Browsing by Subject "klusterianalyysi"

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  • Vimpari, Anna-Mari (2008)
    Työni käsittelee Euroopan maiden hyvinvointipolitiikassa vuosituhannen vaihteessa tapahtuneita muutoksia. Erityinen mielenkiinto kohdistuu viiteen Itä-Euroopan maahan. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena pohjana on Gøsta Esping-Andersenin typologia hyvinvointiregiimeistä. Selvitin mahdollisia muutoksia 21 Euroopan maan hyvinvointiregiimeissä vuosien 1996 – 1999 ja 2004 – 2006 välillä. Muuttujina käytin 12 yleistä hyvinvointia kuvaavaa tilastollista muuttujaa, jotka kokosin pääasiassa Eurostatilta. Kartoitin ja vertailin Euroopan maiden sosiaalipoliittisia ratkaisuja rakentamalla ryhmittelymallin klusterisanalyysillä 1990-luvun aineiston pohjalta. Sen jälkeen sijoitin 2000-luvun aineiston samaan kehikkoon tutkiakseni, onko perinteisten hyvinvointiregiimien välille syntynyt eroja. Klusterianalyysin tueksi tein molemmille aikasarjoille myös faktorianalyysin. Tutkin Viron, Liettuan, Latvian, Puolan ja Tšekin sijoittumista perinteiseen regiimikehikkoon ja arvioin, miten näiden maiden hyvinvointia kuvaavat muuttujat ovat kehittyneet taloudellisen siirtymäkauden aikana ja Euroopan unionin jäsenyyden myötä. Kahden aikasarjan kautta avautui myös keskustelu mahdollisesta hyvinvointiregiimien keskinäisestä lähentymisestä sekä regiimejä selittävien muuttujien määritteleminen. Tulosten valossa perinteiset hyvinvointiregiimit pitävät hyvin pintansa. Esping-Andersenin regiimit piirtyvät kartalle myös tämän aineiston tuloksena, eikä kymmenen vuoden aikana ole tapahtunut merkittäviä siirtymiä Länsi-Euroopan regiimien välillä. Tutkimistani Itä-Euroopan maista ainoastaan Tšekki lähentyi selvästi Länsi-Euroopan maita. Baltian maat muodostivat oman, selkeän regiiminsä. Puola oli 1990-luvun aineistolla osa Baltian regiimiä, mutta jäi uudemmalla aineistolla yksin.
  • Latvala-White, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    This thesis investigates the transnational identities among current-day expatriate Finns around the world. It asks, what is the nature of transnational identity among these individuals who have emigrated from Finland? What is the level of their connectedness to their own Finnishness, on one hand, and to supranational identities such as Europeanness and internationality, on the other? The motivation to investigate the topic rises from the notion that the issues related to Finnish people in various expatriate communities, as well as their potential return migration, appears to have growing interest in Finland. The aim is also to contribute to the existing research literature by adding more contemporary theoretical approaches of migration studies to the investigations of expatriate Finns. The data (n=3195) was collected through a survey carried out in research project titled "The Changing Nature of Being an Expatriate Finn: Survey on Emigration and Expatriate Finns" (The Migration Institute of Finland, 2020-2021). Cluster analysis as an example of the so-called person-centered analyses was chosen as a method. The benefits of cluster analysis go hand in hand with the awareness that the focus group, expatriate Finns, is not a homogenous group but that the motivations of these people to move abroad as well as their lifestyles and circumstances vary greatly. Cluster analyses revealed three clearly different groups of people with respect to their Finnishness, Europeanness and internationality. In the first cluster, the three different identity markers were not seen as exclusionary, and a strong attachment to both the country of origin and the host country was not viewed to be incompatible. These individuals possessed the freedom to maintain and reject different sides of their identities depending on the context. The perspective of privilege was also considered, as their mobility was possible due to their relatively high quality of life and the social and human capital obtained over the years. Individuals in the second cluster gave high regard to Finnish identity which had often activated outside of Finland. Negative feelings, such as home sickness and disappointment in the life abroad, were also reported. These individuals also defined Finnishness in rather stereotypical ways and reduced the concept to a few well-known traits. This way, it was easy for them to emphasize their own belongingness to this homogenous category of Finns. Lastly, the individuals in the third cluster rejected the affiliation to the national identity of Finnishness altogether, their perceptions about Finland and other Finns varying from casual indifference to an apparent hostility. Instead, Europeanness and internationality were embraced as identities more inclusive and less particular.
