Browsing by Subject "kognitiivinen suoriutuminen"

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  • Nykänen, Irina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives: Lateral ventricles (LVs) of the brain enlarge with age, and their size is also affected by e.g. shrinking of the brain as well as some perinatal risks. In adults, large size of LVs is assumed to indicate brain atrophy and it has been noticed to correlate with poorer cognitive performance especially in elderly. In the present study, the size of LVs and cognitive performance is studied in Finnish adults with perinatal risks. The focus of interest is in whether LVs are larger in those with perinatal risks compared to controls, whether there is a relationship between the size of LVs and cognitive performance, and if it is possible to estimate cognitive performance using the relative size of LVs. Methods: The present study is part of a larger longitudinal birth cohort research project examining children with perinatal risk factors. The present sample (n = 313) consists of those 39-45-year-old individuals who participated in the latest follow up study. Some of them were controls and some belonged to one of following perinatal risk groups: low birth weight (LBW), asphyxia or hyperbilirubinemia. LVs size variables (cm3) and VCR (ventricle to cranial ratio) were calculated from participants' MRI data using VolBrain software. Cognitive performance was measured using the scores of neuropsychological tests. Results and conclusions: According to the results, VCR of those in LBW group was larger compared to controls. In hyperbilirubinemia group both VCR and left LV were indicatively larger compared to controls. Nevertheless, overall differences in means were small. There were moderate correlations at most between the LV size variables and cognitive performance mainly in asphyxia and hyperbilirubinemia groups. Correlations indicated that there were association between larger LVs and poorer cognitive performance although exceptions were also found. Cognitive performance could be estimated using VCR only in two of seven examined variables in whole risk group. Present study offers preliminary results about the the size of LVs and its association to cognitive performance in groups with perinatal risks, which haven't been studied before. Based on the results it is possible to start formulating more focused questions e.g. about the neurocognitive aging or reasons behind larger LVs in perinatal risk groups. The answers to these questions could be found using longitudinal study designs.
  • Pajunen, Sara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. Literature is sparse regarding the prevalence of observable concussion signs and their association with recovery of young athletes. For a long time loss of consciousness was thought to be an indicator of a more severe injury, but lately the association between amnesia and recovery is considered to be stronger. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of observable concussion signs (loss of consciousness, amnesia, disorientation, balance problems, vacant stare, facial injury) and their association with cognitive performance (verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, visuomotor speed) and subjective symptoms seven days after injury in junior ice hockey players. Methods. The sample (n = 58) for this thesis was collected as a part of the Pää Pelissä -study and consisted of junior ice hockey players that suffered a concussion during game season 2015–2016 or 2016–2017. Subjects were Finnish males between ages 14 to 20 years (M = 16.88, SD = 1.61). Players participated in a baseline assessment before the season and a post concussion assessment seven days after injury. Medical personnel from the teams of each subject reported concussion signs based on SCAT3’s sideline assessment. ImPACT test battery was used to assess cognitive performance and subjective symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to analyse the association with observable concussion signs and cognitive performance and the association between observable signs and subjective symptoms was analysed using a logistic regression analysis. Results and conclusions. Disorientation was reported in 70 %, balance problems in 49 %, blank/vacant stare in 40 %, amnesia in 26 %, loss of consciousness in 21 % and facial injury in 17 % of the players. At least one sign was observed with 93 % of the concussions, most often one (28 %) or two (28 %) signs were observed. Loss of consciousness predicted worse verbal memory performance on post concussion assessment and explained 16 % of the performance. Amnesia showed similar association and explained 12 % of verbal memory performance but the model didn’t quite reach statistical significance (p = .07). There was no association with concussion sings and subjective symptoms on post concussion assessment. Based on the results special attention should be focused on the recovery follow up of the concussions with loss of consciousness or amnesia.
