Browsing by Subject "laboratory"

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  • ESHRE Special Interest Grp Safety; Alteri, Alessandra; Vermeulen, Nathalie; Rugescu, Ioana Adina; Veleva, Zdravka; Tilleman, Kelly (2020)
    STUDY QUESTION: To evaluate the implementation of the coding systems in medically assisted reproduction (MAR) centres in the European Union (EU). SUMMARY ANSWER: Our data show that a significant number of MAR centres use the Single European Code (SEC), but it also shows certain limitations to the coding. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Traceability and identification of tissue and cells used for clinical application are extremely important as it is one of the key aspects of quality and safety both for the donors and the recipients. Patients as well as tissues and cells move across the European continent and far beyond, hence a uniform coding system was very much needed. The coding of tissues and cells from human origin was already embedded in the EU directives 2004/23/EC. The use of the Single European Code (SEC) on tissues and cells was enforced in 2017 for tissues and cells distributed within the EU or exported from the EU. The SEC ensures standardization within the EU, allowing the integration of the two existing codes (ISBT-128 and Eurocode) within the SEC structure. Likewise, in the MAR field, the SEC was launched in order to ensure the traceability of reproductive tissues and cells. Gametes and embryos from partner donation as well as reproductive cells and tissues of allogeneic donation were excluded from the SEC as long as they remain in the centre of origin. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A cross-sectional survey aimed to gain insight into the use of SEC by MAR centres was conducted between 5 November and 15 December 2018. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The online survey was distributed among the ESHRE members. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The survey results highlight the strengths and weaknesses in the practical use of the SEC. The data from the survey showed that the SEC code is something that is known in the MAR field. Our data showed that over half of the respondents were using the SEC in their centre. On the other hand, there is also criticism about the use of SEC in MAR, especially that the added value for traceability and identification in ART is found to be rather limited. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The survey response rate was rather low (4.84%). The view of the use of SEC discussed in this paper still provides insight into the use of the SEC in several MAR centres. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The survey highlights some knowledge gaps concerning coding. This information can be used to develop tools to increase knowledge of the SEC.
  • Riipinen, Katariina; Mikkola, Salla; Ahola, Milla K.; Aalto, Milla M.; Olkinuora, Alisa; Vesakoski, Outi (2017)
    Information on the habitat selection by non-indigenous species is crucial for understanding their effects on the communities to which they are introduced, since the effects are often focused on the invaded habitats. The North American mud crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii is a new invader in the northern Baltic Sea, on the coasts of Finland and Estonia. In the Finnish Archipelago Sea, it has been found in two very distinct habitats: reed belts of Phragmites australis and algal zones with Fucus vesiculosus as the main habitat-forming species. In previous studies in the Baltic Sea, R. harrisii has preferred F. vesiculosus and has locally driven a shift in the structure of F. vesiculosus-associated invertebrate communities. Here, we disentangled whether habitat choice was determined by habitat structure or the availability of food. First, we conducted a habitat selection experiment with P. australis and F. vesiculosus habitats and varying food availability, and found that R. harrisii preferred F. vesiculosus, with food having no effect on the habitat choice. Second, we studied if the preference for F. vesiculosus was due to the alga itself or the rocks it grows on. We found that R. harrisii preferred the shelter of the rock habitat, indicating that R. harrisii choose their habitat based on habitat structure rather than food availability in the habitat. However, the preference for sheltered rocky bottom habitats also exposes the associated F. vesiculosus communities to the impacts of R. harrisii through predation.
  • Kontro, Inkeri; Heino, Olga; Hendolin, Ilkka; Galambosi, Szabolcs (2018)
    The intermediate laboratory courses at the Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, were reformed using desired learning outcomes as the basis for design. The reformed laboratory courses consist of weekly workshops and small-group laboratory sessions. Many of the laboratory exercises are open-ended and have several possible ways of execution. They were designed around affordable devices, to allow for the purchase of multiple sets of laboratory equipment. This allowed students to work on the same problems simultaneously. Thus, it was possible to set learning goals which build on each other. Workshop sessions supported the course by letting the students solve problems related to conceptual and technical aspects of each laboratory exercise. The laboratory exercises progressed biweekly to allow for iterative problem solving. Students reached the learning goals well and the reform improved student experiences. Neither positive or negative changes in expert-like attitudes towards experimental physics (measured by E-CLASS questionnaire) were observed.
