Browsing by Subject "kuitu"

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  • Savonen, Outi (2020)
    Novel fibrous feeds for ruminants The objective of this licentiate thesis was to study the effects of novel fibrous feeds on feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and milk production of lactating dairy cows. The novel feeds used in the milk production trials were silage solid fraction originated from a green biorefinery process (solid fraction) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) from coniferous trees. Solid fraction replaced unprocessed grass silage whereas MCC replaced barley in the diet as concentrate. The idea behind this thesis was a need to examine ruminant feeds unsuitable for human food. The need of more efficient food production will increase significantly due to the global population growth. Novel feeds for ruminants could form a part of a sustainable food system because the use of grass solid fraction would intensify the use of natural resources. The use of wood-based products would release arable land for producing human food. Enhancing the efficiency of grassland management in Finland might help to answer many problems caused by climate change. Furthermore, the processing of grass based biomaterials would contribute to the overall benefits from grasslands. In the first experiment (Exp. I), grass silage was fractionated using a farm scale twin-screw press. Due to the separation of liquid fraction the concentration of both dry matter and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) increased whereas the crude protein concentration was reduced in the solid fraction compared to the unprocessed silage. In the feeding trial, solid fraction replaced 0, 0.25 or 0.5 of the portion of forage. The cows were able to increase their feed intake when the proportion of solid fraction increased to 0.25. However, at the point where the proportion of solid fraction reached 0.5 the cows could not increase feed intake further. The digestibility of crude protein decreased linearly whereas the digestibility of NDF tended to increase with the increase in the NDF content of the diet. The pH or the content of ammonia in the rumen fluid did not change when silage was replaced with the solid fraction. There was also no difference in the amount of total volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid but the proportion of acetic acid increased with the increased proportion of solid fraction. Due to the increase in NDF content, the intake of metabolizable energy decreased quadratically and the amount of energy corrected milk tended to decrease. The separation process probably mechanically crushed the plant structure thus enhancing its rumen digestibility. This might explain the increase in feed intake and prevent the energy corrected milk production from declining when the portion of solid fraction was 0.25. In the second experiment (Exp. II), the effects of microcrystalline cellulose manufactured from coniferous wood pulp using a method developed at Aalto university (AaltoCell TM) was studied on dairy cows. In the feeding trial on lactating dairy cows MCC replaced barley in the concentrate. The proportion of MCC in diet dry matter was 0, 0.01 or 0.1. Microcrystalline cellulose has a very tight structure because the crystalline regions of the cellulose chains are strengthened by numerous inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The increase in MCC concentration did not affect dry matter intake. However, the digestibility of NDF improved with the increase in NDF content of the diet. Despite of increased intake of metabolizable energy, energy corrected milk production decreased linearly with the increase of MCC. The methods used in this study could not reveal the cause of the reduction in milk production. The increase in fibre digestibility can probably be explained by the better digestibility of MCC fibre compared to other fibres in the diet. Due to the small particle size of MCC, there is more surface area for microbial fermentation which may enhance the rumen digestibility. The cows were able to use the novel fibrous feeds examined in both experiments. The improvements in fibre digestibility compensated the increased fibre concentration in both experiments and there was only a minor reduction in milk production. The low concentration of crude protein in solid fraction improved the nitrogen use efficiency in milk production. The usage of MCC might also increase nitrogen use efficiency because it does not contain any nitrogen. The use of novel fibrous feeds in ruminant nutrition would help to enhance the use of natural resources and release arable land for human food production Grass cultivation as well as the usage of grass based biomaterials would be more efficient if the fractionation of grass would be more widely used.
  • Seppälä, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Equine digestive tract is adapted to diets rich in fibre. Concentrates are commonly used as energy supplements. The aim of this meta-analysis was to study the effect of concentrate level and diet composition, especially the amount of starch and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), on diet digestibility. The data consisted of 23 studies, 50 different diet comparsions and 113 diets, in which the concentrate level varied from 0 to 80 %. Dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibilities were measured by total collection or internal markers in all of the studies. Statistical analysis was performed using regression analysis with linear and quadratic mixed models. Concentrates were divided to three classes by the main ingredient: (1) fibre-rich, (2) oat-based and (3) other cereal (barley, corn) concentrates. Dry matter digestibility improved when the concentrate level and the starch level rose, but the effect faded with high levels according to the quadratic model (p=0,04 both). Increase of dietary starch level (g/bodyweight/meal) had a negative effect on fibre digestibility in both starch rich concentrate classes 2 and 3. NDF digestibility decreased curvilinearly when the level of NSC in diet (p=0,01) and in roughage (p=0,03) increased. There was no relationship between diet digestibility and concentrate NDF-level (p>0,25). Improved dry matter digestibility with increasing concentrate level can be explained by increased enzymatic digestion in the small intestine. When dietary level of starch and NSC is increased, part of the undigested matter can interfere with the caecum microbial balance and decrease fibre digestion. The results imply that, in addition to starch, dietary NSC level should be taken into account when evaluating the effects of diet composition on fibre digestibility in horse, even if the horse doesn’t have any metabolic problems. Further research on the effect of NSC on caecal microbial fermentation in healthy horses is warranted.