  • Kyrö, Minna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    FTIR spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) is a fast method of analysis. The use of interferometers in Fourier devices enables the scanning of the whole infrared frequency region in a couple of seconds. There is no need to elaborate sample preparation when the FTIR spectrometer is equipped with an ATR accessory and the method is therefore easy to use. ATR accessory facilitates the analysis of various sample types. It is possible to measure infrared spectra from samples which are not suitable for traditional sample preparation methods. The data from FTIR spectroscopy is frequently combined with statistical multivariate analysis techniques. In cluster analysis the data from spectra can be grouped based on similarity. In hierarchical cluster analysis the similarity between objects is determined by calculating the distance between them. Principal component analysis reduces the dimensionality of the data and establishes new uncorrelated principal components. These principal components should preserve most of the variation of the original data. The possible applications of FTIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis have been studied a lot. For example in food industry its feasibility in quality control has been evaluated. The method has also been used for the identification of chemical compositions of essential oils and for the detection of chemotypes in oil plants. In this study the use of the method was evaluated in the classification of hog's fennel extracts. FTIR spectra of extracts from different plant parts of hog's fennel were compared with the measured FTIR spectra of standard substances. The typical absorption bands in the FTIR spectra of standard substances were identified. The wave number regions of the intensive absorption bands in the spectra of furanocoumarins were selected for multivariate analyses. Multivariate analyses were also performed in the fingerprint region of IR spectra, including the wave number region 1785-725 cm-1. The aim was to classify extracts according to the habitat and coumarin concentration of the plants. Grouping according to habitat was detected, which could mainly be explained by coumarin concentrations as indicated by analyses of the wave number regions of the selected absorption bands. In these analyses extracts mainly grouped and differed by their total coumarin concentrations. In analyses of the wave number region 1785-725 cm-1 grouping according to habitat was also detected but this could not be explained by coumarin concentrations. These groupings may have been caused by similar concentrations of other compounds in the samples. Analyses using other wave number regions were also performed, but the results from these experiments did not differ from previous results. Multivariate analyses of second-order derivative spectra in the fingerprint region did not reveal any noticeable changes either. In future studies the method could perhaps be further developed by investigating narrower carefully selected wave number regions of second-order derivative spectra.
  • Joki, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Liikenne on huomattava ilmastonmuutokseen vaikuttava sektori, jolla ei ole saavutettu merkittäviä päästövähennyksiä. Toisin kuin useilla muilla sektoreilla. Erityisesti henkilöautoliikenne on liikennesektorin päästövähennystavoitteiden suhteen ongelmallinen liikennemuoto, koska siihen on vaikea puuttua ilman voimakkaita lainsäädännöllisiä tai poliittisia toimia. Lisäksi henkilöautoliikenteen määrä on lamavuosien väliaikaista pienenemistä lukuun ottamatta ollut Suomessa jatkuvassa kasvussa. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin Suomen henkilöautoliikenteen tulevaisuutta liikennealan asiantuntijoiden näkemysten pohjalta ja muodostettiin henkilöautoliikenneskenaarioita vuoteen 2030. Tutkimuksen aineisto koostui 26 kyselylomakkeesta ja asiantuntijahaastattelusta. Kyselylomakkeiden vastaukset ryhmiteltiin käyttäen klusterianalyysia. Ryhmistä laskettiin klusterikeskukset, jotka muodostivat skenaarioiden "ytimen". Klusterianalyysin tuloksia syvennettiin haastatteluaineistosta poimituilla selittävillä tekijöillä ja sitaateilla. Näin muodostettiin viisi henkilöautoliikenneskenaariota, joita voidaan hyödyntää esimerkiksi tarkasteltaessa henkilöautoliikenteen tulevaisuudennäkymiä ilmastonäkökulmasta ja pyrittäessä kohti ympäristön kannalta kestävää tulevaisuutta liikennesektorilla. Muodostetut skenaariot olivat hyvin monimuotoisia. Osa oli hyvin kasvuorientoituneita niin liikennesuoritteiden kuin päästöjenkin suhteen ja osa taas erittäin kasvukriittisiä. Kasvuorientoituneissa skenaarioissa Materialistisen hyvinvoinnin kasvu ja Politiikkapessimismi liikennesuoritteiden kasvu jatkui. Näissä skenaarioissa myös hiilidioksidipäästöjen kasvu jatkui, mutta paljon loivemmalla kasvu-uralla kuin suoritteet. Skenaariossa Teknologiaoptimismi uskottiin liikennesuoritteiden ja päästöjen absoluuttiseen irtikytkentään eli siihen, että kasvavista suoritteista huolimatta CO2-päästöt kääntyvät laskuun. Skenaariot Tieliikenteestä tietoliikenteeseen ja Henkilöautoliikenteen romahdus olivat huomattavasti kasvuskeptisempiä. Näissä skenaarioissa suoritteiden uskottiin kääntyvän laskuun ja CO2-päästöjen laskevan