Browsing by Subject "kuluttajaekonomia"

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  • Savela-Huovinen, Ulriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The study focused on sensory evaluation professionals and the aim was to gain an understanding of the competencies and practices required in their work in Finnish food industry. In addition, sensory professionals’ assessments of how digitalization can change the evaluation practices were explored. The specific research questions were: 1) What kind of competencies did sensory evaluation professionals report to need in their work? 2) What kinds of knowledge-creating practices did the professionals report? and 3) How did the professionals perceive the influences of using digital technologies on certain aspects of sensory evaluation practices and sensory consumer testing? Altogether 114 sensory professionals from Finnish food companies and universities participated in the study. The first sub-study (I) examined the daily practices of sensory professionals and highlighted the perspective of competencies and contexts. The second sub-study (II) examined the routines and knowledge-creating practices at work, as well as the perceptions of the effects of digitalization on the work. The third sub-study (III) examined how did the sensory professionals perceive the possibilities of utilizing facial expression analysis in sensory evaluation work. According to the results, assessors learn extensively from each other in collaborative interactional and knowledge creation contexts. Learning and development takes place in various practical sensory evaluation assessments, test situations, quality control, and by learning from consumer feedback. Individual and collaborative knowledge-creating practices can be demonstrated in industrial sensory evaluation work. Sensory professionals described and identified practices relevant for creating knowledge. According to sensory professionals, product-specific competencies develop only through several years of long-term training, in which collaboration with other colleagues and product knowledge are key elements. According to the survey and interview results, professionals perceived that their work would change as a result of digitalization and the introduction of new methods. The research results showed that product-oriented assessment methods are accompanied by the tasks related to the management of various digital materials collected from consumer tests. New jobs require sensory professionals to have related digital competencies and understanding of related ethical responsibilities.
  • Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna (Wageningen Academic Publishers, 2021)
    Justice and food security in a changing climate
  • Niva, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Taking the appropriation of objects as a theoretical starting point, this study makes a distinction between a conceptual and practical level of adopting new objects and products in everyday life. The study applies the concept of appropriation in social food research and examines consumers appropriation of functional foods, i.e., foods developed to improve health and well-being or reduce the risk of disease beyond the usual nutritional effects of foods. The study uses the concept of appropriation to understand the adoption and the process of making functional foods our own . First, the study focuses on the conceptual appropriation by analysing consumers interpretations and opinions on functional foods. Second, it analyses the use of functional foods and examines the role of sociodemographic and food- and health-related background factors in the use of functional foods. Both quantitative and qualitative data were used in the study. Altogether 1210 Finns representative of the population took part in a survey carried out in 2002 as computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). The survey examined the acceptability and use of functional foods in Finland. In 2004, eight focus group discussions were organised for 45 users and non-users of cholesterol-lowering spreads. The qualitative study focused on consumers interpretative perspectives on healthy eating and functional foods. The findings are reported in four original articles and a summary article. The results show that the appropriation of functional foods is a multifaceted phenomenon. The conceptual appropriation is related to consumers interpretations of functional foods in the context of healthy foods and healthy eating; their trust in the products, their manufacturers, research and control; and the relationship of functional foods and the ideal of natural foods. The analysis of the practical appropriation of four different types of foods marketed as functional showed that there are sociodemographic differences between users and non-users of the products, but more importantly, the differences are related to consumers food- and health-related views and practices. Consumers ways of appropriating functional foods in the conceptual and practical sense take shape in a complex web of ideas and everyday practices concerning food, health and eating as a whole. The results also indicate that the conceptual and practical appropriation are not necessarily uniform or coherent processes. Consumers interpret healthy eating and functional foods from a variety of perspectives and there is a multiplicity of rationales of using functional foods. Appropriation embraces many opposing dimensions simultaneously: good experiences and doubts, approval and criticism, expectations and things taken for granted.