  • Antila, Kirsti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objective: Concussions are typically linked to high-speed sports. Within the domain of acquired brain injuries, particularly children and adolescents have been identified as being at an elevated risk. In general, concussions are associated with relatively rapid recovery rates. To this end, the aim of the current study was to examine whether previous history of concussions of the sports player may be associated with cumulative effects on cognitive functions, difficulties with balance, and/ or increasing self-evaluated symptoms. The participants underwent a preseason baseline evaluation. Methods: The data used in this study were collected from 751 Finnish youngsters aged 12-20, who were junior ice-hockey players during the summer of 2015. Data collection focused on cognitive functioning (verbal and visual memory, visuomotor speed, reaction speed, impulse control, orientation, attention, and reading speed), balance control, and self-reported symptoms. The data were categorized on the basis of both the number and the severity of the participant's previous concussions, resulting in three groups as follows: (1) control group (no history of concussions; 494 players), (2) the concussion group 1 (1-2 concussions, which did not involve loss of consciousness; 123 players), and (3) the concussion group 2 (at least one concussion, accompanied by loss of consciousness, or at least 3 concussions, which did not involve loss of consciousness; 92 players). In the data analysis, between-group comparisons were performed with respect to cognitive functioning, balance control, as well as the quality and quantity of self-reported symptoms. Results: Taken together, the current results indicated that all the junior ice-hockey players with a history of concussions had recovered to such an extent that they did not significantly differ from the controls in either measures of cognitive functioning or balance control. However, self-reported symptoms increased with the brain injury severity and frequency. The self-report form used in this study comprised a total of 22 symptoms, of which five (vomiting, headache, difficulty with falling asleep, feeling mentally foggy) yielded statistically significant differences between the concussion groups. The findings further suggested that the measures used to obtain the baseline level of functioning of the participants may not be of sufficient sensitivity to reliably discriminate those with a history of concussions from controls in cognitive functioning and balance control.
  • Vuori, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Test anxiety is related to impaired performance in different cognitive tasks. Relation between test anxiety and performance has been found mainly in mathematical, visual and working memory tasks but also in overall performance in WAIS-III -version. This Master's thesis examines the relation between test anxiety and cognitive task performance encompassing in WAIS-IV -test. Sample benefits WAIS-IV's Finnish standardization sample. The test anxiety estimation was taken in 599 cases by the researcher and in 611 cases by self evaluation. 262 (44 %) of those evaluated by the researcher experienced little, medium or a lot of anxiety. 299 (49 %) of the self evaluation examinees experienced little, medium or a lot of anxiety. Test anxiety was noticed to be related to cognitive performance in subtests, indices and overall performance. Test anxiety was evaluated by the researcher and was noticed to be related to subtests that measure working memory, perceptual reasoning and processing speed negatively. Test anxiety evaluated by the researcher was related to all indices where as self reported test anxiety was related to only working memory index and perceptual reasoning index. As evaluated by the researcher more differences were found both in subtests and in the indices than the results of self reported test anxiety. Regardless of the evaluation (by the researcher or self reported) test anxiety was related to both Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI). Based on this Master's thesis it can be said that test anxiety has a comprehensively negative relation to cognitive test performance. Test anxiety weakens individual's test performance and abilities to adduce thoroughly which sets a risk to misinterpretation and underestimation of one's abilities in evaluating cognitive capacity in clinical work. Therefore attention should be paid to test anxiety in test situations.