suoritteitakin nopeammin. Merkittävä ero näiden kahden skenaarion välillä oli kuitenkin se, että Henkilöautoliikenteen romahdus -skenaariossa kokonaishenkilöliikennesuoritteen ei uskottu pienenevän, vaikka henkilöautosuorite romahti. Näin ollen Henkilöautoliikenteen romahdus -skenaariossa liikkuminen ei vähentynyt vaan ainoastaan kulkutapa muuttui. Tieliikenteestä tietoliikenteeseen skenaariossa taas ihmisten liikkuminen kokonaisuudessaan väheni esimerkiksi sähköisen viestinnän ja asioinnin lisääntyessä. Verrattaessa muodostettuja skenaarioita kirjallisuudesta löytyviin liikenneskenaarioihin voitiin todeta, että kasvuorientoituneet skenaariot ennustivat aiempiin skenaarioihinkin verrattuna melko suurta kasvua, kun taas kasvukriittisissä skenaariot uskottiin aiempiin skenaarioihin verrattuna merkittäviin vähennyksiin erityisesti hiilidioksidipäästöjen osalta.
  • Nurttila, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In today's society it is desirable to be successful and continuously progressive. At the same time it is seen important to focus on one's well-being and seeking optimal experiences. In studying, the interaction between motivation and well-being as well as the importance of positive learning experiences is an actual entirety. Taking students conceptions of learning and knowledge into account brings in a richer perspective that has been less frequently studied. Conceptions of learning and knowledge, otherwise epistemologies, are crucial in governing student's ways of interpreting and evaluating information, as well as their view on the learning process. An important recent insight on the field of educational research is the growing idea that motivational, emotional and cognitive dimensions are not only intrinsically significant, but also in intense interaction with each other and with the learning environment. The aim of this study was to investigate what kinds of motivational factors and problems in well-being do novice students experience in their studies, and also what their epistemologies are like. The approach was person-oriented. Motivational factors were: experienced challenge and competence, thinking strategies and attributions, and study engagement. Problems in well-being were measured through emotional dimension (stress, exhaustion) on the one hand, and through motivational dimension (lack of interest, task avoidance) on the other. Epistemologies measured in this study were: collaborative knowledge building, reflective learning, metacognition, certainty of knowledge and practical value. The data (n=785) were collected in spring and autumn 2012 by using a questionnaire developed by RYM Indoor Environment project. The participants were first and second year students from Aalto university of Technology and four departments in University of Helsinki: Department of Teacher education, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Theology, and Faculty of Law. K-means cluster analysis was used for clustering students into homogenous groups that presented their experienced motivational factors. To see whether the groups differed in terms of problems in well-being or epistemologies, Oneway analysis of variance was conducted. Also potential differences in certain background variables were investigated by using crosstabs (gender, study discipline) and Kruskal-Wallis test (age). Three studying profiles were identified: 1) pessimistic, 2) bored, 3) engaged. Pessimistic students reported the lowest study engagement, optimism and competence and the highest task avoidance and problems in well-being. They valued certain knowledge the most. Bored students experienced the lowest challenge, quite low study engagement and moderate optimism, competence and lack of interest. They reported the lowest practical value of knowledge. Engaged students had the highest study engagement, optimism and competence, lowest task avoidance and the least problems in well-being. They valued collaborative knowledge building, reflective learning and metacognition the most. There were not found gender differences between the studying profiles. Instead, it turned out that pessimistic students were the youngest. When comparing different study disciplines, the results indicated that in the Department of Teacher education, as well as in the Faculties of Law and Theology, the largest section of participants was identified as engaged students. Among participants from Aalto university and the Department of Chemistry, the largest section was identified as pessimistic students. This study demonstrates the idea of the dynamic interplay between motivational, emotional and cognitive dimensions in studying. In conclusion, students personal motivational factors, well-being and epistemologies form unique entireties. It can be deduced on the basis of earlier research, that these entireties are of utmost importance regarding studying and can be either worthwhile or detrimental to it. In the future, more proof is needed about the concrete relations and potential effects on study success, for example, as supporting successful studying and graduating on schedule are topical politico-educational subjects in Finland. Also little is known about the relations between well-being and epistemologies. The results of this study could be utilized in developing and designing higher education.