  • Vainio, Mika (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The literature review dealed with fat replacers in frankfurters. Manufacturing, properties and usages of microcrystalline cellulose were described. Also other fat replacers that are at the moment in use are described, such as hydrocolloids and proteins from vegetable. The literature review also described different methods that have been used to measure properties of frankfurters. The aim of the experimental work was to find out the influence of two different types of microcrystalline cellulose, Vivapur® 105(i) and Arbocel® M80(ii), on the properties of frankfurters, and can they been used as a fat replacer. Three different concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) (1 %, 3 % and 5 %) Were studied and compared to the control sample. Measured properties of frankfurters were pH, water holding, cooking loss, firmness and bite force. Also amount of free water was measured with NMR. Although adding MCC decreased pH of frankfurter closer to the isoelectric point, it did not affect as lowering water holding. Both MCC(i) and MCC(ii) increased significantly (p<0,05) firmness of the frankfurters when measuring was made with warm samples, excluding MCC(i) 3 % concentration. Effect was not as visible in the measurements of bite force.
  • Gothóni, Mia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Introduction: The incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) is rising in the Western world along with the increment in young women’s overweight and obesity rates. GDM poses short- and long-term threats to the health of both mother and child, which in turn might add to the economical burden and cause human suffering. Lifestyle counseling and nutritional management are key to managing adverse outcomes in both the woman with GDM and her unborn child. Objective: The aim of this thesis is to study whether the intake of energy, energy nutrients, and fiber change after the diagnosis of GDM. The changes in intakes of energy, energy nutrients, and fiber are compared between women with GDM and women with normal glucose tolerance. In addition, the changes in energy nutrients and fiber in different food sources are studied and compared between groups. Materials and methods: The study was conducted based on data from the control group in The Finnish gestational diabetes prevention study (RADIEL). RADIEL is a prospective, randomized, controlled intervention that was carried out in 2008–2014, and in which women at high risk of GDM pregnant in the first half of pregnancy or planning pregnancy were enrolled. The control group received usual care at antenatal clinics. The data was collected before the initiation of this thesis. Study participants with 3-day food record data from both the first and the third trimester of pregnancy were eligible for this study (n=111). GDM was diagnosed by a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in 22 of the participants in 22–28 weeks of gestation. Of the participants, 89 remained healthy by their glucose metabolism. The differences between women with GDM and women with normal glucose tolerance were tested using a t-test for normally distributed variables, and Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test or Fisher’s exact test for non-normally distributed variables. Analysis of covariance was used to test the differences in change in intake of energy, energy nutrients, and fiber between the first and third trimester. GDM, previous GDM, age, body mass index (BMI), education in years, and the intake of the nutrient at baseline (first trimester) were used as covariates. Results: The women with GDM had significantly lower prepregnancy BMI (p=0.025) and a history of GDM (p=0.011) was more common among them compared to women with normal glucose tolerance. Moreover, at baseline, their fasting insulin (p=0.033) and HOMA-IR (p=0.041) were lower and their HbA1c (p=0.038) higher than that of the women with normal glucose tolerance. The intake of energy, and energy nutrients and fiber in relation to energy did not differ between groups (p>0.05). However, as compaired to women with normal glucose tolerance, women with GDM reduced their intake of carbohydrates (adj. p=0.002) and sucrose (adj. p=0.002), and increased their intake of fat (adj. p=0.037) and fiber (adj. p=0.002) in relation to energy from the first trimester to the third. In food sources, the only difference between groups regarded the change of fiber (p=0.049) in relation to the total intake of fiber; this was seen in the food source of bread and flour, in which the proportion of fiber increased in women with GDM. Conclusions: The dietary intake changes significantly differently between women with GDM and women with normal glucose tolerance in regards of carbohydrate, fat, sucrose, and fiber. In women with GDM, the changes in beforementioned nutrients are in line with the Current Care Guidelines of GDM, with the exception of fiber that still changes towards the guidelines. The proportion of fiber changes differently between groups in the food source of bread and flour. Nutrition management of GDM should focus more on the importance of fiber and the composition of fatty acids in the diet, but it should also focus on increasing the proportion of protein to optimize the intake of carbohydrates and fat. The fact that women with GDM in this study had a relatively low energy intake from carbohydrates and a high energy intake from fat, raises the possible need to study how this affects the blood glucose and body composition of the child.
