Browsing by Subject "kolmiportainen tuki"

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  • Ervasti, Marianna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of the study was to research class teachers' perspectives on mathematical difficulties, identification of difficulties and how teachers justify support that they use. Earlier research has shown that about half of the pupils, who have mathematical difficulties, don't get at all or enough remedial education or part-time special education. In other words there is need to explain, why pupils don't get the support that they need. The theoretical framework of the study consists of definition of mathematical difficulties from cognitive, affective and environmental perspectives. Additionally I have dealt with identification and assessment of mathematical difficulties at a general level and also at the school context. Research data consist of five theme interviews, which were made to class teachers in metropolitan area in Finland. Class teachers were from three different schools and everyone had at least four years' experience in teaching. Theme interviews were made in December 2014. Research was qualitative case study. Transcribed interviews were analyzed by using content analysis. Research result was that class teachers' definition of mathematical difficulties was focused on cognitive weaknesses. The other result was that teachers used widely observation and somewhat exams in identifying mathematical difficulties. Cooperation in identification didn't stand out compared to observation and exams. The challenge in identification for example was, that teachers felt like they couldn't identify difficulties early enough or they didn't had the knowledge to assess, what causes mathematical difficulties. It seemed that the teacher's action was the main component in identifying difficulties. Third result was that some teachers primarily supported pupils in the classroom than offered them remedial education or part-time special education. Also the schools resources were a challenge for the remedial support or part-time special education. However it seemed that pupils were getting support even if they didn't get support as a remedial support or as a part-time special education. The results of the study raise a concern over, what kind of mathematical difficulties are noticed and supported in schools. Perhaps schools should notice better also the affective part of the mathematical difficulties and also emphasize cooperation in identification of difficulties and in planning the support.
  • Seppälä, Mia (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Aims. Changes in society and educational development of the school have brought new challenges to the teacher's work. Studies in the past have shown that special education teachers experience stress more than other teachers. The aim of this study was to gain information on special class teacher's experiences of the succeeding and the challenges they encounter in their job in the special class and how they cope with the challenges. This study also examines the kind of views that special class teachers have towards the changes of their work. Methods. Themed interviews were used as a method of this qualitative research. The research material comprised of five interviews with special class teachers who had at least ten years' experience in teaching pupils at the special education class. The data were collected and transcribed in January 2017 and analyzed by using theory-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. The results showed that the special class teacher's work involves a wide range of challenges, but also the experiences of success. The experiences of succeeding were related mostly to the interaction between the special class teacher and the student. The main advantage of special class teaching was seen as a better chance of taking individuality into account and the challenges associated with socialization problems. The challenges of the special class teacher's work was seen ia pupils' heterogeneity and problem behaviour, increased non-teaching tasks and too demanding parents. Special class teachers felt that pupils have changed more challenging in recent years and the valuation of their work has weakened. With inclusion special class teachers' work was seen lying ahead of co-teaching in the future. Coping at work was seen to vary depending on a range of one's own life or the work strains. Special class teachers showed up a wide variety of ways to cope with the challenges and to improve their coping at work.
  • Kotilainen, Aija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. The purpose of this thesis is to study subject teachers’ conceptions of the support in learning and school attendance given in Finnish upper secondary schools. Due to the amendment of the Basic Education Act the support is now three tiered and emphasizes early interventions, which requires subject teachers to have more special pedagogical knowhow than they used to. This study aims to analyse, how subject teachers see their own role implementing the support and how the subject teacher system and structures of the school affect to teachers’ possibilities to support their students. Methodology. The thesis is a qualitative case study and the analysing methods are discourse analysis and thematic analysis. The research material consists of six semi-structured interviews of subject teachers. Results and conclusions. The study groups are heterogeneous and too big in relation to students’ needs. Teachers have to prioritize, to whom they give the support. Opportunity for consultation and cooperation with the special needs teacher is highly appreciated when implementing the support. Subject teachers’ familiarity with the students is considered important. Subject teachers’ knowledge about the three tier support system is mediocre, yet they consider not to have time for further education. The teachers are interested in learning of the students. However, because of lack of competence and time subject teachers externalize the implementation of the support to the special needs teacher. Being a form teacher expands the subject teachers’ job description to documenting and coordinating the support. In schools the functioning practises that would strengthen subject teachers’ commitment in all three tiers of support needs to be established. By reorganizing the structures of teaching and cooperation, it is possible to improve the subject teachers’ possibility to provide the support that the students’ needs require. The subject teachers’ special educational competence should be increased. The subject teachers don’t have sufficient knowledge about the three tier support system and they consider documentation of the support unnecessary. They may nonetheless, be able to support the students successfully by using different kinds of pedagogical methods and various well-timed and individualised measures of support.
