Browsing by Subject "kiinteys"

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  • Erämies, Tuijamaija (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    A range of different factors affect the composition of a sausage. The main objectives of this thesis were to research and define which factors have an impact on the firmness of the gel in sausages and to develop a method to define the composition of a warm sausage. Anchoring agents and fillers are added into sausages to improve the composition and flavour and to decrease the manufacturing costs. Most of the anchoring agents are proteins, however starch is also used. Starches are very viable anchoring agents. Gelatinised starches absorb or bind water and make it possible to have more water in a sausage. The research was composed of two phases in which the variables were the ingredients of the sausages. The factors that have an impact on the composition of sausages were analysed using statistical tests and variance analysis. In the first phase of the research a method to measure the firmness of a warm sausage was developed. The density of the gel was measured by sensory analysis and by Instron mechanical testing using the research method. The method was based on raising the core temperature of sausages above 49 °C to make the solid collagen soluble. Using a double boiler the core temperatures of the samples were adjusted to the desired level after which the samples were placed in the Instron mechanical tester in a styrox mold to limit the heat conduction. In addition to the mechanical tests a consumer survey to define the optimal eating temperature was included in the development of the research method. The results obtained by using the research method and the results from the sensory test had a correlation. In the future it is possible to skip sensory testing and use only this method to define the composition of a warm sausage. The method was used in the second phase of the research when studying the effects of different ingredients on the firmness of the gel in sausages. The results indicated that the composition of a sausage does undergo changes when heated.