  • Ollila, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2007)
    Lisensiaattityössä käsitellään kuitupitoisen rehun vaikutusta porsimisen aikaan emakon aineenvaihduntaan, ummetukseen, nestetasapainoon ja alttiuteen sairastua PPDS:ään (post partum dysgalactia syndrome). Lisensiaattityö käsittää kirjallisuuskatsauksen ja kahdella kaupallisella rehulla suoritetun ruokintakokeen. Ruokintatutkimus suoritettiin 81 emakolla, joista IMETYS-ryhmän emakot (n=41) saivat imetysajan rehua 3,2 kg päivässä (kuitupitoisuus 3,8%) ja KUITU-ryhmän emakot (n=40) saivat kuitupitoista rehua 3,8 kg päivässä (kuitupitoisuus 7%). Rehut sisälsivät yhtä paljon energiaa ja niitä syötettiin noin neljän viikon ajan ennen porsimista ja kolme päivää porsimisen jälkeen, jolloin KUITU-ryhmän rehu vaihdettiin imetysajan rehuun. 41 emakosta otettiin verinäyte noin 85. tiineyspäivänä. Kaikista tutkimukseen osallistuneista emakoista otettiin verinäytteet päivittäin viisi päivää ennen porsimista ja viisi päivää porsimisen jälkeen. Emakoista otettiin päivittäin aamulla kaksi verinäytettä, toinen tunti ennen ruokintaa ja toinen tunti ruokinnan jälkeen. Verinäytteistä tutkittiin elimistön rasva-aineenvaihdunnasta kertovien vapaiden rasvahappojen (NEFA, non-esterified fatty acids) pitoisuus, valkuaisaineiden aineenvaihdunnasta kertova ureapitoisuus ja ravinnosta saadun energian soluunottoa lisäävän anabolisen hormonin, insuliinin, pitoisuus. Jokaisen emakon ulosteen koostumus arvioitiin päivittäin kuusiasteisen asteikon mukaan: 0= ei ulostetta; 1= uloste kuivaa, kovia papanoita; 2= kuivan ja normaalin ulosteen välimuoto; 3= normaali uloste, pehmeitä, kiinteä ulostepalloja; 4= normaalin ja märän ulosteen välimuoto, löysiä ulostepalloja; 5=hyvin märkä uloste, nestemäistä, ei säilytä pallomaista muotoa. Porsimisen aikaisen ummetuksen vakavuus määriteltiin ummetuksen keston perusteella kolmeen luokkaan: 2 vrk = lievä; 3-4 vrk = vakava; 5 vrk tai enemmän = erittäin vakava. 60 emakon päivittäinen vedenkulutus mitattiin ryhminä 8 vedenkulutusta mittaavan laskurin avulla. Laskurien lukemat luettiin päivittäin ja lukemat jaettiin ryhmän eläinten lukumäärän mukaan, jolloin pystyttiin arvioimaan emakkokohtainen päivittäinen vedenkulutus. Tutkimuksessa todettiin molempien ruokintaryhmien emakoiden muuttuvan porsimisen aikaan katabolisiksi ja käyttävän energialähteenään elimistön rasvakudoksia. Ulosteen koostumuksessa havaittiin merkittäviä muutoksia tarkkailujaksona sekä ruokintaryhmän sisällä että välillä. Ulosteen koostumus muuttui porsimisen jälkeen kuivemmaksi ja palautui päivien kuluessa kohti normaalia koostumusta. Koko arviointijakson ajan IMETYS-ryhmän uloste oli kuivempaa keskiarvon ollessa 1,27 ± 1,1. KUITU-ryhmän ulosteen koostumuksen numeerinen keskiarvo oli 2,17 ± 1,3 (P < 0,001). IMETYS-ryhmässä 19% emakoista kärsi vakavasta ummetuksesta, KUITU-ryhmässä vain 5%. KUITU-ryhmän emakoiden keskimääräinen vedenkulutus oli 29,8 ± 4,9 l/vrk ja IMETYS-ryhmän 20,2 ± 3,3 l/vrk (P < 0,05). Kuitupitoisen rehun todettiin parantavan suoliston toimintaa ja ehkäisevän ummetusta ja alentavan siten PPDS:n riskiä. Lisäksi kuitupitoinen rehu lisäsi vedenkulutusta, mikä voi lisätä maidontuotantoa. Emakon aineenvaihdunnan ollessa porsimisen aikaan joka tapauksessa katabolinen tarvetta PPDS:n riskiä kasvattavaan voimakkaaseen ruokintaan ennen porsimista ei ole.