  • Hossain, Md Motaher (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Bangladesh, often better known to the outside world as a country of natural calamities, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Despite rapid urbanization, more than 75% of the people still live in rural areas. The density of the rural population is also one of the highest in the world. Being a poor and low-income country, its main challenge is to eradicate poverty through increasing equitable income. Since its independence in 1971, Bangladesh has experienced many ups and downs, but over the past three decades, its gross domestic product (GDP) has grown at an impressive rate. Consequently, the country s economy is developing and the country has outperformed many low-income countries in terms of several social indicators. Bangladesh has achieved the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary school enrollment. A sharp decline in child and infant mortality rates, increased per capita income, and improved food security have placed Bangladesh on the track to achieving in the near future the status of a middle-income country. All these developments have influenced the consumption pattern of the country. This study explores the consumption scenario of rural Bangladesh, its changing consumption patterns, the relationship between technology and consumption in rural Bangladesh, cultural consumption in rural Bangladesh, and the myriad reasons why consumers nevertheless feel compelled to consume chemically treated foods. Data were collected in two phases in the summers of 2006 and 2008. In 2006, the empirical data were collected from the following three sources: interviews with consumers, producers/sellers, and doctors and pharmacists; observations of sellers/producers; and reviews of articles published in the national English and Bengali (the national language of Bangladesh) daily newspapers. A total of 110 consumers, 25 sellers/producers, 7 doctors, and 7 pharmacists were interviewed and observed. In 2008, data were collected through semi-structured in-depth qualitative interviews, ethnography, and unstructured conversations substantiated by secondary sources and photographs; the total number of persons interviewed was 22. -- Data were also collected on the consumption of food, clothing, housing, education, medical facilities, marriage and dowry, the division of labor, household decision making, different festivals such as Eid (for Muslims), the Bengali New Year, and Durga puja (for Hindus), and leisure. Qualitative methods were applied to the data analysis and were supported by secondary quantitative data. The findings of this study suggest that the consumption patterns of rural Bangladeshis are changing over time along with economic and social development, and that technology has rendered aspects of daily life more convenient. This study identified the perceptions and experiences of rural people regarding technologies in use and explored how culture is associated with consumption. This study identified the reasons behind the use of hazardous chemicals (e.g. calcium carbide, sodium cyclamate, cyanide and formalin, etc.) in foods as well as the extent to which food producers/sellers used such chemicals. In addition, this study assessed consumer perceptions of and attitudes toward these contaminated food items and explored how adulterated foods and food stuffs affect consumer health. This study also showed that consumers were aware that various foods and food stuffs contained hazardous chemicals, and that these adulterated foods and food stuffs were harmful to their health.
  • Autio, Minna; Huttunen, Kaisa; Härkönen, Susanna; Lindroos, Marko (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2008)
    Helgingin yliopisto, Taloustieteen laitos, Selvityksiä ; 55
  • Kalli, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Aim of this master's thesis paper for consumer economics, is to research gambling advertisements in Finland over a period of 35 years, from 1970 to 2006. Veikkaus Oy (later Veikkaus), was founded in 1940, as one of the three licensed gambling organizations in Finland. Material for the current research comprised 1494 advertisements published by Veikkaus in newspapers and magazines at that time. Veikkaus has the exclusive licence to organize lotto games, sport games, instant games and other draw games in Finland. The other two operators, The Finnish Slot Machine Association RAY and Fintoto (on-track horse betting), were not included in the current analysis. This study has been completed according to research contract and grand by the Finnish Foundation for Gaming Research (Pelitoiminnan tutkimussäätiö). In general, advertisements reflect surrounding culture and time, and their message is built on stratified meanings, symbols and codes. Advertising draws the viewer's attention, introduces the advertised subject, and finally, affects the individual's consumption habits. However, advertisements not only work on individual level, but also influence public perception of the advertised product. Firstly, in order to assess gambling as a phenomenon, this paper discusses gambling as consumer behaviour, and also reviews history of gambling in Finland. Winning is a major