Browsing by Subject "kognitiiviset kyvyt"

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  • Rinta-Kanto, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background: Development of cognitive abilities involves both environmental and genetic factors. Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) associates with cognitive abilities later in life; however there is only little research on the interaction of SES and genes on cognitive ability. Specific genomic loci associating with cognitive abilities are scarce and potential candidates might be genetic variants linked with Alzheimer's disease such as APOE ε4 isomorph and rs405509 located in the APOE promoter region. I studied how childhood SES and APOE ε4 and rs405509 and their interactions associate with cognitive abilities in late adulthood in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) sample. Methods: The participants of this study consisted of 607 men belonging to the HBCS who were born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. They participated in the test for general cognitive abilities at the average age of 68, and who were successfully genotyped. Associations and interactions of childhood SES, APOE and rs405509 on cognitive ability were studied. Results and conclusions: Lower childhood SES associated with lower verbal subscale score and total score. APOE ε4 was not independently associated with cognitive abilities. The number of G-alleles in rs405509 associated with lower verbal subscale score and total score when adjusted for age, but no longer after adjusting for adulthood SES. Interactions of rs405509 and childhood SES were not associated with cognitive ability. Socioeconomically less advantaged childhood environment has long-term consequences on cognitive abilities, and the effects last until late adulthood. The study suggests that rs405509 G-allele might have an independent effect on cognitive ability before the outset of Alzheimer's disease, but the results require further replication with larger sample size.
  • Kainulainen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Cognitive abilities, native language and mathematical skills in primary school children: is there a relationship? Introduction Mathematical abilities are important for the future of the individual, as they are related to for example education, employment and exclusion. Previous research has shown that cognitive abilities are related to mathematical skills, although the results are contradictory. According to literature, visual and verbal reasoning skills have independent effects on different areas in mathematics. In addition, working memory seems to play a major role in mathematical abilities. This study examines the relationship between visual and verbal reasoning skills, working memory and mathematical skills. In addition, we were interested in how the mathematical abilities of the children developed during this two-schoolyear-long follow-up period, as well as the impact of special education, home language and gender on mathematical abilities. Methods A total of 73 students, of whom 34 were girls, participated in this follow-up study. At the beginning of the study they were in the third grade of primary school. The data is part of the Arts@School project. The children’s cognitive abilities were assessed with the block design, comprehension and digit span subtests of the WISC-IV -test battery. Mathematical abilities were assessed using the MATTE test which includes verbal mathematical problems and the RMAT test which consist of basic arithmetic tasks. Three measurement points of the tests were used in the analyses. Linear mixed models were used in the statistical analyses. Results and conclusions Cognitive abilities were found to be related to mathematical skills. Visual and verbal reasoning skills predicted performance in verbal mathematical problems, while working memory predicted performance in the basic arithmetic test. Special education status was associated with poorer performance in the mathematical tasks. No gender differences were found in this data. Language had no independent effect on mathematical skills, but language influenced the development of mathematical skills. Finnish-speakers developed steadily throughout the study, while the development of foreign language-speakers subsided between the second and third measurements. The difference between Finnish-speakers and foreign language-speakers was statistically significant at the last measurement point. The results are in line with previous studies, with the difference that in this study, working memory predicted only performance in the basic arithmetic test and not in the more complicated word problems
  • Jernström, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    New attention has been put on the theoretical ambiguity of the quantity-quality model of fertility in terms of the sign of the marginal effects of additional children, and recent evidence from developed countries suggests that linearly restricted empirical models may not detect the effect of family size on children’s outcomes when the marginal effects of family size are allowed to vary in sign and magnitude. This thesis uses both linearly restricted and unrestricted models with data from Vietnam to provide evidence on marginal effects of family size on children’s anthropometric and cognitive outcomes from developing country context. The effect of family size on children’s health outcomes using instrumental variable strategy based on the sex-composition of the first two children is estimated. Additionally, the extent that birth order explains association between family size and child outcomes is examined. A statistically significant negative association between family size and children's height-for-age, weight-for-age and cognitive skills at early and early-intermediate ages in Vietnam is found. The results suggest that the marginal effects of family size are not constant by parity of family size and that birth order explains some but not fully the found association between family size and children's health. The results from instrumental variable estimations based on child sex composition of the causal effect of family size are generally uninformative.