Browsing by Subject "kvinoa"

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  • Rauma, Asta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The literature review focused on quinoa saponins, on their extraction, isolation and chromatographic analysis. The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative and qualitative analysis method for saponins in quinoa. Gas chromatograph (GC) was used for separation. Saponin aglycones were indentified by mass spectrometry (MS) and quantified by flame ionization detector (FID). Sample pretreatment included extraction of fat soluble compounds and saponins by accelerated solvent extraction (Dionex ASE). Saponin aglycones liberated by acid hydrolysis followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Aglycones were derivatised to silylethers and analysed with GC-MS/FID. Finally this method was used to analyse saponins in washed and pearled quinoa seeds. Method evaluation included repeatability test (4 separate days, total n = 14). Average, standard deviation, relative standard deviation and Horrat(r) - value were calculated for the results. Method realability was evaluated by recovery test. Known amount of saponin was added to flour samples (n = 3). Additions responded 6, 4 µg, 12, 8 µg and 32 µg hederagenin aglycone. Four saponin aglycones, oleanolic acid (ole), hederagenin (hed), serjanic acid (ser) and phytolaccagenic acid (phy), were successfully identified in all samples by method prescribed. Method was repeatabale for ole and ser quantition but not for hed and phy. Satisfactory recovery, 80 %, was achieved on 32 µg addition level. Recoveries for 6, 4 µg and 12, 3 µg addition levels were 76 and 66 %. Results could be explained by aglycones pH dependent solubility combined to inaccurate pH adjustment after hydrolysis. In the future neutralization step should be revaluated. Washing reduced saponins 20–58 % and pearling reduced 58 % saponins in quinoa seeds. However pearling caused loss of protein from 12, 3 % to 5, 8 %.
  • Rytkönen, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Liquorice is a confection which is manufactured by cooking. Main ingredients in the liquorice usually are extract from the root of the liquorice plant, sugar, wheat flour, molasses and water. The literature review focused on the raw materials and the manufacturing process of liquorice, starch and starch gelatinization as well as quinoa. The aim of this study was to find out whether liquorice confection can be produced by organic quinoa flour instead of wheat flour. Also the effects of processing parameters (water content of the feed, mass flow and screw speed) on the water content, water activity, hardness and diameter of the liquorice was investigated. Reference sample was made from organic whole-grain speltflour. In the experimental research, liquorices were manufactured on a laboratory scale with a twin-screw extruder according to Box-Behnken design, where the variables were water content of the mass (21, 23.5, 26%) mass flow (70, 100, 130 g/min) and screw speed (40, 55, 70 rpm). The results were analysed by using PLSR (Partial Least Square Regression). Organic quinoa liquorice succeeded at all water contents used. Instead the liquorice manufactured from whole-grain speltflour succeeded only at water content of 26%. Probably the spelt flour would have needed bigger water content and higher temperature for the gelatinization of starch. Water content of the mass was the only variable which was affecting statistically significantly to the moisture content and water activity of the organic quinoa liquorice. After storage for four months water content of the mass was affecting statistically significantly to the hardness and diameter of the organic quinoa liquorice. In the PLSR model for organic quinoa liquorice, the coefficient of determination R2 was 41.9% and the coefficient of prediction Q2 was 13.8%. After four months storage the coefficient of determination R2 was 36.1% and the coefficient of prediction Q2 was 15.7%. PLSR-analysis was not made for organic spelt liquorice because there were not enough samples from different experiment points. The present study showed that liquorice can be produced from organic quinoa flour with a twin-screw extruder.