  • Ervasti, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to examine if eating Finnish cereals and oil seeds cause more health benefits or harm. Cadmium was considered as the chemical hazard and dietary fiber as the useful nutrient. In this study food consumptions, the heavy metal contents and exposures, fiber intake and the biggest safe doses for cereals and seeds were evaluated. DALYs (disability adjusted life years) were used to compare benefits and harms. Exposure was estimated using the statistical BIKE model. To date, no risk benefit analysis concerning cereal and seed consumption is known to have been done. A common method for risk benefit analysis has not yet been developed, but generally a stepwise approach is recommended. Of the foods examined, poppy and sunflower seeds contained the most cadmium, pumpkin seed the least. In the long term, the most consumed seed was sesame and the most consumed cereal was wheat. The greatest cadmium exposure was due to wheat consumption, and for nickel oat consumption. Wheat was clearly the biggest source of fiber. Low fiber intake resulted in more DALYs than cereals’ cadmium resulted in osteoporotic DALYs in 2012. Compared to the situation in 2012, significantly less DALYs were resulted in scenario where 232 g of whole grains per day are consumed. It is because in the scenario, DALYs caused by low fiber intake, which amount is much higher than cadmium DALYs, are not formed. Based on the results obtained, with bigger cereal consumption than in 2012, the health benefits outweigh the disadvantages, as the impact of reducing the DALYs due to low fiber intake is much more significant than the impact of the increase of cadmium DALYs caused by higher intake. In the future, it would be beneficial to have a more comprehensive study of the health effects of the foods examined. However, this requires a lot of information that was not available in this study.
  • Koppanen, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The aim of the study was to map consumers' views on cellulose-based textile materials. The theoretical background of the study looked at the complex interplay between the consumption of textiles and clothing, the importance of products and the relationship between personal and product relations. Sustainable clothing consumption and its challenges were also examined. Which things will affect your clothing and how much interest in sustainable consumption will affect your purchases. The aim was also to collect opinions and thoughts from the respondents on the basis of new samples of cellulose fiber ioncell-F developed by the University of Helsinki and Aalto University. Methods. The research data was collected on two different E forms from 24 November to 10 December 2018. The first survey respondents were visitors to the Future Pieces - Circular Economy in Heureka. There were a total of 37 responses. The material collected at Heureka served as a preliminary investigation to build the actual questionnaire. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were used as research methods. For the occasional consumers in the shopping centers, a semi-structured questionnaire was presented. The form had set quantified questions and qualitative, open questions. The Mixed methods method was chosen to make the material as complete as possible. The quantitative and qualitative responses of the 45 consumers involved in the study were analyzed with reflection on the research questions. Results and conclusions. Consumers are very positive about ethical and ecological consumption. As a rule, consumers were of the opinion that future textile industry solutions should be on a sustainable basis and suitable for circulation. However, when choosing a garment, its fit, model, quality and material were the most important features on which the choices were made. Based on material samples, estimates of the ioncell-F process were very positive. The future of cellulosic textiles from a consumer perspective seems bright whether it is made of virgin or recycled fiber.
  • Virtanen, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The feeding of sows is restricted during late gestation that they would not be overweight when they are farrowing. Overweight of sows during farrowing can be fatal to piglets and make farrowing more difficult. Restricted feeding causes hunger and stress to sows. High-fiber feed has many positive effects. High-fiber feed offers an opportunity to chew, promotes bowel functions, keeps sows full longer and reduce stereotypical behaviour. Luonnonvarakeskus and A-Tuottajat organised feeding-experiment where the effect of two diets with different fibre content were compared on production resultst. It was studied how the diets effected on production results like sows feeding amounts, weights, constipations and the number and weights of born piglets. Our hyphotesis was that sows who ate high-fiber feed would eat more, their bowel would work better and their piglets would grow more. There were 80 sows who were divided into two groups in pairs. The pairs were as similar as possible. The pairs were placed in the farrowing ward. Group differences were analysed by analysis of variance with SAS. The test feed contained more fiber than the control feed. The test feed had crude fiber 138g/kg DM when the control feed had crude fiber 94g/kg DM. The test feed had NDF-fiber 305g/kg DM and ADF-fiber 124g/kg DM. The control feed had NDF-fiber 153g/kg DM and ADF-fiber 71g/kg DM. The test feed had more both soluble and insoluble fiber than the control feed. The amino acid composition and energy content did not differ between feeds. The results of 75 sows were analysed. No significant differences were found between treatments in the feeding test. The test group who ate the high-fiber diet did not have constipation after 5 days of farrowing unlike some of the control group sows. All the sows lost significantly weight during lactation. Piglets in both groups were even size ang grew steady. There was a great deal of dispersion in the results and the amount of data was too small to find differences. It is possible that differences between diets were too small. It is possible that larger data and more divergent feeds could have led to large differences.