  • Nuutinen, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The main purpose of this study was to find out what kind of means the home economic teachers use to ease pupils who need support in the learning process. The goal of this study was learn how information of the support needed was transferred to teacher and to learn what kind of additional resources are available. In addition, this study focuses on teachers' reactions to integrate the pupils in a normal teaching situation. Also this study focuses on tools that teacher education offers to meet pupils needing special support. The data for the qualitative study were collected during the spring 2014 in two separate stages: by collecting critical incidents and semi-structured interviews. The data were collected by discretionary sampling. Ten home economics teachers working in Pirkanmaa and Uudenmaa region took part in this study. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. According to the main outcome, pupils are heterogeneous groups and the need for support varies from minor to major. The main problems areas for pupils according to teachers are learning and behavioral problems. Also social and psychological problems have increased. The information of support needed among new students was transferred from class teacher to home economics teacher but in some cases the need for support was noticed during classes. Teachers have several means to support pupils' learning. For example, the teachers used demonstrative means, graphic guidance and they split working stages into smaller details. Sometimes it was also possible to get a supportive person into the classroom. The teachers used more time and effort to evaluate the pupils in need of assistance and assigned more practical tasks for them. The communication between teacher and parent is very important according to the interviewees. The idea of integration of the pupils needing support into the normal teaching program is good, but to bring this into practice is challenging. According to the teachers their education did not give them the tools needed in teaching special pupils. Many teachers would like to have more practical guidance to support their teaching methods. Hopefully the findings of this study will raise discussion and help the newly graduated home economics teachers to meet special pupils at their work in the future.
  • Leppänen, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The importance of reading and writing skills in everyday life has increased continuously. Previous research has also shown that reading skills are associated with success in other school subjects. Three-tier model introduced in 2011 focuses on early intervention, identification and support. The main purpose of this study was to gather information about teacher's supporting methods at first school year. How they work with dyslectic students and struggling readers. What is the relevance of three-tier model and how three-tier model affects the support services. Attention is paid to evaluation, strategies, methods, tools and follow-up measures. The aim is to highlight concrete examples. The study was conducted by interviewing four special teachers. Teachers work in primary schools and teaching to read is a big part of their work. Data has been recorded and transcribed. Analysis was based on transcribed data and research questions. The study showed that all respondents evaluate student's basic reading skills soon after the start of school. Support is offered to those who need it the most. There were school-specific differences in evaluation methods, arrangements and group formation. All four teachers accomplished small-group teaching and part-time special education. Three teachers made flexible groupings. None of the respondents carried out individualized instruction. One respondent carried out co-teaching approach. Teachers used well known and research based tools and materials. They also made materials by their selves. Teachers were aware the important aspects of learning to read. They paid attention to phonological awareness, syllable awareness, letter knowledge and working memory. All four teachers made evaluation during the year. However the study reveals that 1-graders are rarely sent to psychological tests or moved to tier 2 even if their reading skills don't proceed.
  • Högström, Marika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to find out how the municipalities are applied the three-tiered support model in their own ECEC (early childhood education and care) plans and what means general, intensified and special support in ECEC. In addition, the aim was to find out if or not the municipalities provide support in the same way or if there are differences between them. Previous studies on three-tier support in early childhood education have not been conducted, so this study provides new insights into the provision of three-tier support in kindergartens. The subject of the study is very topical. Three-tier support is also likely to be introduced in early childhood education in the next few years, so knowledge of its implementation is needed to prepare fluent support for early childhood education. This study is qualitative and the data is used from the municipalities ECEC plans. These ECEC plans included three-tiered support, or detailed general, intensified, and special support. Ten municipalities of different sizes from all over Finland where examined in this study. The data was analyzed using content analysis and approached using an abductive approach. The data was analyzed using the Atlas software, which supported the coding and classification of the data. The results of the study showed that the municipalities had applied the three-tiered support model in different ways, but there was a high degree of consistency in general. The levels of support were set very similarly by the municipalities and most of the differences were found in the definitions of special support. There are differences as well as similarities between municipal plans at different levels of support. Differences between municipalities were found in the practice of intensified and special support. The differences in general support were minor. In the case of intensified support, differences were mainly found only in the recording of support. In the case of special support, differences were found in the recording for the support, the eligibility criteria, the decision on the special support and organizing environment. According to findings of this research, it appears that there are differences in the implementation of three-tier support in early childhood education, especially in special support. Municipalities may have followed the example on three-tier support models for pre- and / or basic education, and this is reflected in coherence between levels of general and intensified support. Differences between municipalities in the level of special support may lead to inequalities when accessing the support. More precise entries in the Early Childhood Education Act and in the grounds of the ECEC plan are needed to ensure that the support is distributed uniformly throughout the country. In particular, special support needs a common line on when a child is entitled to special support, where the support is recorded and who makes the decision on the special support.