  • Ketonen, Elina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Previous studies indicate that positive learning experiences are related to academic achievement as well as to well-being. On the other hand, emotional and motivational problems in studying may pose a risk for both academic achievement and well-being. Thus, emotions and motivation have an increasing role in explaining university students learning and studying. The relations between emotions, motivation, study success and well-being have been less frequently studied. The aim of this study was to investigate what kind of academic emotions, motivational factors and problems in studying students experienced five days before an exam of an activating lecture course, and the relations among these factors as well as their relation to self-study time and study success. Furthermore, the effect of all these factors on well-being, flow experience and academic achievement was examined. The term academic emotion was defined as emotion experienced in academic settings and related to studying. In the present study the theoretical background to motivational factors was based on thinking strategies and attributions, flow experience and task value. Problems in studying were measured in terms of exhaustion, anxiety, stress, lack of interest, lack of self-regulation and procrastination. The data were collected in December 2009 in an activating educational psychology lecture course by using a questionnaire. The participants (n=107) were class and kindergarten teacher students from the University of Helsinki. Most of them were first year students. The course grades were also gathered. Correlations and stepwise regression analysis were carried out to find out the factors that were related to or explained study success. The clusters that presented students' problems in studying as well as thinking strategies and attributions, were found through hierarchical cluster analysis. K-means cluster analysis was used to form the final groups. One-way analysis of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test and crosstabs were conducted to see whether the students in different clusters varied in terms of study success, academic emotions, task value, flow, and background variables. The results indicated that academic emotions measured five days before the exam explained about 30 % of the variance of the course grade; exhaustion and interest positively, and anxiety negatively. In addition, interest as well as the self-study time best explained study success on the course. The participants were classified into three clusters according to their problems in studying as well as their thinking strategies and attributions: 1) ill-being, 2) carefree, and 3) committed and optimistic students. Ill-being students reported most negative emotions, achieved the worst grades, experienced anxiety rather than flow and were also the youngest. Carefree students, on the other hand, expressed the least negative emotions and spent the least time on self-studying, and like committed students, experienced flow. In addition, committed students reported positive emotions the most often and achieved the best grades on the course. In the future, more in-depth understanding how and why especially young first year students experience their studying hard is needed, because early state of the studies is shown to predict later study success.
  • Salminen, Tuukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Aims of the study. This study seeks to find out what kind of situations students typically face during their progress through university studies and what kind of different pathways can be identified as a series of these situations. The aim was to map out and to develop a clustering-based method of identifying these situations and pathways from student transcript data that would complement the information provided by commonly used measures of student progression. Methods. The research strategy of this study follows that of design research, where methods and new knowledge is built iteratively. The data consists of student transcript data of 3167 students at the University of Helsinki who had started their studies in computer science, mathematics, or general and adult education between the years 2010 and 2015. The data was provided by the Agile Education Research group at the University of Helsinki and contained all records of passed or failed completion attempts that had been recorded by 11.3.2020. The data was shaped to coarser level to be