Browsing by Subject "kuva"

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  • Halenius, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogical use of illustrative material in early childhood education. While pictorial material is widely used in early childhood education, there is little research on the topic. The application of pictorial material in supporting communication and structuring everyday function is gaining recognition in early childhood education. The aim of this study was to investigate the pictorial environment of day care centers and the experience of using pictorial material in interactions with children from the kindergarten teachers perspective. Furthermore, the study examines how kindergarten teachers use pictorial material in early childhood education and how they plan the pictorial environment. The research design was qualitative. The research material was collected by theme interviews and photographic documentation. The data included 15 interviews of kindergarten teachers and 613 photographs of their classes. The research material collected end of 2010 in a city in southern Finland. The method used in analyzing both the interviews and the photograph material was theory-guided content analysis. The pictures displayed in the day care environments particularly emphasized everyday functions such as day or week schedules, dressing, eating and play in day care groups. In addition, children's artwork was on display in every classroom. The study suggests that the kindergarten teachers find the pictorial material essential particularly when teaching children with special needs and children who speak Finnish as a second language. However, the teachers noted that they considered the pictorial material beneficial to all children. Kindergarten teachers used pictorial material in everyday life, principally to structure function, guide children's play and support language development. Especially within integrated special groups the communication and participation through pictorial material was seen essential. Kindergarten teachers highlighted that the pictorial environment planning is based on child oriented, function oriented or aesthetic perspectives. The key emphasis in planning the environment is the needs of a particular child or group of children.
  • Hertz, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tutkimuksen aiheena on kerronnalliset tekniikat subjektiviteetin rakentumisen ja vuorovaikutuksen esittämisen välineinä David Mazzucchellin sarjakuvaromaanissa Asterios Polyp (2009). Tarkastelen teoksen kerrontaa ja kuinka se kuvaa henkilöhahmojen subjektiviteettia ja hahmojen välistä vuorovaikutusta. Tutkin teoksen visuaalisia ja kielellisiä piirteitä niiden kerronnallisten merkitysten kannalta. Tarkastelen miten visuaalisuus ja kielellisyys toimivat kerronnallisesti fiktiivisten hahmojen mielten ja dialogisten suhteiden rakentamisessa. Tutkimuksen teoreettisena viitekehyksenä käytän Kai Mikkosen teosta The Narratology Of Comic Art (2017). Mikkosen sarjakuvatutkimuksen teoreettisen viitekehyksen kautta tarkasteluna sarjakuvaromaanin kerronnallisuus perustuu visuaalisten ja kielellisten osa-alueiden erilaisille funktioille. Lisäksi sarjakuvaromaanin kontekstissa tekijän tyyli määrittää teoksen fiktiivisen maailman rakentumista ja erilaisten visuaalisten ja kielellisten ominaisuuksien roolia. Nykynarratologian ja kirjallisuudentutkimuksen valossa sarjakuvatutkimuksen teoreettinen viitekehys tarjoaa runsaasti välineitä erilaisten sarjakuvateosten tarkasteluun. Mazzucchellin sarjakuvaromaani hyödyntää runsaasti erilaisia kerronnallisia tekniikoita, joiden avulla hahmojen mieliä ja vuorovaikutusta kuvataan. Fiktiivisten hahmojen mielten, kokemusten ja suhteiden esittäminen sarjakuvaromaanin lajin kontekstissa osoittautui laaja-alaiseksi kokonaisuudeksi, jossa Mazzucchellin teos toimi hedelmällisenä tutkimuskohteena. Teoksen kerronnan tarkastelu tarjosi näkökulmia visuaalisuuden ja kielellisyyden kerronnallisiin kytköksiin, joiden tutkiminen on sarjakuvatutkimuksen ja narratologian kontekstissa alati ajankohtainen kerronnallinen sidos. Mazzucchellin teos tarjoaa runsaasti materiaalia jatkotutkimukselle ja erilaisille lähestymistavoille.
