Browsing by Subject "landscapes"

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  • Bergen, K. M.; Loboda, T.; Newell, J. P.; Kharuk, Vyacheslav I.; Hitztaler, S.; Sun, G.; Johnson, T.; Hoffman-Hall, A.; Ouyang, W.; Park, K.; Fort, C.; Gargulinski, E. (2020)
    As globally important forested areas situated in a context of dramatic socio-economic changes, Siberia and the Russian Far East (RFE) are important regions to monitor for anthropogenic land-use trends. Therefore, we compiled decadal Landsat-derived land-cover and land-use data for eight dominantly rural case study sites in these regions and focused on trends associated with settlements, agriculture, logging, and roads 1975-2010. Several key spatial-temporal trends emerged from the integrated landscape-scale analyses. First, road building increased in all case study sites over the 35-year period, despite widespread socio-economic decline post-1990. Second, increase in settlements area was negligible over all sites. Third, increased road building, largely of minor roads, was especially high in more rugged and remote RFE case study sites not associated with greater agriculture extent or settlement densities. High demands for wood export coupled with the expansion of commercial timber harvest leases starting in the mid-1990s are likely among leading reasons for an increase in roads. Fourth, although fire was the dominant disturbance over all sites and dates combined, logging exerted a strong land-use pattern, serving as a reminder that considering local anthropogenic landscapes is important, especially in Siberia and the RFE, which represent almost 10% of the Earth's terrestrial land surface. The paper concludes by identifying remaining research needs regarding anthropogenic land use in the region: more frequent moderate spatial resolution imagery and greater access to more finely resolved statistical and other spatial data will enable further research. Social media abstract Landsat reveals long-term anthropogenic land-use trends in Siberia and Russian Far East
  • Yirdaw, Eshetu; Tigabu, Mulualem; Monge Monge, Adrian Antonio (2017)
    Land degradation is widespread and a serious threat affecting the livelihoods of 1.5 billion people worldwide of which one sixth or 250 million people reside in drylands. Globally, it is estimated that 10–20% of drylands are already degraded and about 12 million ha are degraded each year. Driven by unsustainable land use practices, adverse climatic conditions and population increase, land degradation has led to decline in provision of ecosystem services, food insecurity, social and political instability and reduction in the ecosystem’s resilience to natural climate variability. Several global initiatives have been launched to combat land degradation, including rehabilitation of degraded drylands. This review aimed at collating the current state-of-knowledge about rehabilitation of degraded drylands. It was found that the prospect of restoring degraded drylands is technically promising using a suite of passive (e.g. area exclosure, assisted natural regeneration, rotational grazing) and active (e.g. mixed-species planting, framework species, maximum diversity, and use of nurse tree) rehabilitation measures. Advances in soil reclamation using biological, chemical and physical measures have been made. Despite technical advances, the scale of rehabilitation intervention is small and lacks holistic approach. Development of process based models that forecast outcomes of the various rehabilitation activities will be useful tools for researchers and practitioners. The concept of forest landscape restoration approach, which operates at landscape-level, could also be adopted as the overarching framework for rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems. The review identified a data gap in cost-benefit analysis of rehabilitation interventions. However, the cost of rehabilitation and sustainable management of drylands is opined to be lower than the losses that accrue from inaction, depending on the degree of degradation. Thus, local communities’ participation, incorporation of traditional ecological knowledge, clear division of tasks and benefits, strengthening local institutions are crucial not only for cost-sharing, but also for the long-term success of rehabilitation activities.