used in cluster analysis and clustered using k-medians clustering. Results and conclusions. The results show that it is possible to use clustering as a tool to better understand student transcript data and the pathways students take through their university degrees. The shown clustering makes it possible to describe the progression of studies both on the individual and group levels. Three clusters defining the starting situations and 22 clusters defining the situations during studies were identified. Transitions between clusters show that series of clusters for several pathways that have different stages and outcomes. In conclusion, the results show that student transcript data contains information which universities could use in efforts aimed at helping students advance in their studies
  • Laakso, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää kuluttajien suhtautumista eri makeuttajiin. Erityistarkastelun alla olivat välipalatuotteisiin liittyvät preferenssit. Tarkoitus oli muodostaa erilaisia kuluttajasegmenttejä sen perusteella, miten kuluttajat suhtautuvat eri makeuttajiin. Lisäksi tarkoituksena oli selvittää kuluttajien sosioekonomisia ja elämäntyyli -taustatekijöitä sekä maidottomien jugurtin ja rahkan kaltaisten tuotteiden kuluttajien tuotepreferenssejä. Tutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys perustui kuluttajakäyttäytymisen ja ruoan valinnan pohjalle. Tutkimuksen lähestymistapa oli kvantitatiivinen ja tutkimusaineisto kerättiin sähköisellä kyselylomakkeella. Aineisto koostui 509 vastaajan tiedoista. Koska keskeisimpänä kohderyhmänä olivat maidottomien rahkan ja jogurtin kaltaisten tuotteiden kuluttajat, aineisto painottui alle 30-vuotiaisiin pääkaupunkiseutulaisiin naisopiskelijoihin. Analyysimenetelminä käytettiin kaksivaiheista klusterianalyysiä, faktorianalyysiä ja ristiintaulukointia. Klusterianalyysissä saatiin muodostettua viisi selkeää kuluttajasegmenttiä: kalorinlaskijat, keinotekoisten välttäjät, sokerihiiret, makean välttäjät ja stevian suosijat. Suurimmat erot kuluttajasegmenttien välillä ilmenivät suhtautumisessa sokereihin, stevioliglykosideihin ja keinotekoisiin makeutusaineisiin. Tilastollisesti merkitseviä eroja ilmeni myös suhtautumisessa muihin makeuttajaryhmiin. Maidottomien rahkan ja jogurtin kaltaisten tuotteiden suurkuluttajista suurin osa oli kalorinlaskijoita ja stevian suosijoita. Nämä ryhmät suosivat energiattomia makeutusaineita sokerin sijaan. Tuloksista ilmeni, että vallitsevat kulutustrendit, kuten luonnollisuus, eivät ole kiinnostavia kaikkien kulutussegmenttien keskuudessa. Eri kuluttajasegmentit suosivat eri makeuttajia, mikä ilmeni myös vastaajien tekemistä maidottomien rahkan ja jogurtin kaltaisten tuotteiden valinnoista. Siksi välipalojen makeutukseen on syytä kiinnittää huomiota. Tuotekehitys ja markkinointiviestintä voivat hakea kilpailuetua erottautumalla kilpailijoista makeuttajavalinnoilla ja terveystietoisiin kuluttajiin vetoavilla tuotteilla ja viestinnällä.
  • Lotsari, Eliisa; Dietze, Michael; Kämäri, Maria; Alho, Petteri; Kasvi, Elina (MDPI, 2020)
    Water 12 7 (2020)
    Macro-turbulent flows (i.e., coherent flow structures reaching through the whole water column), have not been studied widely in northern seasonally frozen rivers during both open-channel and ice-covered flow conditions. Thus, we aim: (1) to detect and compare the macro-turbulent flow, both at open-channel and ice-covered flow conditions; (2) to explore spatial variation of macro-turbulent flow characteristics within a meander bend; and (3) to detect the effects of near-bed layer velocity fluctuation on bedload transport during differing overall flow conditions. The analyses are based on 5–10 min-long acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements from a subarctic river. The ice-covered low flow, and open-channel higher and lower flow conditions were measured over the period of 2016 to 2020. This study found that macro-turbulent flow existed at all measurement locations under both open-channel and ice-covered flow conditions. Macro-turbulent flow was most consistent and obvious in the streamwise velocity component, and in particular at the inlet and outlet of the investigated meander bend. During all seasons, the near-bed velocities consistently exceeded the sufficient amount for sediment transport. At inlet and outlet areas, the greatest near-bed velocity fluctuation across the critical threshold for sediment transport coincided with the measurement times having frequent macro-turbulent flow.
