Browsing by Subject "lake"

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  • Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A. (2017)
    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass.
  • Wade, Andrew J.; Skeffington, Richard A.; Couture, Raoul-Marie; Erlandsson Lampa, Martin; Groot, Simon; Halliday, Sarah J.; Harezlak, Valesca; Hejzlar, Josef; Jackson-Blake, Leah A.; Lepistö, Ahti; Papastergiadou, Eva; Riera, Joan Lluís; Rankinen, Katri; Shahgedanova, Maria; Trolle, Dennis; Whitehead, Paul G.; Psaltopoulos, Demetris; Skuras, Dimitris (MDPI AG, 2022)
    Water
    Recent studies have demonstrated that projected climate change will likely enhance nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from farms and farmland, with the potential to worsen freshwater eutrophication. Here, we investigate the relative importance of the climate and land use drivers of nutrient loss in nine study catchments in Europe and a neighboring country (Turkey), ranging in area from 50 to 12,000 km2. The aim was to quantify whether planned large-scale, land use change aimed at N and P loss reduction would be effective given projected climate change. To this end, catchment-scale biophysical models were applied within a common framework to quantify the integrated effects of projected changes in climate, land use (including wastewater inputs), N deposition, and water use on river and lake water quantity and quality for the mid-21st century. The proposed land use changes were derived from catchment stakeholder workshops, and the assessment quantified changes in mean annual N and P concentrations and loads. At most of the sites, the projected effects of climate change alone on nutrient concentrations and loads were small, whilst land use changes had a larger effect and were of sufficient magnitude that, overall, a move to more environmentally focused farming achieved a reduction in N and P concentrations and loads despite projected climate change. However, at Beyşehir lake in Turkey, increased temperatures and lower precipitation reduced water flows considerably, making climate change, rather than more intensive nutrient usage, the greatest threat to the freshwater ecosystem. Individual site responses did however vary and were dependent on the balance of diffuse and point source inputs. Simulated lake chlorophyll-a changes were not generally proportional to changes in nutrient loading. Further work is required to accurately simulate the flow and water quality extremes and determine how reductions in freshwater N and P translate into an aquatic ecosystem response.
  • Stivrins, Normunds; Briede, Agrita; Steinberga, Dace; Jasiunas, Nauris; Jeskins, Jurijs; Kalnina, Laimdota; Maksims, Alekss; Rendenieks, Zigmars; Trasune, Liva (2021)
    Modern pollen composition obtained from waterbody surface sediment represents surrounding vegetation and landscape features. A lack of detailed information on modern pollen from Latvia potentially limits the strength of various pollen-based reconstructions (vegetation composition, climate, landscape, human impact) for this territory. The aim of this study is to compare how modern pollen from natural and human-made waterbodies reflects the actual vegetation composition and landscape characteristics. Modern pollen analyses from surface sediment samples of 36 waterbodies from Latvia alongside oceanic-continental, lowland-upland, urban-rural and forested-agricultural gradients have been studied. In addition, we considered the dominant Quaternary sediment, soil type and land use around the studied waterbodies in buffer zones with widths of one and four km. The information on climate for the last 30 years from the closest meteorological station for each study site was obtained. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis. Results show that relative pollen values from surface sediment of waterbodies reflect dominant vegetation type and land use. Modern forest biomass had a positive correlation with pollen accumulation rate, indicating the potential use of pollen-based forest biomass reconstructions for the boreonemoral zone after additional research and calibration.
  • McLeod, Anne; Leroux, Shawn J.; Gravel, Dominique; Chu, Cindy; Cirtwill, Alyssa R.; Fortin, Marie-Josee; Galiana, Nuria; Poisot, Timothee; Wood, Spencer A. (2021)
    Collecting well-resolved empirical trophic networks requires significant time, money and expertise, yet we are still lacking knowledge on how sampling effort and bias impact the estimation of network structure. Filling this gap is a critical first step towards creating accurate representations of ecological networks and for teasing apart the impact of sampling compared to ecological and evolutionary processes that are known to create spatio-temporal variation in network structure. We use a well-sampled spatial dataset of lake food webs to examine how sample effort influences network structure. Specifically, we predict asymptotic network properties (ANPs) for our dataset by comparing lake-specific network metrics with increasing sampling effort. We then contrast three sampling strategies - random, smallest lake to largest lake or largest lake to smallest lake - to assess which strategy best captures the regional metaweb (i.e. network of all potential interactions) network properties. We demonstrate metric-specific relationships between sample effort and network metrics, often diverging from the ANPs. For example, low sample effort can contribute to much lower and poorer estimates of closeness centralization, as compared to approximations of modularity with similar sample efforts. In fact, many network metrics (e.g. connectance) have a quadratic relationship with sample effort indicating a sampling 'sweet spot', which represents optimal sample effort for a close approximation of the ANP. Further, we find that sampling larger lakes followed by smaller lakes is a more optimal sampling strategy for capturing metaweb properties in this lentic ecosystem. Overall, we provide clear ways to better understand the impacts of sampling bias in food-web studies which may be particularly critical given the rapid increase in studies comparing food webs across space and time.
  • Lento, Jennifer; Culp, Joseph M.; Levenstein, Brianna; Aroviita, Jukka; Baturina, Maria A.; Bogan, Daniel; Brittain, John E.; Chin, Krista; Christoffersen, Kirsten S.; Docherty, Catherine; Friberg, Nikolai; Ingimarsson, Finnur; Jacobsen, Dean; Lau, Danny Chun Pong; Loskutova, Olga A.; Milner, Alexander; Mykrä, Heikki; Novichkova, Anna A.; Ólafsson, Jón S.; Schartau, Ann Kristin; Shaftel, Rebecca; Goedkoop, Willem (Blackwell Scientific, 2022)
    Freshwater biology
    1. Warming in the Arctic is predicted to change freshwater biodiversity through loss of unique taxa and northward range expansion of lower latitude taxa. Detecting such changes requires establishing circumpolar baselines for diversity, and understanding the primary drivers of diversity. 2. We examined benthic macroinvertebrate diversity using a circumpolar dataset of >1,500 Arctic lake and river sites. Rarefied α diversity within catchments was assessed along latitude and temperature gradients. Community composition was assessed through region-scale analysis of β diversity and its components (nestedness and turnover), and analysis of biotic–abiotic relationships. 3. Rarefied α diversity of lakes and rivers declined with increasing latitude, although more strongly across mainland regions than islands. Diversity was strongly related to air temperature, with the lowest diversity in the coldest catchments. Regional dissimilarity was highest when mainland regions were compared with islands, suggesting that connectivity limitations led to the strongest dissimilarity. High contributions of nestedness indicated that island regions contained a subset of the taxa found in mainland regions. 4. High Arctic rivers and lakes were predominately occupied by Chironomidae and Oligochaeta, whereas Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa were more abundant at lower latitudes. Community composition was strongly associated with temperature, although geology and precipitation were also important correlates. 5. The strong association with temperature supports the prediction that warming will increase Arctic macroinvertebrate diversity, although low diversity on islands suggests that this increase will be limited by biogeographical constraints. Long-term harmonised monitoring across the circumpolar region is necessary to detect such changes to diversity and inform science-based management.