  • Lehtoranta, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Aims. Our cultur is getting pictorial at a tremendious rate. The number of pictures around us is very plentiful. We often take pictures as an obvious part of learning materials. Yet their importance for learning has been studied very little. I seek to gain insight into the perceptions teachers have of the importance of pictures in primary school maths learning materials. I also try to clarify the teachers’ thoughts on the descriptions of a good teaching picture. It was assumed that pictures in a learning material play a major role in the mathematics learning of a primary school pupil. Previous studies have shown that the use of pictures in teaching mathematics is useful for learning especially when pictures are closely related to both the subject being learned and the world of childrend’s experiences. Methods. The research data was collected between June and November 2017 by interviewing seven pre-primary and class teachers from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. The teachers had several years of experience teaching mathematics in primary school. The analytical approach was to analyse the content through a thematic interview. The theme was the use of pictures in mathematics teaching. Results and conclusions. The teachers felt that the use of pictures was an important or very important part of teaching mathematics. The clarity of the pictures and the signifigance of everyday life were important criteria for a good teaching picture. In addition to the finished pictures it was considered important to make the teacher’s and the pupil’s own drawings.The concept of a picture also included operational tools and the observable environment. Challenges appeared in the pupils’ difficulty in perceiving pictures and the lack of ability to train in image literacy. The importance of pictures for learning is great, both based on previous studies and this thesis. The use of pictures in teaching will continue to be an important part of learning mathematics.
  • Lahti, Lauri (Helsingfors universitet, 2006)
    The study examines various uses of computer technology in acquisition of information for visually impaired people. For this study 29 visually impaired persons took part in a survey about their experiences concerning acquisition of infomation and use of computers, especially with a screen magnification program, a speech synthesizer and a braille display. According to the responses, the evolution of computer technology offers an important possibility for visually impaired people to cope with everyday activities and interacting with the environment. Nevertheless, the functionality of assistive technology needs further development to become more usable and versatile. Since the challenges of independent observation of environment were emphasized in the survey, the study led into developing a portable text vision system called Tekstinäkö. Contrary to typical stand-alone applications, Tekstinäkö system was constructed by combining devices and programs that are readily available on consumer market. As the system operates, pictures are taken by a digital camera and instantly transmitted to a text recognition program in a laptop computer that talks out loud the text using a speech synthesizer. Visually impaired test users described that even unsure interpretations of the texts in the environment given by Tekstinäkö system are at least a welcome addition to complete perception of the environment. It became clear that even with a modest development work it is possible to bring new, useful and valuable methods to everyday life of disabled people. Unconventional production process of the system appeared to be efficient as well. Achieved results and the proposed working model offer one suggestion for giving enough attention to easily overlooked needs of the people with special abilities. ACM Computing Classification System (1998): K.4.2 Social Issues: Assistive technologies for persons with disabilities I.4.9 Image processing and computer vision: Applications
  • Juhantalo, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 1998)
    Hevosen luuston skintigrafia tutkimus perustuu suonensisäisesti annettavan radioaktiivisen lääkeaineen eli radiofarmaseutin jakautumisen seurantaan gammakameran avulla. Gammakamera tunnistaa radiofarmaseutista lähtevän aktiivisuuden. Radiofarmaseuttina käytetään Teknetium99m isotooppia. Teknetium on sidottu kantaja-aineeseen, joka sitoutuu luuston hydroksiapatiittikiteisiin. Kuvaus aloitetaan kahden ja puolen tunnin kuluttua radiofarmaseutin suonensisäisestä annostelusta, jolloin suurin osa luuhun sitoutumattomasta radiofarmaseutista on eritetty virtsaan. Kuvaus suoritetaan rauhoitetulle hevoselle seisaallaan. Ennen kuvausta hevonen asetetaan haluttuun asentoon riippuen kuvattavasta kohdasta. Luun patofysiologisissa tiloissa, kuten murtumissa ja tulehduksissa, verenkierto vilkastuu ja luun hydroksiapatiittikiteitä paljastuu normaalia enemmän. Näihin luun epänormaaleihin kohtiin sitoutuu radiofarmaseuttia enemmän kuin terveeseen luuhun ja tämä näkyy epänormaalien kohtien korkeampana aktiivisuutena. Skintigrafia tutkimus on hevosten ontumien diagnostiikkaan sopiva apuväline lähinnä tapauksissa, joissa ontuman syytä ei tavanomaisilla menetelmillä ole saatu selville. Menetelmä on erittäin herkkä tunnistamaan aineenvaihdunnallisia muutoksia luussa, mutta tarkkaa anatomista kuvaa se ei anna. Usein skintigrafia tutkimuksen lisänä diagnoosin varmistamiseksi on käytettävä perinteisiä kuvantamismenetelmiä, kuten röntgen ja ultraääni.