  • Orsi, Francesco; Ciolli, Marvo; Primmer, Eeva; Varumo, Liisa; Geneletti, Davide (Butterworth Scientific, 2020)
    Land Use Policy 99 : 104840
    Forests cover about 40 % of the European Union (EU), providing a wide spectrum of invaluable ecosystem services to more than half a billion people. In order to protect and harness this crucial asset, EU policies are advancing multifunctional management. This study lays a basis for such an effort by mapping the supply of key forest ecosystem services (FES) across the entire EU: wood, water supply, erosion control, pollination, habitat protection, soil formation, climate regulation and recreation. To further support the operationalization of multifunctionality and targeting of policies, our analysis delineates hotspots, assesses synergies and tradeoffs, and identifies spatial bundles. We generated maps at 1-km resolution starting from existing datasets through simple modelling (Tier 1). Out of these maps, we denoted the highest supplying pixels (i.e. top 20 %) as hotspots, and performed correlation analysis to detect synergies and tradeoffs. Finally, we used cluster analysis to identify FES bundles. Our analysis shows that hotspots of single FES are spread across the entire EU and that forests of mountain regions and Central Europe (particularly France, Germany, Slovakia) supply significant amounts of multiple FES. The cluster analysis resulted in four bundles: “balanced” in the northeast, “wood & water” in the center, “soil carbon” in the north and “rural-recreational” in the south. While a purely quantitative analysis of the produced maps may be misleading because of the strong links between FES supply and climatic and socio-economic conditions, overlaying hotspots and bundles with administrative layers can be a first step to inform about the role of different countries and regions in securing the sustainable supply of European FES.
  • Pehkonen, Riikka-Lotta (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aim of the Study: The aim of this study is to examine the conceptions of learning and knowledge of subject teacher students at the beginning of their pedagogical studies, and to find out what kind of groups the students may be divided into at the basis of their conceptions of learning and knowledge. The aim is to also find out how age of the student, level of prior education, their major subject, their approach to learning (deep/surface learning) and their mindset (growth or fixed mindset) relate to their conceptions of learning and knowledge and to the groups based on their conceptions of learning and knowledge. Methods The Subject Teacher Students (N=166) have completed a questionnaire on an e-form at the start of their course of the psychology of learning and development, at the beginning of their subject teacher studies. The quantitative material has been analysed by creating a sum variable of each of the areas of conceptions of learning and knowledge; Collaborative knowledge building, Reflective learning, Valuing metacognition, Certainty of knowledge and Practical value. On the basis of the sum variables was created clusters by k-means cluster analysis. These sum variable and the clusters that based on the sum variables were analysed in relation to the background data and the sum variables of their approaches to learning and their mindset trough variance analysis and cross tables. The students' views about learning were also examined trough material-based content analysis. The Conclusion The subject teacher student value collaborative knowledge building, reflective learning, metacognition and deep approach to learning and show a growth mindset already at the beginning of their pedagogical studies. In the cluster analysis the students formed three groups. The Theoretics (30.5 %), valued Certainty of knowledge and Practical value the least, and expressed least surface approach and fixed mindset out of the groups. The Communal Professionals (34.3 %) scored the highest scores of the groups in all the areas of conceptions of learning and knowledge. The Factoriented students (36.1 %) expressed least apprehension of reflective learning and metacognition out of the groups, and personified quite high valuation of practical knowledge and certainty of knowledge.
  • Pykäläinen, Iris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Terveyspalveluilla on iso rooli eurooppalaisissa hyvinvointivaltioissa, ja tällä hetkellä eurooppalaiset terveydenhuoltojärjestelmät käyvät läpi merkittäviä muutoksia muun muassa väestön ikääntymisen seurauksena. Myös Suomessa suunniteltu sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollon uudistus (sote-uudistus) on osa tätä kehitystä. Tyytyväisyys hyvinvointivaltion instituutioita kohtaan kiinnittyy vahvasti hyvinvointivaltion oikeutukseen, ja siksi kansalaisten mielipiteet ja asenteet tulisi ottaa huomioon terveydenhuoltojärjestelmiä uudistettaessa. Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan, miten tyytyväisyys terveydenhuoltojärjestelmiä kohtaan Euroopassa muodostuu. Tutkielman analyysimenetelmät ovat monitasoanalyysi ja klusterianalyysi, ja työssä liikutaan makro- (terveydenhuoltojärjestelmät) ja mikrotasolla (yksilöt). Aineistoina käytetään OECD:n Health Statistics 2017 ja European Social Survey 2014 -aineistoja. Tyytyväisyyden havainnointia varten 19 eurooppalaista terveydenhuoltojärjestelmää luokitellaan klusterianalyysin avulla ja saaduista ryhmistä muodostetaan terveydenhuoltoregiimit. Monitasoanalyysissä 17 Euroopan maasta koostuvan aineiston kautta tunnistetaan ne tekijät, jotka vaikuttavat tyytyväisyyteen terveydenhuoltoa kohtaan Euroopassa. Tyytyväisyyden vahvimmiksi selittäjiksi nousivat luottamus politiikkaan, hoitojonojen pituus hoidon saannissa, ikä, sukupuoli, koettu terveys, työmarkkina-asema, asuinpaikka ja terveydenhuollon kokonaismenot asukasta kohden. Kaikkein tyytyväisimpiä terveydenhuoltojärjestelmiin ovat yksilöt, jotka luottavat oman maansa politiikkaan ja poliittisiin toimijoihin, miehet, nuoret, eläkeläiset, terveet ja isoissa kaupungeissa asuvat. Kaikkein tyytymättömämpiä terveydenhuoltoon ovat iältään 35-74-vuotiaat, sairaat, naiset, työlliset, isojen kaupunkien ulkopuolella asuvat ja henkilöt, jotka eivät luota politiikkaan ja poliittisiin toimijoihin. Tyytyväisyys terveydenhuoltoon on suurempaa, mitä isommat terveydenhuollon kokonaismenot ovat asukasta kohden. Tyytyväisyys terveydenhuoltoon on monitasoinen ilmiö. Tyytyväisyyteen voidaan vaikuttaa politiikalla ja terveydenhuoltojärjestelmien rakenteilla. Erityisesti hoitoonpääsyn ja hoidon saatavuuden yhdenvertaisuuteen ja oikeudenmukaisuuteen panostamalla voidaan vaikuttaa kansalaisten kokemuksiin terveydenhuollosta ja sitä kautta tyytyväisyyteen järjestelmää kohtaan.
  • Tikkanen, Lotta (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Well-being at work is challenged by problems in employee–working environment fit. Therefore job stress can occur. Employees can use several strategies to adjust the fit and gain better well-being. If the job-stress is prolonged, it may eventually cause burnout. Previous studies indicate that burnout is related to problems in working community, individual well-being and turnover. In the educational field employees experience more job stress and burnout symptoms than in other fields. Only a few studies have been done about school principals' well-being. Therefore the aims of the research were to analyze school principals' well-being and to investigate if proactive strategies, principal–working environment fit and turnover intentions relate to challenges of well-being. Research data was gathered as a part of a wider, national research project called Learning, agency and pedagogical well-being in comprehensive school (Pyhältö, Pietarinen & Soini, 2014). The participants were selected with random sampling method (N=6000). Altogether 2310 teachers and principals completed the questionnaire. Principals and assistant principals (from now on: principals, n=420) were selected for this research. Principals were clustered into different groups based on the challenges of well-being they reported. Those challenges were measured in terms of job stress and burnout symptoms. The clusters that represented burnout symptoms and job stress were formed through hierarchical cluster analysis, K-Means cluster analysis and discriminant function analysis. One-way analysis of variance and crosstabs were conducted to see, whether principals in different clusters varied in terms of proactive strategies, principal–working environment fit, turnover intentions and background variables. Results indicate that on average the principals are doing quite well. Even so, quite a lot of them reported turnover intentions. It was possible to cluster principals into four groups: 1) principals, who experience well-being, 2) cynical principals, 3) principals, who experience burnout and 4) principals in danger of burn out. The cluster membership was related to proactive self-regulating strategies, principal–working environment fit and turnover intentions. Principals who experience well-being reported the best principal–working environment fit, strongest proactive self-regulating strategies and less turnover intentions. Cynical principals reported quite strong proactive self-regulating strategies, second worst principal–working environment fit and some turnover intentions. Principals who experience burnout reported weakest proactive self-regulating strategies, worst principal–working environment fit and most turnover intentions. Principals in danger of burn out reported quite good principal–working environment fit, quite weak proactive strategies and lots of turnover intentions. In future there is a need to better understand the development of school principal burnout and the motives behind school principals' turnover intentions.
