Browsing by Subject "kompensointi"

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  • Pekkonen, Minna; Koljonen, Saija; Raunio, Anne; Kostamo, Kirsi; Soimakallio, Sampo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2019)
    SYKE POLICY BRIEF / 20.11.2019
  • Pekkonen, Minna; Koljonen, Saija; Raunio, Anne; Kostamo, Kirsi; Soimakallio, Sampo (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2019)
    SYKE POLICY BRIEF / 20.11.2019
  • Paavola, Jouni; Primmer, Eeva (Elsevier, 2019)
    Ecological Economics
    Ecosystems can buffer against adverse events, such as storms or pest outbreaks by reducing the probability of harm and magnitude of losses. We conceptualise factors involved in the governance of insurance value provision, drawing on the notions of protection and insurance, exogeneity and endogeneity, and allocation of rights and responsibilities. Using riverine floods and forest pest outbreaks as examples, we explore the challenges of governing ecosystem-based risk management. We suggest that such governance should build on existing institutions, because insurance value is jointly produced with provisioning ecosystem services and the governance arrangements for them importantly shape insurance value provision. However, existing institutional arrangements do not acknowledge involved actors' rights and responsibilities and they do not facilitate landscape level management of risks. While PES schemes and other market-like solutions may govern the provision of insurance value when transaction costs and trade-offs between the provision of insurance value and private goods are low, regulation or public provision is needed when transaction costs and trade-offs are high. The complexity of challenges in governing the provision of insurance value highlights the need for polycentric governance involving collaboration, knowledge creation and dissemination and the funding of activities needed for them.
  • Seppälä, Jyri; Estlander, Alec; Pietiläinen, Olli-Pekka; Laine, Reijo; Airola, Niiles; Malinen, Pekka (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2012)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 6/2012
  • Ketola, Maija; Malin, Kimmo; Nyrölä, Liisa; Suvantola, Leila (Ympäristöministeriö, 2009)
    Suomen ympäristö 18/2009
    Kompensaatiolla pyritään tasapainottamaan liikennehankkeiden ja niihin liittyvän maankäytön suunnittelun yhteydessä syntyviä haittoja vastaavanarvoisilla positiivisilla ympäristöjärjestelyillä. Raportissa on kuvattu ulkomaisten ja kotimaisten esimerkkihankkeiden avulla kompensaatiomenettelyjä, jotka ovat jo käytössä tai otettavissa käyttöön Suomessa. Lainsäädäntökatsauksessa on käyty läpi nykyisen lainsäädännön mahdollistamia kompensaatiokäytäntöjä ja lainsäädännön muutostarpeita. Tämä raportti on tarkoitettu palvelemaan väyläsektorilla ja maankäytön suunnittelun parissa työskenteleviä tahoja. Kompensaatio liikennehankkeissa -tutkimuksen tavoitteena on ollut tehdä aihepiiriä tutuksi Suomessa sekä esittää suosituksia jatkotoimenpiteiksi ja asian eteenpäin viemiseksi.
  • Silvo, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of the study was to examine university students and recent graduates with reading difficulties. The aim was to explore what factors have contributed to the students and recent graduates applying for university studies despite their dyslexia. The aim was additionally to study strategies and means of compensation used by the students, their experiences with support received from the educational institutions, and the educational paths the students had taken. The hypothesis was that dyslexic students have had a slower and more laborious educational path than other students. Previous research on the subject has shown that dyslexic students have used a large variety of study strategies and compensatory measures, and family support, in particular, has played an important role in the study path. Timing of the dyslexia diagnosis has also affected the course of education. The study is a multi-case study with thematic interviews using narrative analysis. The research material consisted of seven theme interviews, which were transcribed and organized using the atlas.ti program. Narrative, chronologically progressive accounts were produced of the interviewees' educational paths. The narrative analysis of the material was based on the compilation of materials founded on twenty themes and examination of the narrative reports. The educational paths of the interviewees formed two clear groups. In one group, education progressed directly from primary school to high school and university. Students in the second group experienced long breaks in education and all did not attend high school. Almost all interviewees were diagnosed after elementary school, but the material does not indicate that the education process suffered from a late diagnosis. Not all interviewees needed support for their study paths because of dyslexia. On the other hand, certain students would have needed support but had not received enough. The interviewees had a variety of learning strategies and means of compensation. The study confirms that teaching early learning strategies and early implementation and design support would support dyslexic pupils. Family support was an essential resource for the interviewees during their educational paths.
  • Kangas, Johanna; Kullberg, Peter; Pekkonen, Minna; Kotiaho, Janne S.; Ollikainen, Markku (Springer, 2021)
    Environmental Management 68,170–183
    The rates of ecosystem degradation and biodiversity loss are alarming and current conservation efforts are not sufficient to stop them. The need for new tools is urgent. One approach is biodiversity offsetting: a developer causing habitat degradation provides an improvement in biodiversity so that the lost ecological value is compensated for. Accurate and ecologically meaningful measurement of losses and estimation of gains are essential in reaching the no net loss goal or any other desired outcome of biodiversity offsetting. The chosen calculation method strongly influences biodiversity outcomes. We compare a multiplicative method, which is based on a habitat condition index developed for measuring the state of ecosystems in Finland to two alternative approaches for building a calculation method: an additive function and a simpler matrix tool. We examine the different logic of each method by comparing the resulting trade ratios and examine the costs of offsetting for developers, which allows us to compare the cost-effectiveness of different types of offsets. The results show that the outcomes of the calculation methods differ in many aspects. The matrix approach is not able to consider small changes in the ecological state. The additive method gives always higher biodiversity values compared to the multiplicative method. The multiplicative method tends to require larger trade ratios than the additive method when trade ratios are larger than one. Using scoring intervals instead of using continuous components may increase the difference between the methods. In addition, the calculation methods have differences in dealing with the issue of substitutability.
  • Tupala, Anna-Kaisa; Huttunen, Suvi; Halme, Panu (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Biological Conservation
    Biodiversity offsetting is the widely studied last step of the mitigation hierarchy. Despite numerous studies and the methodological development completed for biodiversity calculations, the human aspect remains unsolved. Biodiversity conservation is typically governed at national or state levels, but the harm caused to biodiversity as well as people occurs locally. In biodiversity offsetting, biodiversity values can be relocated far from the original area, but relocating the values people hold regarding their nearby nature may not be possible. Acknowledging the local people's hopes and values may further complicate biodiversity offsetting, therefore it emphasises even more the need to avoid and reduce the negative impacts, i.e. the earlier steps of mitigation hierarchy. In this review we present the current understanding of the social impacts on biodiversity offsetting based on scientific literature. We identified a clear research gap in relation to the opportunities local people have to participate in decision-making processes related to biodiversity offsetting. Biodiversity offsetting can cause the displacement of local people and negatively affect their livelihood, but there is little literature on that aspect of the offsetting procedure. In addition, biodiversity offsetting can cause loss of livelihood or living area in the Global South while impacts in the Global North are often more indirect. Ways to compensate the losses to local people vary from land use rights in other areas to economic compensation. It is unclear if there are offsetting protocols which are acceptable both socially and in terms of biodiversity.