Browsing by Subject "lakritsi"

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  • Rytkönen, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Liquorice is a confection which is manufactured by cooking. Main ingredients in the liquorice usually are extract from the root of the liquorice plant, sugar, wheat flour, molasses and water. The literature review focused on the raw materials and the manufacturing process of liquorice, starch and starch gelatinization as well as quinoa. The aim of this study was to find out whether liquorice confection can be produced by organic quinoa flour instead of wheat flour. Also the effects of processing parameters (water content of the feed, mass flow and screw speed) on the water content, water activity, hardness and diameter of the liquorice was investigated. Reference sample was made from organic whole-grain speltflour. In the experimental research, liquorices were manufactured on a laboratory scale with a twin-screw extruder according to Box-Behnken design, where the variables were water content of the mass (21, 23.5, 26%) mass flow (70, 100, 130 g/min) and screw speed (40, 55, 70 rpm). The results were analysed by using PLSR (Partial Least Square Regression). Organic quinoa liquorice succeeded at all water contents used. Instead the liquorice manufactured from whole-grain speltflour succeeded only at water content of 26%. Probably the spelt flour would have needed bigger water content and higher temperature for the gelatinization of starch. Water content of the mass was the only variable which was affecting statistically significantly to the moisture content and water activity of the organic quinoa liquorice. After storage for four months water content of the mass was affecting statistically significantly to the hardness and diameter of the organic quinoa liquorice. In the PLSR model for organic quinoa liquorice, the coefficient of determination R2 was 41.9% and the coefficient of prediction Q2 was 13.8%. After four months storage the coefficient of determination R2 was 36.1% and the coefficient of prediction Q2 was 15.7%. PLSR-analysis was not made for organic spelt liquorice because there were not enough samples from different experiment points. The present study showed that liquorice can be produced from organic quinoa flour with a twin-screw extruder.
  • Oksa, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Abstract Licorice is traditionally made from sugar, molasses, water, wheat flour, and licorice extract. In the literature review, the focus was on the properties of quinoa, licorice extrusion, sensory and physical properties of licorice and the basis behind sensory evaluation and instrumental testing in product development. In the experimental part, gluten-free quinoa and rice licorice were made and their properties were studied with multiple sensory and instrumental measurements, and the self-made samples were also compared to commercial samples to see the possible differences between them. The hypothesis was that the changes in the recipes and process parameters would result in significant differences between the products. The sensory evaluations included a generic descriptive analysis with the first batch and two separate consumer tests with the two batches. The instrumental testing conducted of compression and extension tests with Instron and the determination of water activity. The data were analyzed with one- and three-way analyses of variance, as well as principal component analysis for the descriptive analysis. The manufacturing of the quinoa and rice licorice with the twin-screw extrusion was achieved. The generic descriptive analysis revealed that all the self-made samples were described similarly to each other, while the commercial gluten-free samples differed significantly from these. The quinoa licorice was seen sticky and not homogenous in appearance or texture, while the commercial samples were described as more homogenous and more intense in their taste. The consumer tests showed that both panels preferred the commercial samples over the self-made ones and that the quinoa licorice was preferred over the rice licorice. Commercial samples were seen as soft and chewy, while all the self-made samples from both tests were described as hard and grainy. The hypothesis was overruled since the quinoa licorice samples did not have significantly different properties despite the variation in the process parameters and ingredients. The study revealed that at least with these parameters there are no noticeable, significant differences in the sensory or physical properties of quinoa licorice. The commercial samples, however, remain significantly different from the self-made samples.
  • Paumola, Heidi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims: Many factors during pregnancy, including mother's diet, can affect mental health of the developing child. Preliminary studies have shown that being exposed to glycyrrhizin in licorice during pregnancy is associated with shorter duration of gestation and externalizing symptoms and lower cognitive performance in children. The evidence is still scarce and more research is needed. This study investigated the associations between maternal licorice consumption during pregnancy and externalizing and internalizing symptoms and social competence in children at the age of 5 and 8. Study also investigated whether exposure to glycyrrhizin during pregnancy is associated with change in symptoms or in social competence from 5 to 8 years. Methods: This study is part of Glycyrrhizin in Licorice (Glaku) cohort study. This study sample consists of 232 mothers, 128 fathers and their children born in 1998. Mothers reported their licorice consumption during pregnancy in maternity wards. Follow-up studies were carried when children were 5 and 8 years old, and both parents were asked to fill the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation –questionnaire (SCBE). SCBE gives information about child's behavior and functioning. Results and conclusions: Those 8-year olds, who were exposed to high amounts of glycyrrhizin (≥ 500 mg / week) during pregnancy, had higher risk for externalizing symptoms and lower social competence compared to those children, who were exposed to small amounts (0-249 mg / week) of glycyrrhizin during pregnancy. The heightened risk was not confounded by parental or neonatal parameters. Licorice consumption during pregnancy was not associated with mental health in 5-year old children. These results support the earlier findings that maternal licorice consumption during pregnancy has harmful effects on child's development. This evidence shows that avoiding licorice use during pregnancy could be of significant value when considering primary prevention of mental health problems.