  • Maksniemi, Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The present study used person-oriented approach to identify subgroups of principals characterized by unique patterns of work engagement and work passion. Drawing on the dualistic model of passion, both harmonious and obsessive passion were assessed. Furthermore, it was examined whether the subgroups differed in regard to work satisfaction, work pace, burnout, life satisfaction and work-family conflict. Methods. Data was collected with self-report questionnaires assessing Finnish school principals’ well-being. The final sample consisted of 535 principals, of which majority (68.7 %) worked in elementary school or high school (23.8 %). Study of work engagement and work passion profiles was conducted by K-means cluster analysis and differences between the profiles regarding the assessed variables were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). To furthermore explore the differences, Tukey’s post hoc tests were performed. Results. Four groups of engagement and passion were identified: Moderately engaged (31 %), Harmonious–Engaged (26 %), Disengaged (25 %) and Obsessive–Engaged (18 %). The groups differed significantly with regard to all the variables examined. Principals belonging to the group Harmonious–Engaged were most satisfied with their work and life in general whereas Disengaged principals were experiencing high levels of dissatisfaction, burnout and work-family conflict. Conclusions. The results show that principals display variegated patterns of work engagement and that work passion and work engagement play an important role in well- being both in work and non-work contexts. The results draw attention to the Finnish school principals’ well-being, which is not only crucial in its own right, but also effects the teachers’ and students’ well-being and thus can be seen as an important societal matter.
  • Niilekselä, Pia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Entrance to academic studies does not automatically lead to commitment in one's studies. There may be differences in student commitment across different learning environments. In the present study, combinations of problems in studying medical students experience were investigated in a lecture-based learning environment (n = 246) and in a problem-based learning environment (n = 231). Also differences between the combinations in task avoidance and differences between the combinations in academic achievement were investigated in each learning environment. Medical students were classified in different learning environments by K-means cluster analysis by cases into groups based on the following variables: exhaustion, lack of self-regulation, lack of interest and distress. Three groups of commitment among medical students were identified in the lecture-based learning environment: committed, carefree and dysfunctional students. The profiles were related to task avoidance but not to study success. The committed students expressed less task avoidance than the carefree students and the dysfunctional students. The latter two groups of medical students did not differ from each other in this case. Also three groups of commitment among medical students were identified in the problem-based learning environment: committed, committed carefree and dysfunctional students. The profiles were related to task avoidance and study success. The dysfunctional students expressed more task avoidance than the committed carefree students and the committed students. The latter two groups of medical students did not differ from each other in this case. The committed students and the committed carefree students gained better grades than the dysfunctional students. However, the former two groups of medical students did not differ from each other in this case. The implications of the study for research are discussed.
  • Mukala, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In Finland, the vast majority of students complete their university degree later than the target times propose. This has been acknowledged to be problematic on a societal level. In previous studies, students' self-regulatory skills have risen as a main factor when the impeding and enhancing factors of studying have been explored. In addition to self-regulatory skills, students' academic emotions have been found to influence study performance. According to earlier studies, it is also relevant how students deal with their emotions. Psychologically flexible students are able to embrace their emotions and they are capable of living their lives according to their values. The aim of this study is to explore the self-regulatory skills, academic emotions and psychological flexibility of students in the Faculty of Humanities in University of Helsinki and the relationships between these concepts. In addition, a point of interest is how these factors are linked to study performance. The research data was collected by a survey. In addition the information of students' average scores and the amount of student credits were collected from the study register. 258 students responded to the questionnaire. Dimensions of self-regulation, academic emotions and psychological flexibility were explored by factor analysis and the links between these dimensions were examined by correlation analysis. In addition students were grouped based on their self-regulatory skills, psychological flexibility and experienced emotions by using two-step cluster analysis. The differences of the groups' study pace and means of grades were examined using one-way analysis of variance. Students felt that they are psychologically quite flexible, and they experienced more positive emotions than negative emotions. They also had rather good self-regulation skills. Psychological flexibility was associated with a feeling of hopefulness, and emotions were found to correlate with each other. However, there was no correlation between psychological flexibility and the regulation of learning. On the basis of cluster analysis, the students were classified into three groups: 1) hopeful, self-regulating and psychologically flexible students 2) students who have a contradictory attitude towards studying and have challenges in the regulation learning, and 3) students who experience feelings of anxiety and shame. There was no difference between the groups in the number of credits and the averages of grades. In the future, more information is needed about why some students experience a lot of negative emotions related to learning, and how important psychological flexibility is to the well-being of students and to study performance.