Browsing by Subject "koulutussosiologia"

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  • Toivola, Tiina-Maija (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Educational capital has a strong significance on a person's status in the society. The possibilities for individual choices in the field of education have increased and decisions concerning education are expected at a very early stage. Educational choices are mainly seen to be a phenomenon among the middle class: the lower social classes have less cultural capital to make choices. The study approached the topic of educational choices from low-educated parents' point of view. The purpose of this study was to understand how low-educated parents describe the principles and values that affect their educational choices. The descriptions are understood as life politics. Life politics include parents' understanding of the significance of education as well as the future scenarios the parents create for their children. This study participates in the discussion of social class and education, and suggests the use of the concept of life politics in the educational research. The research data includes ten thematic interviews carried out to sixth-graders parents' in the city of Espoo. The interviews were implemented as a part of the research project Parents and School Choice (PASC). The data has been analyzed with discourse analytical tools. The results of the study can be summarized in four discourses which can be understood as parents' life politics. First discourse emphasizes the significance of attitude in life, the second one sees education as a way to professional qualification and employment, the third discourse understands education as a way to social mobility and the fourth discourse defines education as an arena for personal development. Discourses include different conceptions of the importance of education and different future scenarios the parents create for their children. The study concludes that the concept of life politics is a useful tool for studying and describing families' educational strategies and the underlying principles and values. Life politics broadens the possibilities to understand the mechanisms of educational choices among parents: it pays attention to the individual life decisions. The concept also supports the former research on social class and education.
  • Saari, Juhani; Inkinen, Alina; Jokila, Suvi (Opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriö, 2021)
    Opetus- ja kulttuuriministeriön julkaisuja
    This article examines the prevalence of preparation courses and applying for higher education and how interdependent they are across different fields as well as the different backgrounds of higher education students. Our research material consisted of Finland's Eurostudent VII data, which comprises information on education statistics provided by Vipunen, the education administration's reporting portal, on the number of applicants in different fields of education in relation to the number of student intake. Our research has two main objectives. Firstly, we examined the motives of students to study at a higher education institution and, secondly, how applicants’ motives for applying are linked to preparation courses. Based on the results, the extent to which students were motivated by the desire to support the wellbeing of others through their studies showed the clearest divisions between students in different fields of education. Similarly, student motivation based on parents' expectations was stronger among international students pursuing a degree and among the children of parents with a higher level of education. Helping others, on the one hand, and an orientation focusing on improving their own position in the job market, on the other, were stronger among those who gained a student place through a preparation course, even though the student's field of study, the parents' education and the age at which the student started studying were standardised. Those who took preparation courses secured a student place faster after upper secondary school. In fields of study where there are application pressures, i.e. where there are a lot more applicants than student places available, about half of the students in economics and business administration and three out of four in the fields of law and medicine took part in preparation courses.
  • Sjöblom, Linda (2003)
    Pro gradu -tutkielmani liittyy koulutussosiologian alaan. Tutkimukseni kohteena on niin kutsuttu päällekkäinen kouluttautuminen eli tuplamaisterit, ja korkeakoulutuksen merkitys nyky-yhteiskunnassa. Työni liittyy läheisesti suomalaisessa korkeakoulutuksessa viime vuosikymmenien aikana tapahtuneisiin muutoksiin ja koulutuksen laajenemiseen. Myös kilpailun käsite on tärkeä osa tutkimustani. Tutkimukseni kohteena olevat tuplamaisterit ovat kahta (tai useampaa) ylempää korkeakoulututkintoa suorittavia tai jo suorittaneita naisia ja miehiä. Tutkimuksessa käytetty aineisto on kerätty teemahaastatteluilla. Analysointimenetelmänä käytin sisällön analyysiä sekä Derek Layderin (1993) tutkimuskarttaa (research map). Haastateltavien valintakriteereihin kuului se, että he olivat edenneet opinnoissaan molemmilla aloilla jo pitkälle, ja valmistuminen ei ollut vain pelkkä ajatus vaan todellinen tavoite tai tosiasia. Toinen kriteeri oli se, että suoritettavat tutkinnot ovat yliopistotasoisia ylempiä korkeakoulututkintoja. Ei esimerkiksi ammattikorkeakouluissa suoritettuja tutkintoja. Lisäksi edellytin haastateltaviltani, että he olivat hakeutuneet molemmille koulutusaloille normaalin oppilasvalinnan kautta, eikä esimerkiksi erillisvalintojen tai maisteriohjelmien kautta. Tutkielmassani selvitetään sitä, mitä motiiveja tai perusteluja tuplamaistereiden puheesta löytyy, ja mihin laajempiin seikkoihin päällekkäinen kouluttautuminen voisi liittyä. Lisäksi tutkin tätä ilmiötä tilanteessa, jota luonnehtii korkeakoulututkintojen määrän jatkuva kasvu ja sen myötä muuttunut tilanne työmarkkinoilla. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena pohjana ovat Pierre Bourdieun näkemykset erottautumisesta, kentistä ja pääomista. Myös Bourdieun habituksen käsite on merkittävä etenkin tutkimukseni analyysin ja tulosten kannalta. Lisäksi käsitykset koulutuksesta resurssina on tutkimukselleni tärkeitä. Resurssinäkemyksen pohjana käytän muun muassa Max Weberin, Anthony Giddensin ja Päivi Naumasen kirjoituksia. Suomalaiset koulutussosiologiset tutkimukset, esimerkiksi Osmo Kivisen kirjoitukset, ovat myös tutkimukseni merkittäviä lähteitä. Tutkielman tuloksista ilmenee, että päällekkäinen kouluttautuminen on yksi vastaus työmarkkinoiden kiristyneelle kilpailulle ja yksi keino saada mieluisia, koulutusta vastaavia töitä. Kahdella tutkinnolla yksilö pystyy varmistamaan statuksensa ja tutkinnot toimivat resurssina tai pääomana. Muita tutkimuksessa esiin tulleita resursseja ovat (erikois-)koulut, laaja-alainen koulutus sekä kansainväliset kokemukset. Tutkimuksen tuloksiin liittyy läheisesti myös Markku Vanttajan ajatus menestyjähabituksesta. Tuplamaisterit eivät tavoittele Nobel-palkintoja tai akateemista menestystä. Elämme yhteiskunnassa, jossa lähes kaikki kouluttautuvat, ja elinikäisestä oppimisesta on tullut pakon kaltainen haaste. Tällainen yhteiskunta tukee tuplamaistereiden päätöstä hankkia kaksi tutkintoa eli laaja-alaista koulutuspääomaa.
  • Aho, Janette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims: This thesis examines how working-class mothers speak about their children's education, educational choices and their future. The aim of the study is to research discourses and subject positions that enable parents' agency. This thesis can be contextualized in the fields of sociology of education, cultural studies and the so-called new class studies. The theoretical background of the thesis draws from Pierre Bourdieu's studies on class and agency and from the feministic reformulations of his studies. Methods: The research data consisted of 9 theme interviews, which were collected in 2010 and 2011 as a part of Parents and School Choice- research project. The method used in the study was semiotic sociology analysis of transcribed interviews. The agency content was analysed with the help of Jyrki Jyrkämä's (2008) theory concerning modalities and Mustafa Emirbayer's & Ann Mische's concept of agency as a temporally embedded process of social engagement. Results: In Education as the basis for work life -discourse, working class mother hoped that basic education would help her child to acquire basic skills of citizenship and (work)life. School choices were based on practical matters. The purpose of education and examination was seen as a key to the work life. This discourse enabled the subject to position herself as an employee-citizen trusting Finnish elementary school. In Child's secure growth -discourse, the mother expected the basic education to support the child's socioemotional growth, and the school choices were made in order to preserve the familiar environment for the child. The child was hoped to continue their studies after the basic education and to be able to transition safely into the adulthood. This discourse offered for the user a protective mother –subject position. In Child's individual and autonomous choices -discourse, the mother expected the basic education to be individualized and correspond to the interests of the child. Child-centred school choice was based on the wish of the child. Education was seen as a way to create an individual career and a happy life. This discourse enabled the subject to position herself as a supporting parent and mother, who respects her child's self-determination. In Better for a child -discourse, the mother hoped that her child would receive challenging basic education and would be placed in a class with a motivated and positive learning environment. School choices were ambitious. Education was expected to provide a better life for the child than what their mother had had. This discourse enabled the subject to position herself as an ambitious mother and as a customer of education options. Conclusions: This study supports past observations according to which parents' school choices and young people's career choices are class-based phenomena. Nevertheless, the study also indicated how workingclass mothers' agency was multifaceted: they demonstrated both class-based habits and the ability to act differently from earlier models and to embrace influences from outside their own class. Working class mothers exploited three different and simultaneous agentic orientations: Ensuring the continuity of life oriented toward the past, An open view to enable oriented toward the present and Pursuing better oriented toward the future.