  • Pimiä, Hilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. In 2010, an amendment to the Basic Education Act introduced a three-step support model and its introduction has had a significant impact on the operational culture of schools. At the same time, it has also significantly shaped the work of teachers. When evaluating three-step support and its introduction, it is important to highlight the experiences of teachers who practice it on a practical level. In previous studies, teachers have highlighted several challenges related to three-step support and its practice. Teachers have experienced their skills to support students with special educational needs as weak. The purpose of this study was to find out how novice teachers in the early stages of their careers experience three-step support and its practice. The aim of the study was also to find out what kind of skills novice teachers felt teacher training had offered them to practice three-level support. Methods. The study involved four novice teachers, all of whom had less than three years of work experience after graduation. All teachers had graduated from the University of Helsinki. Teachers had experience of practicing three-step support in their own work. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed using data-driven content analysis. Results and conclusions. Teachers felt that the three-step support model included some functional elements such as the structure of the model, collaboration, and the structure brought by pedagogical documents. The model also saw much to be improved such as flexibility, boundaries of support steps, consistent practices and resources. The practice of the three-step support was stressful due to poor know-how, laborious documentation and high responsibility. Teachers experienced that co-operation with the work community and other professionals supported their work. Teacher training was perceived to provide mainly theoretical skills, while practical skills had remained weak. Teacher training was felt to contain lot of theory and the importance of learning through practice was emphasized.
  • Tuunainen, Outi-Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In 2011, Finnish comprehensive schools started using a three tiered support system. The aim of the new system was to answer students’ needs of support in a flexible way, as early as possible. For years the Finnish school system has attempted to move in more inclusive direction. Providing support is now the responsibility of all teachers. The research findings on the implementation of support are contradictory, and teachers, for example, have found resources and training inadequate to implement support. There is a need to further develop effective, inclusive education arrangements. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' conceptions of the implementation of three tiered support in their schools, and the factors contributing to and impairing the implementation. In addition, possible differences and similarities between different groups of teachers in the conception of support implementation were examined. The research material of this qualitative, phenomenographic study was part of secondary data collected by an electronic questionnaire from comprehensive school staff in a city. The answers of teachers in grades 1-9 (N = 847) to two open-ended questions was analyzed utilizing the phenomenographic method by categorizing the concepts first into meaning categories and later into higher categories. In addition, the data was quantified by examining the prevalence of conceptions across the answers and by teacher group. As a result of the conceptions of the factors contributing to and impairing the implementation of the support, vertical systems of categories of description were created. Factors contributing to the implementation of the three-tiered support consisted of four categories of descriptions: Collaboration, Teachers’ professional skills, Organization of school practices, and Resources. About one-third of teachers found that support had improved in their school during the last two years, while about one-third found it had weakened. Teachers’ conceptions of the reasons for the decline in support formed four descriptive categories: Lack of resources, Reasons related to students’ needs of support, Problems related to school structures and practices, and Reasons related to placement of students with special educational needs. The views of the teacher groups were mostly consistent, but there were small differences, especially related to importance of the teachers’ skills and school practices.
  • Väre, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Goals: The aim was to find out what types of children benefit start class activity and the interventions that takes place there. I also wanted to know if a child could be transferred to a normal general education after studying in start class. In addition the study aimed to clarify if the children who are postponing the start of school were born at the end of the year as assumed and how the teachers of the start class experienced the new three-step support in their work. The goal of the study was to increase the knowledge about the children who benefit start class activity and to transfer the methods used in start class so that they can be used earlier. It is generally known that early intervention is an efficient mean to prevent problems from accumulating. Methods: Theme interview was used to interview and observe all four start class teachers in one city in Southern Finland. The information gathered was analyzed with content analysis. The teachers also gave information about the children's age, future schools and the possible support related to studying. Results and conclusions: The teachers' opinion is that start class is suitable for children who have slight problems in their learning and who have not yet developed their so called learning readiness like listening instructions for example. Clear structure helped a child to predict and direct his/her actions. Assistants had a great significance in differentiating activities and creating a safe environment. The overall developing of a child and functionality in teaching were important factors. The amount of children born in the last quarter of the year was 66.67 % of all children. The goal of general education did not come true in 30.6 % of the children and they were given special support in their studies. In the future it would be even more important to find the children in the need of support in their studies even earlier so they could be supported properly.