feature of gambling, and dreaming about positive change of life is a centre of most gambling ads. However, perceived excitement through risk of losing can also be featured in gambling ads. Secondly, this study utilizes Veikkaus’ large advertising archives, were advertising data is analyzed by content analysis and the semiotic analysis. Two methods have been employed to support analyzing outcome in a synergistic way. Content analysis helps to achieve accuracy and comprehensiveness. Semiotic analysis allows deeper and more sensitive analysis to emerged findings and occurrences. It is important to understand the advertised product, as advertising is bound to the culture and time. Hence, to analyze advertising, it is important to understand the environment where the ads appear. Content analysis of Veikkaus data discovered the main gambling and principal advertisement style for each.period. Interestingly, nearly half of Veikkaus’ advertisements promoted topic other than “just winning the bet”. Games of change, like Lotto, typically advertised indirectly represented dreams about winning. In the category of skill gambling, features were represented as investment, and the excitement of sporting expertise was emphasized. In addition, there were a number of gambling ads that emphasize social responsibility of Veikkaus as a government guided organization. Semiotic methods were employed to further elaborate on findings of content analysis. Dreaming in the advertisements was represented by the product of symbols, (e.g. cars and homes) that were found to have significance connection with each other. Thus, advertising represents change of life obtained by the winning. Interestingly, gambling ads promoting jackpots were often representing religious symbolisms. Ads promoting social responsibility were found to be the most common during economical depression of the 90’s. Deeper analysis showed that at that time, advertisements frequently represented depression-related meanings, such as unemployment and bank loans. Skill gaming ads were often represented by sports expertise – late 90’s, their number started sky rocketing, and continued increasing until 2006 (when this study ended). One may conclude that sport betting draws its meanings from the relevant consumer culture, and from the rules and features of the betted sport.
  • Wahlen, Stefan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Current societies face several challenges and it has been indicated that sustainability is a major problem. It appears vital to possess knowledge on how to govern problems associated with sustainable development in order to mitigate the challenges they bring about. In this frame of reference, sustainable consumption appears imperative for reaching sustainability. In accord, this dissertation elaborates on how consumption is governed by a variety of instances and hence contributes to consumer studies by progressing consumer policy as well as the everyday life of consumers in offering distinctive perspectives on governing consumption. Consumer policy attempts to govern consumption, however, predominantly focuses on market activities instead of everyday consumption. Respectively, consumption is here understood as everyday conduct in social practices so as to shed light on its routine and mundane character. The idea of government deployed in this dissertation is that of executing power over oneself or others in conduct of conduct. Hence it is possible to speak of the government of states, households, consumers, or the self. Regimes of prac tices governing consumption can then be found beyond and along the political and market spheres in the everyday. The idea of sustainable development pertains to political practices as well as to everyday routines governing consumption. In order to govern consumption towards a more sustainable form of conduct, practitioners in political, market and everyday spheres can be considered by an analytics of government. Thereby a nexus concatenating distinct features can be distinguished including modes of thought, technologies of government, visual representations and identities involved in government. These four features are considered in the analysis of the individual articles providing perspectives on how consumption is governed. On the one hand consumer policy is comparatively analysed considering first the historic development of consumer empowerment and second on the discursive construction of the consumer in policy documents. The other perspectives on governing consumption convey examples drawing on food consumption. First, a practice approach highlights routines governing consumption, and second, a policy intervention related to public catering is analysed. The results highlight the importance of a possible politico-theoretical alignment of the four features of an analytics of government by the respective practitioners in political, market and everyday spheres. The interplay between modes of thought, technologies of government, visual representations and identities plays a vital role in governing consumption. In order to achieve sustainability and especially sustainable consumption it has to be acknowledged that these four features mutually interact and influence each another.