  • Tarhonen, Rilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tavoitteet Kaksosuuteen liittyy monenlaisia pre- ja perinataalivaiheissa esiintyviä riskejä, jotka voivat vaikuttaa kognitiiviseen kehitykseen. Kaksosten kognitiivista suoriutumista on kuitenkin tutkittu verrattain vähän etenkään aikuisuudessa, eikä syntymäriskien vaikutusta ole useimmiten huomioitu. Tässä tutkielmassa pyrittiin selvittämään syntymäriskiaineistolla, eroaako kaksosten kognitiivinen suoriutuminen yksösistä 5-, 9-, ja 40-vuoden ikävaiheissa. Lisäksi pyrittiin selvittämään, eroaako syntymäriskejä omaavien kaksosten suoriutuminen kaksosista, joilla syntymäriskejä ei ollut. Menetelmät Tutkielman aineisto on peräisin KOPUTUS (Kognition pitkittäistutkimus) -tutkimusprojektista. Projektissa on seurattu 1970-74 vuosina kerättyä syntymäriskikohorttia sekä myöhemmin kerättyjä kontrolleja 40-45 -vuoden ikään saakka. Aineisto jaettiin neljään ryhmään: riskikaksoset, kontrollikaksoset, riskiyksöset ja kontrolliyksöset. Ryhmien kognitiivista suoriutumista verrattiin kolmessa ikävaiheessa. Viiden ja 9-vuoden ikävaiheessa mittarina toimi ITPA (Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities), sekä 9-vuoden vaiheessa myös WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). Aikuisiän kognitiivisen suoriutumisen mittarina oli WAIS-IV (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV), sekä korkein saavutettu koulutustaso. Analyysit toteutettiin regressioanalyyseina, joissa ryhmien eroja tarkasteltiin referenssikategoriaa vaihtamalla. Saavutettu koulutustaso oli kaksiluokkainen muuttuja, joten sen analysoinnissa käytettiin logistista regressioanalyysia. Analyysit toteutettiin kahdessa vaiheessa: ensimmäisessä huomioitiin pelkästään ryhmät, jälkimmäisessä lisäksi taustamuuttujia ja syntymäriskejä muiden kuin kaksosuuden efektien kontrolloimiseksi. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset Kaksosten kognitiivisessa suoriutumisessa suhteessa yksösiin oli vaihtelua ikävaiheiden ja arviointimenetelmien välillä. Kaksoset suoriutuivat kuitenkin kaikissa ikävaiheissa heikommin tai korkeintaan yhtäläisesti kuin yksöset Riskikaksosten ja kontrollikaksosten välisessä tarkastelussa kontrollikaksoset suoriutuivat paremmin 5- ja 40 -vuoden ikävaiheissa.Taustamuuttujien ja syntymäriskien huomiointi hävitti osan, mutta ei läheskään kaikkia eroja ryhmien välillä. On siten mahdollista, että kaksosten suoriutumiseen on vaikuttanut syntymäriskien lisäksi jokin kaksosspesifi tekijä. Kaksosten kognitiivista suoriutumista olisi hyvä tarkastella enemmän aikuisuuteen asti ulottuvilla aineistoilla sekä huomioiden syntymäriskit.
  • Viertola, Hannele (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Concentration as a cognitive function is closely related to attention which has many definitions. Functional subsystems of attention are crucial in cognitive processing and attention is related to cognitive performance. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is a test designed to measure cognitive performance and the newest, fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV) has also been standardized in Finland. Because attention is crucial in cognitive processing it is relevant to examine the association between concentration difficulties and cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. This Master's thesis is based on WAIS-IV's Finnish standardization sample. Observation of concentration difficulties by the examiner was available in 600 cases and self-evaluation by the examinee in 607 cases. In 580 cases both evaluations were available. Based on examiner observation 358 (59,7%) of subjects experienced little, medium or a lot of concentration difficulties. Based on self-evaluation 419 (69%) of the examinees experienced little, medium or a lot of concentration difficulties. Differences between the evaluations were found in distributions of concentration difficulties groups and in relations between concentration difficulties and cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. Concentration difficulties evaluated by the researcher were related to almost all subtests, all indices, General Ability Index (GAI) and to Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) where as self reported concentration difficulties were not related to cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. The results show that concentration difficulties are common and they may have an overall negative relation to cognitive test performance. One of the main purposes in clinical neuropsychological examination is to evaluate the optimal cognitive performance level of the examinee. For this reason it is crucial to pay attention to negative relation of concentration difficulties to cognitive test performance. This improves the reliability of the clinical evaluation of cognitive performance.
