. In addition to that quantitative approach was used for comparison of the number of the motives in different categories. Results and conclusions. The students in this study were motivated by interest in the study subject, factors that related to practising as a doctor or dentist, factors that related to have a professional career and previous personal experiences. Most of these motives could be seen to express the intrinsic motivation of the students. When educating future doctors and dentists the emphasis should be on supporting and fostering students’ intrinsic motivation. This can be done by allowing students to satisfy their basic needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. Previous research has shown that for example mentoring, encouraging and constructive feedback and student-centred teaching methods are useful tools for supporting students’ intrinsic motivation.