  • Marttinen, Mikko (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Purpose and aim of loyalty programs are to commit and bind customers and increase shopping amounts and times and create loyalty. Loyalty programs aim to achieve this by producing benefits to its members. Using multiple measures such as advertisement, producing benefits and offering discounts and introducing systems to encourage commitment achieve influencing attitudes and commitment towards loyalty programs. Aim of this thesis was to find out from consumers perspective what do customers think of loyalty programs. What types of attitudes do consumer programs show and does loyalty programs work in consumer’s minds. Does loyalty programs affect to consumers commitment and do they drive to concentrating in to specific companies. Consumers belong to multiple loyalty programs and from many of the programs there has been studies made on how they work from the companies’ perspective. Purpose of this thesis was to find out the consumers view on being a loyal customer and from loyalty programs. The research method of this thesis was quantitative. During summer 2008 through internet survey over 800 responses were collected. Survey was published on the consumer agency web pages and a link to the survey was published also in the Helsingin sanomat newspaper during August. Most of the respondents were from south Finland and from Uudenmaan district. Majority of respondents were women and most common age among respondent were between 26 to 35. Respondents belonged to multiple loyalty programs and in general the respondents liked loyalty programs. Centralising and commitment was slightly seen but in general also commonly lower price level companies were preferred. According to respondents the companies behind loyalty programs benefit more from the programs then the consumers. Never the less majority of the respondent felt that loyalty programs gave positive experiences and vast majority felt that they received benefits on monthly bases from the loyalty programs. Respondents felt in many cases that there are already too many loyalty programs offered toward consumers and those are not commonly compared with other loyalty programs. Based on this most often consumers are part of the most common programs existing but there is no apparent reason behind this other then their commonness. Joining to loyalty programs was met with carefulness and majority of respondents does not actively recommend loyalty programs to others.
  • Autio, Minna (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2006)
    This study examines the narrative construction of consumerism in Finnish consumer culture in the early 21st century. The objects of the study are consumer life stories and essays on environmentally friendly consumption, written by 15-19-year-old high school students. Moreover, group discussions were used as additional research material. The data was gathered at five high schools in different areas of Finland. Young people's consumer narratives are interpreted through cultural stories and consumer ethos such as self-control, gratification and green consumerism. The narrative research approach is used to analyse what types of consumer positions these young people construct in stories on their own consumer history, and what kinds of ideas and thought patterns they construct on green consumerism. The study creates a multifaceted image of young people as agents in consumer society. They construct archetypical stories of wastrels and scrooges, as well as prudent and environmentally friendly consumers. Consumption and expenditure are however mostly a continuous battle between self-control and giving in to gratification. This reality is illustrated among other things by clever expressions invented by young people, such as Carefree Pennywise, Prudent Hedonist and Wasteful Scrooge. In their narratives, young people also analyse the usefulness - or uselessness - of their decisions on consumption, as well as develop themselves into controlling and sensible consumers. This kind of virtuous consumer allows him/herself the joy and the gratification of consumption, as long as these are "kept in check". One's view of expenditure and consumption is not permanent. Consumerism may alter with time. A wastrel may grow up to be a young person in control of their desires, or a thrifty child may awaken to the pleasures of consumption in their teens. Consumerism may also be polyphonic: it may simultaneously - and even uncomplicatedly - be constructed upon the discourses of wastefulness, prudence, gratification and green consumerism. Young people allow for gratification to form a part of green consumerism, too: it is not simply restrictive self-denial. They also see many hurdles in the way of green consumerism, such as the elevated price of ecological products, and the difficulties of green consumer practices. The stories also show the gender division in green consumerism. For young men, ecological considerations offer elements for the construction of consumerism only on the very rare occasion, whereas striving for day-to-day green practices is typical for young women.