  • Paalasmaa, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Aims. Knowledge of performance in other areas of cognitive processing in children with specific language impairment is contradictory. The aim of this study was to research verbal and cognitive performance as well as intelligence of children with specific language impairment using neuropsychological evaluation data. In addition, the methods used to evaluate neuropsychological processing of the children and their school recommendations were studied. Methods. The participants (N=67) were diagnosed with F80.1 and / or F80.2 in Lastenlinna hospital in 1998-1999 and were neuropsychologically evaluated in 1996 2001. The study retrospectively examined which methods of evaluation were used to assess children with specific language impairment. The participants' test battery scores were gathered. Descriptions of spontaneity, ability to cooperate and concentrate as well as school recommendations were gathered from neuropsychologists' reports. Occurrences of and connections between variables were analyzed with descriptive statistics, graphs, t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs and contrasts. Results and conclusions. The methods used to neuropsychologically evaluate children with specific language impairment in Lastenlinna hospital in 1996 2001 included different versions of Wechsler intelligence scales with which verbal and non-verbal processing were analyzed. In addition, the neuropsychological evaluation was often augmented with the linguistic subtests of Nepsy and Nepsu. The participants performed worse than standard on verbal tasks, whereas in non-verbal tasks their performance was close to standard. Participants with expressive language disorder F80.1 had the verbal IQ close to normal, and only participants with receptive language disorder F80.2 had a significantly low verbal IQ. Children with specific language impairment were mostly recommended to participate in prolonged primary education, full-time special education or general education. The school recommendations were connected to verbal performance: the more severe the problems with language, the more rehabilitating education was recommended. The evaluation of children with specific language impairment should be more comprehensive so that a clearer picture of their cognitive processing and ability to function could be attained. The difference between the verbal and non-verbal performance
  • Jaalas, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Introduction. Cognitive performance and school engagement have been shown to affect school performance from childhood through adolescence to adulthood. Higher working memory performance and attentional skills can predict success in many different school subjects, such as math, English and science. Individual differences in executive attention have also been shown to predict the length of education from childhood to adulthood. Studies have also shown that motivational characteristics such as school engagement can predict school achievements and the years of schooling attained. Only a few studies have tried to investigate the joint effects that cognitive skills and motivational characteristics have on school performance. This study aims to examine how cognitive skills (working memory and attention) and school engagement jointly affect school performance in Finnish adolescent students. One aim was also to find out if school engagement mediates the connection between cognitive performance and school performance. Methods. The current study included 105 volunteering adolescents (53 females) who participated in the Mind the Gap (2012 – 2016) study that was funded by the Academy of Finland. The study included two age groups: 13–14 year olds (n=50) and 16–17 year olds (n=55). Participants performed tasks that measured working memory performance and executive attention and they filled out a questionnaire that included the school engagement inventory. School achievement was evaluated with both official grades and students self-assessed grades. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the relationships between the examined variables. Results and conclusions. The study showed that both cognitive performance and school engagement predicted school performance. Especially the connections between self-assessed grades and cognitive performance and school engagement were more significant than connections with official grades. This study did not find a significant relationship between cognitive performance and school engagement, which means that there was no significant mediation between cognitive performance, school engagement and school performance. This study provides further scientific evidence that cognitive performance and school engagement both affect school performance. Even though cognitive skills and school engagement were not significantly related in this study, it would be important to conduct more research on this topic in the future.
  • Taulavuori, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. As the population is aging, it is important to support healthy aging. Active musical hobbies, like choir singing, are a promising tool for this. So far, there are only a few controlled studies that explore the benefits of choir singing. The aim of this study was to investigate how choir singing is associated with social support, mood and cognitive performance. In addition, the association between choir singing and musical engagement as well as the associations between musical engagement and social support and mood were examined. Methods. Healthy seniors (N=105) aged 60 years and older (mean age 71 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the subjects, 61 subjects were choir singers and 44 were controls. A majority (70 %) of the subjects were female with, on average, short-cycle tertiary level education. Perceived social support, mood and musical engagement were assessed with questionnaires. General cognition, executive function, working memory and verbal short-term memory were assessed with neuropsychological tests. The association of choir singing with social support, mood, cognitive performance and musical engagement were examined with analyses of covariance (ANCOVA). Associations of musical engagement with social support and mood were examined with correlation analyses. Results. Compared to the control group, the choir singers had higher scores on the Social Provisions Scale, especially in general social support, attachment, social integration and guidance, but not in reassurance of worth, reliable alliance or opportunity for nurturance. There was no difference between the groups on mood or cognitive performance. The choir singers also reported higher musical engagement on almost all scales of the Music Engagement Questionnaire compared to the controls. Musical engagement was associated especially with general social support, social integration and reassurance of worth. Conclusion. This study supports and elaborates on previous evidence of social benefits of choir singing, but not emotional or cognitive benefits. Social characteristics of choir singing are a major advantage compared to other leisure activities. Instead, choir singing does not stand out from other leisure activities with its emotional and cognitive qualities. This study addresses the close relationship between choir singing and musical engagement which in turn, is associated with social support. These findings can be utilized to support healthy aging and in prevention, for example, of loneliness.
  • Lampinen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Masennus on yleinen ja kansanterveydellisesti merkittävä sairaus, josta aiheutuu merkittävää haittaa ja kärsimystä yksilölle. Masennusta esiintyy vuosittain n. 8 % suomalaisväestöstä. Kognitiivisilla toiminnoilla tarkoitetaan aivojen tiedonkäsittelyprosesseja, jotka mahdollistavat sujuvan toiminnan jokapäiväisessä elämässä suunnittelusta laskutoimituksiin ja muistisuoriutumiseen. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, millainen masennuspotilaiden kognitiivinen suoriutuminen on ja eroaako se terveiden kontrollihenkilöiden kognitiivisesta suoriutumisesta. Lisäksi tarkasteltiin, onko jokin tietty masennukseen liittyvä oire, kuten ruminaatio tai anhedonia, yhteydessä kognitiiviseen suoriutumiseen. Tutkimus koostui 38 masennuspotilaasta ja 31 perusterveestä kontrollihenkilöstä, joille tehtiin neuropsykologinen tutkimus. Toiminnanohjauksen eri komponentteja tutkittiin Trail Making -testillä (TMT-A ja -B), Reyn kuviotestillä ja Lontoon torni -testillä. Työmuistia arvioitiin Numerosarjat ja Kirjain-numerosarjat -tehtävillä ja prosessointinopeutta Merkkikokeella (WAIS-III). Masennuspotilaiden masennusoireilua kartoitettiin BDI-21 - ja PHQ-9 -kyselyillä, ruminaatiotaipumusta RSQ-kyselyllä ja anhedoniaa SHAPS-kyselyllä. Lisäksi masennuspotilaiden maniaoireilua, epävakaan persoonallisuushäiriön piireitä ja ahdistuneisuusoireilua seulottiin MDQ-, BPD- ja OASIS-kyselyillä. Masennuspotilaiden kognitiivinen suoriutuminen oli työmuistin osalta heikompaa verrattuna kontrollihenkilöihin Numerosarjoissa eteenpäin ja taaksepäin, sekä lähestyi tilastollista merkitsevyyttä Kirjain-numerosarjoissa. Muissa kognitiivisen suoriutumisen komponenteissa ei havaittu eroa masennuspotilaiden ja kontrollihenkilöiden välillä. Oirekyselyt eivät olleet masennusryhmän sisällä yhteydessä kognitiiviseen suoriutumiseen korrelatiivisesti tarkasteltuna. Masennuspotilaiden heikompi suoriutuminen työmuistitesteissä oli linjassa aiempien tutkimustulosten kanssa, kun taas toiminnanohjauksen ja prosessointinopeuden osalta tulos erosi aiemmasta tutkimustiedosta. Heikompi työmuistisuoriutuminen vaatii jatkotutkimuksia ja voi mahdollisesti olla osa-alue, joka voidaan huomioida masennuspotilaan hoidossa sekä psykoedukaation että kuntoutuksen osalta.
  • Birling, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims: First-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with widespread cognitive impairment. Anxiety and depression symptoms are common in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum patients, but as far as is known a sense of mastery reflecting positive psychological resources has not been previously studied in this group of patients. The aim of this study was to find out whether anxiety and depression symptoms as well as sense of mastery are related to cognitive performance in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum patients. Methods: The study was based on a sample of data collected in the Helsinki Psychosis Study, which included first-episode schizophrenia spectrum patients (N=40) and matched population controls (N=62). Cognitive performance was evaluated by several commonly known tasks, anxiety and depression symptoms with a BPRS-E interview and sense of mastery with Pearlin and Schooler's mastery scale. The relationship between anxiety and depression symptoms as well as sense of mastery and cognitive performance was studied with Spearman’s correlation coefficients and linear regression analyses where gender, age, and years of education were controlled for. Findings and conclusions: In the first-episode schizophrenia spectrum patients, more severe anxiety symptoms were associated with better performance in a task requiring immediate verbal memory. When gender, age, and years of education were controlled for, anxiety symptoms were no longer related to memory performance. Depression symptoms and sense of mastery were not related to cognitive performance. In the controls, increase of anxiety and depression symptoms and a decrease in the sense of mastery impaired the performance in a task requiring immediate and/or delayed verbal memory. The cognitive performance of first-episode schizophrenia spectrum patients seems to be explained by other factors than anxiety and depression symptoms or sense of mastery, but these factors may, however, play an important role in the quality of life in patients.