  • Lampi, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Goals. The objective of this Master's Thesis was to examine the connection between tablet computers and motivation, in this case with motivational beliefs according to the action control beliefs theory (Skinner, Chapman & Baltes 1988). The specific interest was to find out the differences and similarities between the students with special educational needs and general education students. Most of the previous research regarding to the subject indicates that the use of technology and tablet computers has positive impact to learning and motivation, concluding that technology-assisted teaching motivates students. On the other hand there has also been studies that report no impact or even negative impact on learning and motivation. This study aims to gain new insight of how the use of tablet computers influences on students' attitudes towards learning in Finland. Particular attention is directed to the students with special educational needs and the practical applicability of the results – the role that tablet computers could play in the development of special education. Methods. The participants of this study consisted of the 4th graders in the city of Vantaa, who responded to the Centre of Educational Assessment's tablet research online survey in the autumn of 2015 and spring of 2016 (N = 208). The data was analyzed by multivariate methods (e.g. one-way variance-, the GLM-analysis) to investigate the possible relations between the variables and to verify the differences between the groups. Results and conclusions. The general use of the tablet computers among the students was not found to be related to their beliefs that support learning. However, in the subject-specific review the use of tablets in mathematics was positively related to the students' learning supportive beliefs. In particular, within the students receiving intensified or special support, the use of tablet computer was related to students' agency beliefs about effort and competence and means-ends beliefs about effort. According to the previous research these beliefs are related to school performance within students who do well in school.
  • Ekblad, Aila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Goals. In the special education strategy, the support given to pupils was divided into three stages; general, intensified and special support. The three-tiered support was introduced at the end of year 2011. This study examines what goals are set for the children, with what pedagogical solutions are the children supported and how the progress is evaluated based on learning plans for intensified support. Child´s participation has been emphasized in both pre-primary and basic education curricula. In this study I also want to research how child´s participation can be seen in the pedagogical solutions of intensified support. Methods. The material for the study included documents concerning intensified support for children born in a medium-sized city in 2008 during both pre-primary education and the autumn of the first grade. The material consisted of pedagogical assessments (pre-primary education 60 pieces, first grade 16 pieces) and learning plans for intensified support (pre-primary education 69 pieces, first grade 51 pieces). The planning sections of the learning plans for intensified support (need for support, goals, means and evaluation) were categorized using content analysis. Child´s participation was also researched based on references in the pedagogical solutions (means in the forms) using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The pre-primary documents had varying criteria for starting intensified support. The pre-primary and first grade teachers had differing opinions on what the purpose of the plans was. A part of the plans was mainly filled out to transfer information between teachers and they used broad terms and the text was scarce. The pupils’ goals had been copied word for word to several children’s plans. There were uncompleted documents still in December in the first grade. Intensified support was focused in large measure at developing linguistic and mathematical skills. The child was mainly described as an object of actions by adults in the means of the learning plans, i.e. pedagogical solutions. The child was described as an independent agent in only 0,41% of the references made in the learning plans. Evaluation of the plans mainly consisted of observations in the everyday life.
  • Elenius, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The changes to Basic Education Act (624/2010), which came into force on January 2011, as well as the enforcement of the Pupil and Student Welfare Act (1287/2013) in 2014, has restructured the operation of the Finnish education system. The model, known as the support in learning and school attendance, operates on a three-tiered support system, and is based on inclusive principles as one of its goals is to include pupils with special needs to mainstream classes with additional teaching support. This study aims to investigate how the amendments have affected classroom teachers’ work tasks, workload, and well-being at work, and as well as to highlight the ways in which classroom teachers have adapted to the changes. Methods. The research approach of this study was qualitative. The data was collected by interviewing four classroom teachers using semi-structured theme interviews. The participants were selected for the study based on their year of graduation and by municipality, as they had worked as classroom teachers before the enforcement of the previously mentioned amendments, and as they all were working in schools in different municipalities. The data was analysed using a qualitative analysis of content. Results and conclusions. According to the teachers, adoption of the new support model has not created any new work tasks or responsibilities to the teachers although the changes have affected how the workload is divided between different work tasks. Majority of the participants brought up how the adoption of the three-tiered support model had increased work bureaucracy and workload, in the form of preparation of pedagogical documents, multiprofessional cooperation and cooperation between home and school. However, the teachers underlined that the model had created positive developments in teaching as well. There were major differences in teachers’ experiences regarding the changes in the work and well-being at work, as the teachers experienced changes in different areas of their work in different ways. Similarly, teachers' ways of adapting to change were different, where the results of this study can provide different perspectives on examining and developing teachers' well-being at work.