Browsing by Subject "kognitiivis-attributionaaliset strategiat"

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  • Huotari, Elisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate second year engineering students' engagement in studying by exploring students' cognitive-attributional strategies, approaches to learning and conscientiousness. In this study the relationships between those factors were examined. The purpose was also to explore different cognitive-attributional profiles among students, based on the cognitive-attributional strategies they used in their studies. The differences in approaches to learning and conscientiousness between the profiles were examined. Methods: The participants of this study were 111 second year engineering students at Aalto-university School of Engineering. The data was collected during autumn 2014 as a paper version and using electronic questionnaire. The data was analysed by using the SPSS statistical program. Analyses methods were factor analysis, Pearson's correlation, cluster analysis, analysis of variance and Kruskall-Wallis test. Results and Conclusions: The results revealed that based on the correlations students used more deep approach to learning, optimistic strategy and optimistic social reaction style than surface approach to learning, avoidance strategy and pessimistic social reaction style. In addition, students evaluated themselves as conscientious in their studies. Three different cognitive-attributional profiles were formed. Students in the first profile were optimistic in their studies and in social situations and they did not use avoidance strategy. In this profile students used more deep approach to learning, organised studying and were more conscientious compared to the other two profiles. In addition, they used less surface approach to learning. Compared to the first profile, in the second profile students were more pessimistic in social situations and used avoidance strategy. They adopted less the deep approach, organised studying and were less conscientious in their studies. The third profile was similar to the second in that students used avoidance strategy. However, students in the third profile were optimistic in social situations. It can be assumed, that students who are conscientious, use optimistic strategy, deep approach to learning and are organised in their studies, are highly engaged with their studies. Supporting students' engagement in learning the learning environment should be encouraging and offer opportunities to improve learning skills. It is also important that students get to know each other well at the beginning of their studies.
  • Nissilä, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this study is to investigate the interrelations between students' academic emotions, cognitive attributional strategies and psychological flexibility. According to previous studies, cognitive attributional strategies are linked to learning related emotions and learning outcomes. However, it is still unclear how students' ability to deal with emotions influence the cognitive strategies they use in learning. Therefore, it is reasonable to attach psychological flexibility as a part of the study, and to explore, how these factors are interrelated with one another. Cognitive attributional strategies are suggested to have a mediating role in psychological flexibility-academic emotions association. The data was gathered with an online questionnaire in the Faculty of Humanities and Arts during November and December 2013, as a part of a research project at the Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education. The sample consisted of 231 students. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). At first, the original models of psychological flexibility, cognitive attributional strategies and academic emotions were analyzed separately by confirmatory factor analysis in order to examine the factor structures more closely. Secondly, all the three models were placed into same path model to analyze the interrelations between these variables. Significant regressions between these constructs were found and the path model fitted the data fairly well. The results support the hypothesized claim that psychological flexibility predicts optimistic cognitive attributional strategies. In turn, students who are less psychologically flexible are more likely to use self-handicapping strategies. In the light of this study, it seems that optimistic strategy predicts pleasant studying-related emotions. Surprisingly regression between optimism and boredom was nonexistent. Optimism also predicted unpleasant emotions negatively. In contrary, self-handicapping predicted unpleasant academic emotions, shame, anxiety and boredom. It also predicted enjoyment negatively. Self-handicapping did not predict hope significantly. The results supported the claim that cognitive attributional strategies have a mediating role in psychological flexibility-academic emotions association. Students' emotional experiences should be considered in university context because they affect the students' learning process and general well-being. For example, open discussion about emotions with other students and teachers could help the individual to be more aware of their emotions, and thereby, learn to accept emotions as part of learning. Courses which concentrate on emotion regulation could be personally useful for graduate students who often experience high levels of stress and are at risk of burnout.
  • Sullanmaa, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Previous studies have shown that cognitive and attributional strategies as well as academic emotions can be considered as central factors affecting studying but the interaction between them has been explored very little. The aim of this study was to explore what kind of cognitive and attributional strategies university students in the Faculty of Arts use and what kind of academic emotions they experience in their studies. The aim was also to examine what kind of cognitive-attributional-emotional profiles can be identified for students and how do these profiles differ from each other in study success. The study also addressed the differences between Bachelor's and Master's degree students. The data were collected in a previous research project in the Faculty of Arts in the University of Helsinki. The shortened version of the Strategy and Attribution Questionnaire was used as a measure of cognitive and attributional strategies. The measure of academic emotions was formed on the basis of the Academic Emotions Scale. The data was collected by an online questionnaire in the autumn of 2013 and the participants of the study were 244 students. Cluster analysis was used for clustering students into cognitive-attributional-emotional profiles based on the combinations of cognitive and attributional strategies and academic emotions. Differences between different groups were analyzed by the independent samples t-test and ANOVA. Four groups with different profiles were identified: optimistic and hopeful, optimistic and ashamed, optimistic and frustrated as well as avoidant and anxious. The optimistic and hopeful group did better in their studies than the avoidant and anxious as well as the optimistic and frustrated group. The Bachelor's degree students, as well as younger students, experienced more negative emotions and used the self-handicapping strategy more than the Master's degree students and older students. It is important to further examine the interaction between cognitive and attributional strategies and academic emotions to find out whether same kind of profiles can be identified in different contexts.
  • Nyyssönen, Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Previous studies have shown that cognitive strategies and approaches to learning can be considered as central factors affecting studying. Although the role of different aspects in learning has been emphasised in previous studies, those aspects have mostly been studied separately. Therefore, it is important to examine the interaction between cognitive-motivational aspects of learning, exhaustion and conscientiousness. Based on previous studies, it has been indicated that cognitive strategies and approaches to learning are related to each other. In addition, the studies have shown that cognitive strategies are directly related to the well-being of students. Previous studies have also indicated that social strategies reflect cognitive strategies. The aim of this study was to explore what kind of cognitive-motivational profiles can be formed for students and how do these profiles differ from each other in exhaustion and conscientiousness. Previous studies concerning exhaustion have almost solely focused on work context although preliminary studies have shown that exhaustion also widely exists among students. For now there has been only few studies regarding conscientiousness at the university context. The first study results have shown that cognitive-motivational factors are related to conscientiousness. The data were collected during late fall 2012, spring 2013 and fall 2013 by using a questionnaire. The participants (n=203) were first-year students of bioscience, dentistry, mathematics and medicine at the University of Helsinki. A person-oriented approach was used in the analysis. K-Means clustering was used for clustering students into cognitive-motivational profiles based on the combinations of cognitive and attributional strategies and approaches to learning. One-way ANOVAs were conducted to explore group differences in exhaustion and conscientiousness. Three student groups with different profiles were identified. The results show that students with different cognitive-motivational profiles varied in terms of exhaustion and conscientiousness. Students, who showed task-avoidance and a surface approach to learning also showed the highest levels of exhaustion and the lowest levels of conscientiousness. Students, who showed the highest levels of optimistic strategy and optimism in social situations, displayed the lowest levels of exhaustion and the highest levels of conscientiousness. Students, who showed a deep approach to learning, displayed the average exhaustion and conscientiousness. The results imply that by recognising cognitive-motivational profiles of university students it is possible to identify students who need more support at the beginning of university studying. In order to develop teaching and learning environment the way that it supports students and the development of beneficial cognitive strategies and approaches to learning, there should be conducted more comprehensive and profound research regarding the nature and development of different aspects in learning and their relation to students' well-being.