  • Yirdaw, Eshetu; Kanninen, Markku; Elfadl, Mohamed; Tsegai, Daniel (Finnish Society of Forest Science, 2017)
    Silva Fennica
  • Dick, Jan; Turkelboom, Francis; Woods, Helen; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Primmer, Eeva; Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Bezak, Peter; Mederly, Peter; Leone, Michael; Verheyden, Wim; Kelemen, Eszter; Hauck, Jennifer; Andrews, Chris; Antunes, Paula; Aszalos, Reka; Baro, Francesc; Barton, David Nicholas; Berry, Pam; Bugter, Rob; Carvalho, Laurence; Czucz, Balint; Dunford, Rob; Garcia Blanco, Gemma; Geamana, Nicoleta; Giuca, Relu; Grizetti, Bruna; Izakovicova, Zita; Kertesz, Miklos; Kopperoinen, Leena; Langemeyer, Johannes; Montenegro Lapola, David; Liquete, Camino; Luque, Sandra; Martinez Pastur, Guillermo; Martín-López , Berta; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima; Niemelä, Jari Kalevi; Odee, David; Luis Peri, Pablo; Pinho, Patricia; Buerger Patricio-Roberto, Gleiciani; Preda, Elena; Priess, Joerg; Röckmann, Christine; Santos, Rui; Silaghi, Diana; Smith, Ron; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Tjalling van der Wal, Jan; Arany, Ildiko; Badea, Ovidiu; Bela, Györgyi; Boros, Emil; Bucur, Magdalena; Blumentrath, Stefan; Calvache, Marta; Carmen, Esther; Clemente, Pedro; Fernandes, Joao; Ferraz, Diego; Fongar, Claudia; Garcia-Llorante, Marina; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Gundersen, Vegard; Haavardsholm, Oscar; Kaloczkai, Agnes; Khalalwe, Thalma; Kiss, Gabriela; Köhler, Berit; Lazanyi, Orsolya; Lellei-Kovacs, Eszter; Lichungu, Rael; Lindhjem, Henrik; Magare, Charles; Mustajoki, Jyri; Ndege, Charles; Nowell, Megan; Nuss Girona, Sergi; Ochieng, John; Anders, Often; Palomo, Ignacio; Pataki, György; Reinvang, Rasmus; Rusch, Graciela M.; Saarikoski, Heli; Smith, Alison; Soy Massoni, Emma; Stange, Erik; Vågnes Traaholt, Nora; Vari, Agnes; Verweij, Peter; Vikström, Suvi; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes; Zulian, Grazia (2018)
    The ecosystem service (ES) concept is becoming mainstream in policy and planning, but operational influence on practice is seldom reported. Here, we report the practitioners' perspectives on the practical implementation of the ES concept in 27 case studies. A standardised anonymous survey (n = 246), was used, focusing on the science-practice interaction process, perceived impact and expected use of the case study assessments. Operationalisation of the concept was shown to achieve a gradual change in practices: 13% of the case studies reported a change in action (e.g. management or policy change), and a further 40% anticipated that a change would result from the work. To a large extent the impact was attributed to a well conducted science-practice interaction process (>70%). The main reported advantages of the concept included: increased concept awareness and communication; enhanced participation and collaboration; production of comprehensive science-based knowledge; and production of spatially referenced knowledge for input to planning (91% indicated they had acquired new knowledge). The limitations were mostly case-specific and centred on methodology, data, and challenges with result implementation. The survey highlighted the crucial role of communication, participation and collaboration across different stakeholders, to implement the ES concept and enhance the democratisation of nature and landscape planning. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Johansson, Tino Petri; Heiskanen, Janne; Siljander, Mika; Pellikka, Petri Kauko Emil (Springer, Cham, 2019)
    There is a growing demand for geospatial technologies and skills in Kenya due to on-going devolution of government to the county level, development of GIS-based National Land Management Information System, and digitalization of information and maps to databases. Furthermore, adaptation of agricultural production to the impacts of climate change, and its transition towards climate-smart landscape approach require support from geospatial technologies to stakeholders to sustainably manage land use interactions, such as soil, water and nutrients along with agro-forestry, livestock, husbandry, and forest and grassland utilization at landscape level. We developed a simple and visual Multifunctional Agricultural Landscape Mosaic (MALM) Story Map and Web Application to support this transition and adoption of open access geospatial technology among the universities, government organizations and NGOs in Kenya. The thematic content of the web application was designed to support climate change adaptation action planning in the target area with a focus on water resources, conservation agriculture, agro-forestry for the smallholder farms, and insect pest management. This chapter describes the emerging challenges of advancing geospatial technologies in Kenya, presents the results of a feasibility study of MALM and discusses its potential in supporting spatial planning and decision-making in climate change adaptation in the Taita Hills, southeast Kenya.
  • Valve, Helena; Lazarevic, David; Humalisto, Niko (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological Economics 185 (2021), 107025
    The circular economy operates as an umbrella concept for attempts to find sustainable alternatives to linear ‘take-make-dispose’ production and consumption systems. Making a circular economy transformation has sparked interest in business models as means to decouple value creation and the use of virgin raw materials. However, so far, little attention has been given to the differentiating capacities of business models to enhance circularity. Using Finnish biogas production as a case study, this paper shows how business models operating within a single economic domain and within uniform institutional conditions differ in terms of how they organise material circuits. Four business models are differentiated based on what wastes and side-flows they enable to be recovered, and how. Because the business models co-evolve, their potentials are analysed in relation to the business model ecosystem. An emerging business model competes with the dominating model. The newcomer would help to generate more closed material loops, but the existing institutional landscape fails to provide support for its emerging modes of value creation and value capture. Two other business models qualify as niche solutions coexisting with the other models. Knowing the business model ecosystem opens up prospects for policy revisions that can foster a more circular economy.