  • Laakso, Kristian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Palautusjuoma on harjoittelun jälkeen nautittava nestemäinen elintarvike. Sille ei ole virallista määritelmää, mutta sen tarkoituksena on sisältää tärkeitä ravintoaineita kuten aminohappoja ja hiilihydraatteja, jotka käynnistävät urheilusuorituksesta palautumisen. Palautusjuomat voidaan jakaa karkeasti juomajauheisiin ja valmiisiin juotaviin tuotteisiin. Kasvipohjaisen palautusjuoman pohjana voisi toimia kasviproteiiniuute. Tämän työn tarkoituksena oli tutkia erilaisten uutto-olosuhteiden vaikutusta kvinoaproteiinien uuttumiseen. Uute, jossa olisi korkein proteiinisaanto, voisi toimia teoreettisen palautusjuoman pohjana. Muuttujina käytettiin liuotin/siemen (w/w) -suhdetta (10:1 ja 20:1), liuotinta (pH 6,71 ja 9; NaCl-pitoisuus [0 mol/l ja 0,03 mol/l]) ja liuottimen lämpötilaa (25 °C ja 40 °C). Uuttoaika oli kaikissa näytteissä 30 min. Proteiinisaantoon tilastollisesti merkitsevästi vaikuttavat muuttujat (p < 0,05) olivat liuottimen pH ja lämpötila. Tämän tiedon perusteella uutetta valmistettiin lisää kahdeksan litraa, jonka muuttujien arvoina olivat pH 9, NaCl-pitoisuus 0 mol/l, 40 °C liuotin/jauho (w/w) -suhde 10:1. Uute ultrasuodatettiin 20 kDa:n cut off -arvon kalvolla ja suodatuksesta otettiin talteen retentaatti ja permeaatti. Retentaattia sumutuskuivattiin 984 g ja kuiva-ainesaanto oli 0,84 %, eli 8,2 g jauhetta. Proteiinisaanto oli 29,8 %. Sumutuskuivauksesta saadusta jauheesta määritettiin proteiinipitoisuus, kuiva-ainepitoisuus ja vaahtoavuusominaisuuksia. Pakkaskuivatusta retentaatista tehtiin viskositeetti ja saponiinipitoisuusmääritykset. Lisäksi pakkaskuivatusta retentaatista ja permeaatista tehtiin SDS-PAGE elektroforeesi, jotta nähtäisiin, miten proteiinit jakautuivat ultrasuodatuksessa permeaattiin ja retentaattiin. Sumutuskuivatun kvinoajauheen proteiinipitoisuus oli 39,1 %. SDS-PAGE -määrityksestä saadun proteiiniprofiilin perusteella proteiinit jäivät retentaattiin ja ultrasuodatus onnistui hyvin. Retentaatti sisälsi kvinoalle ominaisia proteiineja: globuliineja (55 kDa) ja chenopodiineja (31–33 kDa). Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella työssä käytetyistä hiotuista kvinoan siemenistä uuttui vain vähän proteiineja, mikä johti matalaan proteiinipitoisuuteen sekä uutteessa että jauheessa. Siemenet eivät soveltuneet matalan proteiinipitoisuuden vuoksi palautusjuoman raaka-aineeksi, mutta vaahdonmuodostusominaisuuksien perusteella kvinoa kuitenkin vaikuttaa lupaavalta raaka-aineelta elintarviketeollisuuteen, erityisesti leipomoteollisuuteen. Raaka-aine vaatii kuitenkin lisätutkimusta, ja tulevaisuudessa määrityksiä voisi mahdollisesti tehdä hiomattomista siemenistä, jolloin proteiinipitoisuus olisi lähtökohtaisesti korkeampi.
  • Oksa, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract Licorice is traditionally made from sugar, molasses, water, wheat flour, and licorice extract. In the literature review, the focus was on the properties of quinoa, licorice extrusion, sensory and physical properties of licorice and the basis behind sensory evaluation and instrumental testing in product development. In the experimental part, gluten-free quinoa and rice licorice were made and their properties were studied with multiple sensory and instrumental measurements, and the self-made samples were also compared to commercial samples to see the possible differences between them. The hypothesis was that the changes in the recipes and process parameters would result in significant differences between the products. The sensory evaluations included a generic descriptive analysis with the first batch and two separate consumer tests with the two batches. The instrumental testing conducted of compression and extension tests with Instron and the determination of water activity. The data were analyzed with one- and three-way analyses of variance, as well as principal component analysis for the descriptive analysis. The manufacturing of the quinoa and rice licorice with the twin-screw extrusion was achieved. The generic descriptive analysis revealed that all the self-made samples were described similarly to each other, while the commercial gluten-free samples differed significantly from these. The quinoa licorice was seen sticky and not homogenous in appearance or texture, while the commercial samples were described as more homogenous and more intense in their taste. The consumer tests showed that both panels preferred the commercial samples over the self-made ones and that the quinoa licorice was preferred over the rice licorice. Commercial samples were seen as soft and chewy, while all the self-made samples from both tests were described as hard and grainy. The hypothesis was overruled since the quinoa licorice samples did not have significantly different properties despite the variation in the process parameters and ingredients. The study revealed that at least with these parameters there are no noticeable, significant differences in the sensory or physical properties of quinoa licorice. The commercial samples, however, remain significantly different from the self-made samples.