  • Ryynänen, Toni (Kuluttajatutkimuskeskus, Helsinki, 2009)
    Designed by the Media The Media publicity of Design in the Finnish Economic Press The meaning of design has increased in consumer societies. Design is the subject of debate and the number of media discussions has also increased steadily. Especially the role of industrial design has been emphasised. In this study I examine the media publicity of design in the Finnish economic press from the late 1980s to the beginning of the 2000s. The research question is connected to media representations: How is design represented in the Finnish economic press? In other words, what are the central topics of design in the economic press, and to what issues are the media debates connected? The usually repeated phrase that design discussions take place only on the cultural pages of the daily press or in cultural contexts is being changed. Design is also linked to the consumer culture and consumers everyday practices. The research material has been collected from the Finnish economic press. The qualitative sample consists of articles from Kauppalehti, Taloussanomat and from several economic papers published by the Talentum Corporation. The approach of the research is explorative, descriptive and hermeneutic. This means that the economic press articles are used to explore how design is represented in the media. In addition, the characteristics of design represented in the media are described in detail. The research is based on the interpretive tradition of studying textual materials. Background assumptions are thus grounded in hermeneutics. Erving Goffman s frame analysis is applied in analysing the economic press materials. The frames interpreted from the articles depict the media publicity of design in the Finnish economic press. The research opens up a multidimensional picture of design in the economic press. The analysis resulted in five frames that describe design from various points of view. In the personal frame designers are described in private settings and through their personal experiences. The second frame relates to design work. In the frame of mastery of the profession, the designers work is interpreted widely. Design is considered from the aspects of controlling personal know-how, co-operation and the overall process of design. The third frame is connected to the actual substance of the economic press. In the frame of economy and market, design is linked to international competitiveness, companies competitive advantage and benefit creation for the consumers. The fourth frame is connected to the actors promoting design on a societal level. In the communal frame, the economic press describes design policy, design research and education and other actors that actively develop design in the societal networks. The last frame is linked to the traditions of design and above all to the examination of the cultural transition. In the frame of culture the traditions of design are emphasised. Design is also connected to the industrial culture and furthermore to the themes of the consumer culture. It can be argued that the frames construct media publicity of design from various points of view. The frames describe situations, action and the actors of design. The interpreted media frames make it possible to understand the relation of interpreted design actions and the culture. Thus, media has a crucial role in representing and recreating meanings related to design. The publicity of design is characterised by the five focal themes: personification, professionalisation, commercialisation, communalisation and transition of cultural focus from the traditions of design to the industrial culture and the consumer culture. Based on my interpretation these themes are guided by the mediatisation of design. The design phenomenon is defined more often on the basis of the media representations in the public discourses. The design culture outlined in this research connects socially constructed and structurally organised action. Socially constructed action in design is connected to the experiences, social recreation and collective development of design. Structurally, design is described as professional know-how, as a process and as an economic profit generating action in the society. The events described by the media affect the way in which people experience the world, the meanings they connect to the events around themselves and their life in the world. By affecting experiences, the media indirectly affects human actions. People have become habituated to read media representations on a daily basis, but they are not used to reading and interpreting the various meanings that are incorporated in the media texts.
  • Särkikangas, Ulla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This doctoral study investigates heavy and long-term use of social welfare and healthcare services in the everyday life of special needs families. A special needs family is defined as a family that has at least one child who needs special support and services for her/his health, growth and/or development. Use of services is approached from the perspectives of everyday activities and time use. The study increases understanding of the variety of activities that the long-term service use requires from these families as well as the rhythmic changes in activities and time use that can be identified from the families’ everyday lives. The interpretative resources of this study draw from the traditions of service research and consumption and home economics studies. The study approaches long-term service use from the perspective of customer-dominant logic and customer activity which have roots in the service research tradition. The analysis of families’ everyday activities and time use draws from Lefebrian rhythmanalysis and especially from the understanding of the discordance of rhythms. This enables investigation of rhythms in time use as well as ruptures and discordances that are linked to them. The methodological approach of the study is based on the interpretative research tradition with an emphasis on the phenomenological perspective. The empirical data consist of ten interviews of parents with special needs children. The interpretation and reporting of the findings utilize both interpretative resources listed above and earlier studies on special needs children and families, for example in the fields of social-, health- and education studies. The findings of the study show that families can, in the course of the years, use as many as tens of services. Families’ extensive experience of service use includes early childhood education and teaching services in addition to social welfare and healthcare services. Apart from the activities that take place in the interaction between families and service producers (such as going to the doctor), the study also identified activities that are meaningful for the families but are not taken into account in the service provisioning or that are downright invisible to service providers. The daily management of fragmented services using different operating models requires, for example, diverse and multifaceted activities related to information search and time management. Problems or challenges associated with the service system lead to situations in which parents who try to receive and use services are forced to perform even such activities that normally should be conducted by a service provider. Furthermore, the findings demonstrate that services have not been digitized in accordance to the families’ expectations. The discordance of rhythms which allows us to interpret changes in families’ everyday activities and time use highlight situations in which the development of everyday rhythms is disturbed, in which there are tensions of conflicts between rhythms, and in which there are temporal pressures involved in activities. Service providers’ product-oriented operating models and timetables can, for example, fragment families’ everyday activities and cause multitasking pressures which then weaken the experience of harmony in everyday life. The findings of the study indicate that the everyday life of families who are heavy and long-term users of services contains activities that are associated with the service use but are invisible or not accounted for in the service provision. From the families’ perspective these activities can appear as conflicting: the services aim to support families’ everyday life and wellbeing, but their active use takes valuable and limited time away from other everyday activities. Families also seem to have problems with finding a rhythmic balance between the support and care of the special needs child and the allocation of time and activities required by the service system. These both factors may hinder the harmonious everyday life and families’ wellbeing.
  • Kousa, Ilona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielmani tarkastelee kuluttamisen ja identiteettipolitiikan yhtymäkohtia sosiaalisen median ilmastonmuutoskeskustelun kontekstissa. Lähestyn ilmiötä hermeneuttisella tutkimusotteella kulutuskulttuurin tutkimuksen näkökulmasta. Tutkimusmenetelmäni yhdistää ontologian opettamiseen perustuvaa automatisoitua etäluentaa laadulliseen lähiluentaan ja tulkinnalliseen analyysiin. Tutkimusaineistoa ovat sosiaalisen median tietokantapalvelusta poimitut 204 454 ilmastonmuutosta koskevaa kommenttia, jotka on julkaistu Suomi24-keskustelupalstalla vuosina 2015–2019. Aineistoni suuren koon vuoksi käytän sen sisältämien aiheiden luokittelussa automaattista tekstianalyysiä, jonka tuloksia tulkitsen laadullisesti. Määrällisiä ja laadullisia elementtejä yhdistävä tutkimusmenetelmä mahdollistaa yhtäältä kokonaiskuvan hahmottamisen ja toisaalta merkitysten syvällisen ymmärtämisen. Kuluttaminen on kulttuurisesti rakentuva ilmiö, joka saa kuluttajien vuorovaikutuksessa symbolisia merkityksiä. Kuluttajat tekevät kulutuspäätöksiä suhteessa kulttuuriin ja monimuotoisiin kulutuseetoksiin, jotka heijastavat yhteiskunnan arvoja, rakenteita ja käytäntöjä. Kuluttaminen on myös keskeinen tapa määritellä sekä yksilöllistä että kollektiivista identiteettiä. Suomi24-palstan kuluttamista koskeva ilmastonmuutoskeskustelu rakentuu etenkin seitsemän kuluttamiseen liittyvän luokan kautta, jotka ovat autoilu, liha, lentäminen, julkinen liikennne ja pyöräily, kasvisruoka, lemmikit ja vaatteet. Aikajanalla tarkasteltuna luokkien suhteellinen osuus aineistosta kasvoi vuodesta 2015 vuoteen 2019 mennessä 5,9 prosentista 15 prosenttiin. Havaintojeni perusteella Suomi24-palstan ilmastonmuutoskeskustelua hallitsevat ilmastoskeptikot, jotka vähättelevät ilmastonmuutosta ja sen torjunnan keinoja. Heidän kommenteissaan toistuu kaksi kuluttajan stereotyyppiä: ilmastoskeptikoiden omaa viiteryhmää edustava ”tolkun kuluttaja” ja vastapuolen viiteryhmää edustava ”ilmastovouhottaja”. Stereotyypit rakentuvat muun muassa kuluttamiseen ja sosio-ekonomisiin tekijöihin liittyvien vastakkainasettelujen kautta. Kommenteissa oman viiteryhmän symboleja kuten autoilua ja lihaa puolustetaan. Toisaalta vastapuolen symboleja kuten sähköautoja ja kasvisruokaa vastaan hyökätään esimerkiksi luomalla uhkakuvia kuluttamiseen kohdistetuista kielloista ja veronkorotuksista. Esitän tutkielmassani, että kuluttamisen symboleja käytetään keskusteluissa identiteettipoliittisen vaikuttamisen välineenä. Ääritapauksessa keskustelija voi olla provosointiin pyrkivä trolli, jolloin symbolit on irrotettu aidosta kuluttajakontekstista. Aineistossani on viitteitä siitä, että taustalla on myös muita identiteettipoliittisia agendoja kuten feminismin ja maahanmuuton vastustaminen.
