Browsing by Subject "language change"

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  • Nevalainen, Terttu (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics
  • Säily, Tanja (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics
  • Nevalainen, Terttu; Säily, Tanja; Vartiainen, Turo (2020)
    This issue of the Journal of Historical Sociolinguistics aims to contribute to our understanding of language change in real time by presenting a group of articles particularly focused on social and sociocultural factors underlying language diversification and change. By analysing data from a varied set of languages, including Greek, English, and the Finnic and Mongolic language families, and mainly focussing their investigation on the Middle Ages, the authors connect various social and cultural factors with the specific topic of the issue, the rate of linguistic change. The sociolinguistic themes addressed include community and population size, conflict and conquest, migration and mobility, bi- and multilingualism, diglossia and standardization. In this introduction, the field of comparative historical sociolinguistics is considered a cross-disciplinary enterprise with a sociolinguistic agenda at the crossroads of contact linguistics, historical comparative linguistics and linguistic typology.
  • Di Garbo, Francesca; Kashima, Eri; Napoleão de Souza, Ricardo; Sinnemäki, Kaius (Officinaventuno, 2021)
    nuova serie
    This paper presents the building blocks of a comprehensive framework for the typological study of linguistic adaptation, i.e. how languages change in relation to the socio-historical and environmental contexts in which they are used. We showcase a battery of concepts and methods that are geared towards systematically comparing sociolinguistic environments and linguistic structures through the study of communities in social contact. We show that these concepts and methods can be used to investigate sociolinguistic correlates of linguistic diversity and language change in at least three ways: (1) to unravel causal factors related to language change, (2) to create datasets simultaneously addressing selection of communities, sociolinguistic features, and linguistic features, and (3) to formulate generalizations from empirically-grounded cross-cultural and cross-linguistic comparisons.
  • Säily, Tanja (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics
  • Laitinen, Mikko; Palander-Collin, Minna; Sairio, Anni; Säily, Tanja (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics
  • Laitinen, Mikko; Säily, Tanja (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics
  • Nevalainen, Terttu; Säily, Tanja; Vartiainen, Turo; Liimatta, Aatu; Lijffijt, Jefrey (2020)
    In this paper, we explore the rate of language change in the history of English. Our main focus is on detecting periods of accelerated change in Middle English (1150–1500), but we also compare the Middle English data with the Early Modern period (1500–1700) in order to establish a longer diachrony for the pace at which English has changed over time. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of existing corpus research, which is made available through a new linguistic resource, the Language Change Database (LCD). By aggregating the rates of 44 individual changes, we provide a critical assessment of how well the theory of punctuated equilibria (Dixon 1997) fits with our results. More specifically, by comparing the rate of language change with major language-external events, such as the Norman Conquest and the Black Death, we provide the first corpus-based meta-analysis of whether these events, which had significant societal consequences, also had an impact on the rate of language change. Our results indicate that major changes in the rate of linguistic change in the late medieval period could indeed be connected to the social and cultural after-effects of the Norman Conquest. We also make a methodological contribution to the field of English historical linguistics: by re-using data from existing research, linguists can start to ask new, fundamental questions about the ways in which language change progresses.
  • Pakkala, Katri (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This paper studies semantic changes within a semantic field of English. The data consists of ten words which form five female - male word pairs. The study is largely based on Adrienne Lehrer’s theory according to which semantically related words are more likely to undergo parallel semantic changes than semantically unrelated ones because of their semantic relationships. The aim of the study is to answer the following research questions: what types of semantic changes have taken place within the semantic field, have the meanings gone through changes which could be considered to be parallel, is it possible to make any generalisations based on the findings of the analysis and are there any differences between how words referring to women have changed as opposed to words referring to men. The data consists of ten English nouns denoting humans, and their meanings: girl, boy, mistress, master, lady, gentleman, woman, man, madam and sir. All of the meanings have been taken from the Oxford English Dictionary. The meanings have been analysed based on the categorisation presented in the paper, based on Lyle Campbell’s theory. The analysis shows that all word pairs have parallel semantic changes, in varying degrees. Due to the restricted size of the data, it is not possible to make generalisations about semantic change as a whole, but some comments can be made about the semantic field in question. The semantic changes of female and male words differ somewhat. For example, degeneration affects female words more frequently, as is proposed in the theory section of the study. Another point that can be made is that the female words refer solely to women, with only exception, whereas the male words can refer to men, women or both
  • Nevalainen, Terttu; Vartiainen, Turo; Säily, Tanja; Kesäniemi, Joonas; Dominowska, Agata; Öhman, Emily (2016)
    We introduce the Language Change Database (LCD), which provides access to the results of previous corpus-based research dealing with change in the English language. The LCD will be published on an open-access linked data platform that will allow users to enter information about their own publications into the database and to conduct searches based on linguistic and extralinguistic parameters. Both metadata and numerical data from the original publications will be available for download, enabling systematic reviews, meta-analyses, replication studies and statistical modelling of language change. The LCD will be of interest to scholars, teachers and students of English.