  • Hänninen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives: Specific language impairment (SLI) is a developmental language disorder characterised by deficits in linguistic cognitive abilities. There's still evidence that SLI-children have also deficits in non-linguistic cognitive abilities (e.g. executive functions, processing speed). Parent-child interaction is crucial to a child's development. A parent's ability to support their child in the zone of proximal development is an important feature of positive parent-child interaction. Indeed, parent-child interaction is central to the rehabilitation of SLI. Prior research on the interaction of SLI-children and their parents has focused on the association between linguistic deficits and interaction. The aim of this study was to examine how the SLI-child's non-linguistic cognitive abilities are associated with parent behaviours during parent-child interaction, and to the parent-child relationship. Methods: The sample was part of Helsinki Longitudinal SLI study and consisted of 85 parent-child dyads. All children had been diagnosed with SLI and were 3–6 years of age. Parent-child dyads were videotaped in three different situations: drawing, free play and puzzle-making. Erickson's parenthood scales were used to evaluate parent behaviour. The parent-child relationship was evaluated by using Erickson's interaction scales and Mutual Responsive Orientation Scale. Children's non-linguistic abilities were assessed with neuropsychological tests, WPPSI-III and NEPSY-II. Associations were examined using linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: There were a negative association between the SLI-child's processing speed and the sensitivity and timing of parent's instructions. Other SLI-child's non-linguistic cognitive abilities were not associated with parent behaviours. The SLI-child's non-linguistic cognitive abilities were not associated with the parent-child relationship. Conclusions: Parents give more sensitive and well-timed instructions when the SLI-child's speed of information processing is slower. This suggests that parents may adapt their behaviour to the SLI-child's processing speed. Further research is needed to clarify why parents give more sensitive and well-timed instructions to SLI-children with slower processing speeds.
  • Salo, Micaela (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among the elderly. People experiencing SMC have been shown to be at a greater risk of suffering cognitive decline and potentially developing dementia. Studies have shown that SMC is associated with poorer performance in e.g. perceptual reasoning -tasks and tasks of delayed memory. This Masters' thesis aims to study the prevalence of SMC in a sample of healthy Finnish adults aged 50 to 80 years, and the association between SMC and other than directly memory related cognitive performance on the WAIS-IV -test. Based on earlier research, we hypothesized that individuals who reported SMC would perform worse on WAIS-IV perceptual reasoning subtests and verbal comprehension subtest related to memory retrieval. The data consisted of a subsample of healthy 50-80 year old adults in the Finnish WAIS-IV standardization sample. Twenty-five adults reported SMC (10.2 %). The control group consisted of 220 persons from the same sample without memory complaints. We used regression analysis to study the association between SMC and WAIS-IV indexes and profile analysis to study the association between SMC and individual subtests. The results did not support the hypothesis. People reporting SMC performed significantly better at Matrix Reasoning, a subtest belonging to the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). No differences in performance were found between the SMC-group and the control group in any of the verbal comprehension subtests or any other WAIS-IV subtests. This is the first study in Finland that examines SMC by using the WAIS-test. Not even in the English literature has the SMC previously been reportedly studied in such a comprehensive manner regarding other than directly memory related cognitive performance. The results indicate, that SMC reported in this study corresponds to the current definition of SMC: people experienced a decline in memory, but the study did not reveal objective cognitive impairment. The challenge for future research is further detailing the SMC neuropsychological profile regarding other than memory related cognitive performance, as well as recognising the need for longitudinal research of the middle-aged and older Finnish population.