Browsing by Subject "kognitiivinen"

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  • Lempinen, Emilia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The population is getting older worldwide and the global cost of cognitive impairment is rising. There is an urgent need to find ways to prevent and delay the onset of dementia and cognitive decline. According to previous studies food intake seems to be associated with cognition. However, while cognitive impairment usually develops during a long period of time, most of the studies conducted so far have focused on studying nutrition and cognition only at old age. The aim of the study is to examine, if there is association between food intake in youth and middle-age and cognition later in life. In addition it will be examined, whether changes in food intake are associated with cognition. The data is from the study The Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (abbr. FINGER). FINGER is a multicenter randomized controlled trial conducted in six Finnish cities. Altogether 1260 individuals aged 60–77 years and at risk of cognitive decline participated in the study. The data used in this study is collected in the beginning of FINGER. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning present food intake and food intake, when they were 20 years old (youth) and 50 years old (middle age) retrospectively. This study covers the use of milk/sour milk, spread and fish. Food intakes from different age stages were used to form a diet index that roughly described the wholesomeness of participants’ diets. Cognitive status was examined by a trained psychologist. Participants performed a test battery of 14 different tests. On the grounds of these tests a total score was calculated that described participants’ cognition as a whole. Statistical analysis involved Student’s t-test, univariate and multivariate analysis and Tukey’s test. Both the food intake in youth and middle-age seemed to be associated with cognition later in life. The group of participants, who had drunken whole milk daily in youth had poorer cognitive performance than the group, who had drunk milk with less fat (p=0,014). The association between milk consumption in middle-age and cognition was similar (p<0,000). Also, the group that had spread butter on bread daily in middle-age, had poorer scores than the group that had used vegetable fat-based spreads (p<0,000). The diet index was also associated with cognition (p<0,000) It also seemed to matter, what kind of food intake changes had been made between different age stages. For example, the group, that had started using low-fat milk or stopped drinking milk daily between youth and middle-age had better scores than the group that had drunk whole milk both in youth and in middle-age (p<0,000). The food intakes in youth and in middle-age are import factors in trying to prevent and delay cognitive impairment. There is a need for more studies, especially to investigate the mechanism between early food intake and cognition later in life.
  • Vuoksimaa, Eero (Helsingfors universitet, 2004)
    Studies concerning cognitive sex differences have indicated that, on average, females outperform males in some verbal abilities, whereas males outperform females in some visual-spatial abilities. Prenatal hormones play important role in sexual differentiation. Presence of androgens is believed to cause male brain differentiation. According to animal studies prenatal exposure to testosterone in females can result in masculinized behaviour or physiological traits. Human studies of possible masculinization of females from opposite-sex twin pairs are controversial. Some studies have indicated that female members of opposite-sex twins may be masculinized in some traits, while other studies show no evidence of masculinization. Hence the aim of the present study is to investigate sex differences and possible masculinization of cognitive functions in young adult twins. Subjects (N=336) were recruited from the ongoing longitudinal FinnTwin16 study of Finnish twins born in 1974-1979. Results indicate female superiority in verbal and executive functions and male superiority in visual and working memory functions. Further, in female members of opposite-sex twin pairs the visual abilities were enhanced to the male level. However, they still outperformed males in verbal and executive functions. In male members of opposite-sex twin pairs there were no signs of better performance in functions that favored females. Nor there were evidence of reduced performance in functions that favored males. This study suggests that there occurs masculinization of cognitive functions in females who have a male co-twin. In contrast, males with female co-twins are not feminized in their cognitive functions. These results indicate some benefits of twinship in female members of opposite-sex twin pairs in cognitive abilities. Whether the masculinization is a result of organizational effects of prenatal testosterone or postnatal environmental influences could not be resolved. Future research, with control over environmental influences, is needed to determine the origin of masculinization of cognitive abilities.
  • Palosaari, Topi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastelen Antonio Damasio ja Robert Solomonin emootioteorioita. Emootioiden luonteesta on käyty pitkällistä keskustelua. Tämän johdosta otin tarkasteltavakseni erilaisista lähtökohdista ponnistavat emootioteoriat. Antonio Damasiolle fysiologia on keskeinen tekijä emootioissa, kun taas Robert Solomon katsoo kognitiivisen arvostelman olevan emootion keskeinen tekijä. Metodini tutkielmassa on systemaattinen analyysi. Ensimmäisessä luvussa esittelen lyhyesti Antonio Damasion ja Robert Solomonin ja heidän teoksensa, jotka toimivat tutkielman lähteinä. Toisessa luvussa luon katsauksen emootiotutkimuksen kenttään. Tämä auttaa asettamaan Damasion ja Solomonin teoriat oikeille paikoilleen emootiotutkimuksen kentässä ja toimii samalla johdatuksena emootiotutkimuksen keskeisiin aiheisiin. Kolmannessa luvussa esittelen tarkastelun alla olevat teoriat. Damasio esittää Descarteś Error -kirjassaan(1994), että ihmisellä on primäärisiä ja sekundäärisiä emootioita. Primääriset emootiot ovat yhteistä evolutiivista perustaa ihmisellä ja eläimillä. Sekundääriset emootiot ovat ihmisellä oppimisen tulosta ja ne hankitaan primääristen emootioiden ohjauksen kautta. Descarteś Error -kirjaa myöhemmin ilmestyneessä Self Comes to Mind -kirjassa(2010) Damasio esittää, että ihmisen kaikki emootiot ovat evoluution kokoonpanemia toiminto-ohjelmia. Damasio vertaa emootioiden toimintaa immuunipuolustuksen toimintaan, kun se kohtaa taudinaiheuttajan. Damasion Descarteś Error ja Self Comes to Mind -kirjoissa esittämät teoriat ovat keskenään erilaisia. Robert Solomonin mukaan emootiot ovat ihmisen aktiivista toimintaa, josta olemme myös vastuussa. Solomonille emootioissa keskeistä ovat kognitiiviset arvostelmat, jotka konstituoivat emootiomme. Solomon ei halunnut The Passions -kirjassaan(1976) antaa keholle tai tunteelle roolia emootiossa. Hän lisää kuitenkin teoriaansa keholliset arvostelmat Not Passions Slave -kirjassaan(2003). Solomon näkee nämä keholliset arvostelmat, joihin tunne myös sisältyy, kuitenkin kognitiivisina arvostelmina. Neljännessä luvussa siirryn teorioiden tarkasteluun. Toisessa luvussa, jossa luodaan katsaus emootiotutkimuksen kenttään, saadaan samalla käsitys siitä mitä emootiotutkijat katsovat emootioihin liittyvän. Näitä näkökohtia apunani käyttäen katson miltä pohjalta Damasio ja Solomon teoriansa rakentavat. Lisäksi tarkastelen Damasion ja Solomonin teorioiden emootioiden sisältöjä funktionaalisen analyysitason ja algoritmisen analyysitason kautta. Funktionaalisen analyysitason kautta kaikki emootiot näyttäytyvät kognitiivisina. Algoritmisen tason kautta voidaan emootiosisältöjä analysoida tarkemmin. Tällä tasolla päästään kysymyksiin: tapahtuuko emootioiden prosessointi tiedostetulla vai tiedostamattomalla tasolla, onko emootioilla käsitteellinen vai ei-käsitteellinen sisältö ja ovatko emootiot kognitiivisia vai nonkognitiivisia? Lopuksi yhteenvedossa tuon tutkimustulokset tiivistetysti yhteen.