  • Chrbolková, Kateřina; Halodová, Patricie; Kohout, Tomáš; Ďurech, Josef; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Malý, Petr; Dědič, Václav; Penttilä, Antti; Trojánek, František; Jarugula, Rajesh (2022)
    Context. Airless planetary bodies are studied mainly by remote sensing methods. Reflectance spectroscopy is often used to derive their compositions. One of the main complications for the interpretation of reflectance spectra is surface alteration by space weathering caused by irradiation by solar wind and micrometeoroid particles. Aims. We aim to evaluate the damage to the samples from H+ and laser irradiation and relate it to the observed alteration in the spectra. Methods. We used olivine (OL) and pyroxene (OPX) pellets irradiated by 5 keV H+ ions and individual femtosecond laser pulses and measured their visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. We observed the pellets with scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We studied structural, mineralogical, and chemical modifications in the samples. Finally, we connected the material observations to changes in the reflectance spectra. Results. In both minerals, H+ irradiation induces partially amorphous sub-surface layers containing small vesicles. In OL pellets, these vesicles are more tightly packed than in OPX ones. Any related spectral change is mainly in the VIS spectral slope. Changes due to laser irradiation are mostly dependent on the material's melting temperature. Of all the samples, only the laser-irradiated OL contains nanophase Fe particles, which induce detectable spectral slope change throughout the measured spectral range. Our results suggest that spectral changes at VIS-NIR wavelengths are mainly dependent on the thickness of (partially) amorphous sub-surface layers. Furthermore, amorphisation smooths micro-roughness, increasing the contribution of volume scattering and absorption over surface scattering. Conclusions. Soon after exposure to the space environment, the appearance of partially amorphous sub-surface layers results in rapid changes in the VIS spectral slope. In later stages (onset of micrometeoroid bombardment), we expect an emergence of nanoparticles to also mildly affect the NIR spectral slope. An increase in the dimensions of amorphous layers and vesicles in the more space-weathered material will only cause band-depth variation and darkening.
  • Hänninen, Laura; Norring, Marianna (2020)
    The fate of experimental animals represents an ethical dilemma and a public concern. In the EU, Directive 2010/63/EUallows the rehoming of former experimental animals instead of euthanasia.However, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports of rehoming Beagles in Finland. This study aimed to describe the process behind the first rehoming of laboratory Beagles at the University of Helsinki and evaluate its success. In total, 16 former laboratory Beagles were rehomed in collaboration with animal protection organisations and the University of Helsinki. The dogs had participated in animal cognition studies and had undergone minor procedures during the development of a veterinary drug. While the dogs were still in the laboratory, a socialisation training programme lasting several months was undertaken. Through surveying of the adoptive owners, and interviewing the various stakeholders involved (researchers, animal protection organisations and animal caretakers), the overall process was evaluated, including: the socialisation training programme; the comparative success of rehoming younger compared to older animals; the criteria that were used for the selection of the adoptive owners; and the eventual success of rehoming the dogswith the newowners. Themajority of the dogs adjustedwell to their newhomeenvironment. Euthanasia at the end of their experimental use would have been unnecessary and possibly against the objectives of European directives.
  • Gunn, R.L.; Hartley, I.R.; Algar, A.C.; Niemelä, Petri T.; Keith, S.A. (2022)
    Behavioural responses are often the first reaction of an organism to human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC), yet current empirical evidence provides no consensus about the main environmental features that animals respond to behaviourally or which behaviours are responsive to HIREC. To understand how changes in behaviour can be predicted by different forms of HIREC, we conducted a meta-analysis of the existing empirical literature focusing on behavioural responses to five axes of environmental change (climate change, changes in CO2, direct human impact, changes in nutrients and biotic exchanges) in five behavioural domains (aggression, exploration, activity, boldness and sociability) across a range of taxa but with a focus on fish and bird species. Our meta-analysis revealed a general absence of directional behavioural responses to HIREC. However, the absolute magnitude of the effect sizes was large. This means that animals have strong behavioural responses to HIREC, but the responses are not clearly in any particular direction. Moreover, the absolute magnitude of the effect sizes differed between different behaviours and different forms of HIREC: Exploration responded more strongly than activity, and climate change induced the strongest behavioural responses. Model heterogeneities identified that effect sizes varied primarily because of study design, and the specific sample of individuals used in a study; phylogeny also explains significant variation in our bird model. Based on these results, we make four recommendations to further our understanding: 1) a more balanced representation of laboratory and field studies, 2) consideration of context dependency, 3) standardisation of the methods and definitions used to quantify and study behaviours and 4) consideration of the role for individual differences in behaviour. © 2021 Nordic Society Oikos. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd