Browsing by Subject "kuvaileva analyysi"

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  • Timonen, Tuire (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract Excessive use of table salt, sodium chloride, is known to have many health-related effects such as increased risk of hypertension, which is major cause of cardiovascular disease. Recommended salt intake for adults is up to 5 g per day, which is exceeded at the population level. Cereal products are source of the most abundant salt intake in Finland and they account for more than 30 percent of daily salt intake, which is the reason why to pursue reduction of salt in bread. For this reason, the thesis decribes how to reduce the salt content of bread from normal salt content (1,1 % NaCl) to a level that enables the use of Heart symbol (0,7 % NaCl), so that the salty flavor in the bread would be maintained without the metal flavor of potassium increasing. The aim of the study is to test the impact of the salt substitutes found in literature review on sensory quality of the bread. The effect of salt substitutes was investigated with descriptive sensory analysis with trained panel. In addition, densities and structural properties were measured. In the experimental study as the reference was used normal salt wheat bread (1,1 % NaCl) and justified Heart Symbol wheat bread (0,7 % NaCl) in which salt contain 60 % sodium chloride and 40 % potassium chloride (“mineral bread”). After the preliminary tests, six most suitable treating agents were selected for the sensory study are where added to the samples at the manufacturing stage. Mineralbread (0,7 % NaCl) was used as the basis for the samples to be able to find out the treating agent, which could cover the metallic taste of potassium. For organoleptic evaluation 11 persons were trained to evaluate the color of the bread crust, the stickiness of the bread crumb, the crispiness of the bread crust, saltiness, magnitude of the taste and metallic taste. The evaluation took place twice in consecutive days. For the evaluation, verbally anchored line scale was used with the reference samples (R/S) for each of the evaluated properties being used as the center point in the scale. A reference sample R was standard wheat bread with normal salt (1,1 % NaCl) and reference sample S was a mineralbread. The results support earlier findings that the addition of potassium chloride retained salty taste of the products since none of the samples were less salty than the normal salt (1,1 % NaCl) reference sample. The addition of potassium chloride produced a metallic taste. According to the study, three of the six treating agents was covered well the metal taste. The bread crust of the bread with normal salt content (1,1 % NaCl) was evaluated the lightest while the bread crust of the sourdough bread the darkest. There were no major differences between the samples in the stickiness of crumbs and the crispiness of crust. It was found in physical measurement that storage for five days had an impact on the hardness, cohesiveness and resilience of the samples. During the storage, the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of all the samples increased while springiness, cohesiveness and resilience of all the samples decreased. Results of the study showed that the replacement of 40 % of sodium chloride with potassium chloride allowed to reduce the salt content of the bread from normal salt content (1,1 % NaCl) to the content that enables the use of Heart symbol (0,7 % NaCl) so that the salty flavor is maintained in the bread. Potassium chloride produced the metallic side-effect, which was covered by adding treating agent. One treating agent was the best suited to this, because its use did not change other organoleptic properties or structure of the bread.
  • Oksa, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract Licorice is traditionally made from sugar, molasses, water, wheat flour, and licorice extract. In the literature review, the focus was on the properties of quinoa, licorice extrusion, sensory and physical properties of licorice and the basis behind sensory evaluation and instrumental testing in product development. In the experimental part, gluten-free quinoa and rice licorice were made and their properties were studied with multiple sensory and instrumental measurements, and the self-made samples were also compared to commercial samples to see the possible differences between them. The hypothesis was that the changes in the recipes and process parameters would result in significant differences between the products. The sensory evaluations included a generic descriptive analysis with the first batch and two separate consumer tests with the two batches. The instrumental testing conducted of compression and extension tests with Instron and the determination of water activity. The data were analyzed with one- and three-way analyses of variance, as well as principal component analysis for the descriptive analysis. The manufacturing of the quinoa and rice licorice with the twin-screw extrusion was achieved. The generic descriptive analysis revealed that all the self-made samples were described similarly to each other, while the commercial gluten-free samples differed significantly from these. The quinoa licorice was seen sticky and not homogenous in appearance or texture, while the commercial samples were described as more homogenous and more intense in their taste. The consumer tests showed that both panels preferred the commercial samples over the self-made ones and that the quinoa licorice was preferred over the rice licorice. Commercial samples were seen as soft and chewy, while all the self-made samples from both tests were described as hard and grainy. The hypothesis was overruled since the quinoa licorice samples did not have significantly different properties despite the variation in the process parameters and ingredients. The study revealed that at least with these parameters there are no noticeable, significant differences in the sensory or physical properties of quinoa licorice. The commercial samples, however, remain significantly different from the self-made samples.