  • Protassova, Maria Margarita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Koronaviruspandemia vaikutti koko yhteiskuntaan vuonna 2020. Myös Suomi sulki valtionrajansa muulta kuin välttämättömältä liikenteeltä. Tästä johtuen kesällä 2020 ulkomaanmatkailijat hävisivät Helsingistä lähes täysin. Matkailijoihin keskittyvät yritykset joutuivat suuntaamaan markkinointinsa uudelleen kotimaisiin asiakkaisiin. Tässä tutkielmassa tarkastellaan, miten markkinoiden uudelleensuuntautuminen on vaikuttanut matkailijoihin keskittyvien yritysten kielenkäyttöön ja kielimaisemaan. Tavoitteena on selvittää paitsi muutokset, myös perustelut niiden takana, samoin kuin syyt sille, että muutosta ei olekaan tapahtunut. Tutkielma keskittyy yritysten kieliasioiden päättäjiin, heidän ratkaisuihinsa sekä heidän tyytyväisyyteensä omiin ratkaisuihinsa. Kielimaisema on sosiolingvistiikan tutkimussuunta, jossa tarkastellaan kielten esillepanoa tietyssä paikassa. Tutkimuksen kohteena ovat usein esimerkiksi katukyltit, mainosjulisteet ja infotaulut, niin julkisten kuin yksityisten tahojen tekemät. Kirjallisuuden mukaan keskeisiä ongelmia alalla on mm. tutkimusmenetelmien kehittymättömyys sekä dynaamisen näkökulman vähäisyys. Tämä tutkielma pyrkii osiltaan korjaamaan näitä puutteita. Aineisto on kerätty kyselylomakkeella sekä jatkohaastattelulla halukkaille. Lomakkeessa kysyttiin muutoksista suomen, ruotsin, englannin ja muiden kielten käytössä yrityksen sosiaalisessa mediassa. kotisivuilla, teksteissä tilojen ulkopuolella, julkisten tilojen sisäpuolella ja henkilöstötiloissa sekä yrityksen sisäisessä viestinnässä. Haastattelussa jokaista ratkaisua pyydettiin perustelemaan. Lisäksi kysyttiin erikseen koronaohjeistusta koskevista teksteistä. Sekä lomakkeessa että haastattelussa käsiteltiin myös vastaajien tyytyväisyyttä omiin kielivalintoihin. Lomakkeeseen vastasi 51 yritystä ja haastatteluihin osallistui näistä kahdeksan. Vastaukset koottiin yhteenvetotaulukoihin, joita analysoitiin pysty- ja vaakasuunnassa eri näkökulmista mahdollisimman kattavien tulosten saamiseksi. Tutkimuksesta selviää, että muutosta kielimaisemassa tapahtui suhteellisen vähän. Muutoksilla oli kuitenkin selkeä suunta: suomen kieltä lisättiin, englannin kieltä vähennettiin ja muut kielet poistettiin lähes kokonaan. Poikkeuksena oli ruotsi, joka selvästi jakoi mielipiteet yritysten kesken. Avaintekijänä yrityksen kielipäätöksiin toimi usein työntekijöiden kielitaito. Päätöksiin vaikuttivat selvästi myös toisaalta ulkomaalaisten turistien puuttuminen, toisaalta maahanmuuttajien ym. suomea osaamattomien asiakkaiden läsnäolo, joka ei ollut muuttunut. 92% vastaajista oli erittäin tai jossain määrin tyytyväisiä kieliratkaisuihinsa pandemian aikana.
  • Säily, Tanja; Nurmi, Arja; Sairio, Anni (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics
  • Björklöf, Sofia; Jantunen, Santra; Finskugriska och nordiska avdelningen (Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, 2019)
    Uralica Helsingiensia
    This volume gathers together articles dealing with Finnic minority languages and language contacts. The first part presents topics focusing on phonology, morphology, morphosyntax, syntax as well as lexical relations. The second part of the book consists of non-peer-reviewed reports on archived and digital Finnic minority language materials as well as two field trip reports to Finnic-speaking or formerly Finnic-speaking areas. This collection is based on the work carried out during the project “Language change in multilingual Finnic”, funded by the Kone Foundation. Most articles are based on presentations given at a symposium organized at the XII International Congress for Finno-Ugric Studies in Oulu in August 2015.
  • Säily, Tanja (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics
  • Nevalainen, Terttu (John Benjamins, 2018)
    Advances in Historical Sociolinguistics
  • Säily, Tanja (2016)
    This paper presents ongoing work on Säily and Suomela’s (2009) method of comparing type frequencies across subcorpora. The method is here used to study variation in the productivity of the suffixes -ness and -ity in the eighteenth-century sections of the Corpora of Early English Correspondence and of the Old Bailey Corpus (OBC). Unlike the OBC, the eighteenth-century section of the letter corpora differs from previously studied materials in that there is no significant gender difference in the productivity of -ity. The study raises methodological issues involving periodization, multiple hypothesis testing, and the need for an interactive tool. Several improvements have been implemented in a new version of our software.
  • Nevalainen, Terttu (2021)
    This paper analyses language users’ participation in real-time grammatical change. The question addressed is the extent to which individuals continue using both the incoming form and the recessive, outgoing form as opposed to using one of them categorically. Variable grammars are related to the sociolinguistic discussion of whether language change is a generational or a communal process. Ultimately, they also raise the question of the predictability of real-time language change
  • Mustajoki, Arto; Pussinen, Olga (University of Helsinki, Department of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures, 2008)
    Slavica Helsingiensia