  • Nousiainen, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan kuluttajien kokemuksia ja näkemyksiä aikaan sekä ajankäyttöön liittyen. Syventymisen kohteena ovat ajan symboliset ja sosiaaliset merkitykset. Tutkielmassa analysoidaan sitä, miten kuluttajat jäsentävät ajankäyttöään, miten he kokevat pirstaloituneen ajan, millaista ajankäyttöä he ihannoivat sekä mistä he haaveilevat. Tutkimusaineisto koostuu kymmenen työelämässä olevan 29–38-vuotiaan kuluttajan yksilöhaastattelusta. Haastateltavat ovat korkeakoulutettuja ja aineiston analyysissa on käytetty teemoittelua. Tutkimuksen viitekehys rakentuu yhtäältä ajankäyttötutkimuksen ja aikakäsityksien tutkimuksen perinteeseen sekä toisaalta ajan ominaisuuksien, rutiinien sekä rytmien tutkimuksiin. Keskeisenä tuloksena on kuluttajien ristiriitainen kokemus ajasta. He ihannoivat tehokkuutta ja haaveilevat vapaudesta ilman aikatauluja. Tehokkaaseen ajankäyttöön sisältyy ajatus säästäväisestä kuluttajasta, joka harkitsee tarkkaan valintojaan. Kuluttaja pohtii arjenhallintaa kotitalouden näkökulmasta ja omasta kiiretuntemuksensa näkökulmasta. Oman ajankäytön kontrolli on kuluttajalle läsnä arjessa. Vastapainoisesti kuluttaja haaveilee arjen pienistä irtiotoista, ajantajun sallitusta menetyksestä ja pohtii unelmien ajankäyttöä. Kuluttajien tavat suhtautua aikaan kumpuavat menneestä ajasta. Maatalousyhteiskunnassa hyveinä pidetty protestanttinen työeetos tehokkuusvaatimuksineen ja agraarinen kulutuseetos säästäväisyyshyveineen ovat jättäneet jälkensä suomalaisiin kuluttajiin. Nykykuluttajat korostavat lisäksi vapaa-ajan tehokkuutta ansiotyön rinnalla. Älypuhelin ja kalenterit toimivat ajanhallinnan tukena. Perhe, harrastukset ja omakotitaloasuminen ovat tekijöitä, joiden kesken vapaa-aika jaetaan. Kuluttajien aika on pirstaloitunutta. Rutiinit ovat epäsäännöllistyneet, aktiviteetit ovat pirstoutuneet, toiminta on sijoittunut uudelleen ja ajankäytössä on merkkejä päällekkäisyyksistä. Oikean ja väärän välinen tasapainoilu on jatkuvaa. Vastakkain ovat työ ja vapaa-aika tai vaihtoehtoisesti työ ja perhe. Vapaa-ajan sisältämä symbolinen taistelu oikean ja väärän ajanvieton välillä kumpuaa sosiaalisista ja kulttuurisista normeista.