Browsing by Subject "lapsuuden sosioekonominen status"

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  • Rinta-Kanto, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background: Development of cognitive abilities involves both environmental and genetic factors. Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) associates with cognitive abilities later in life; however there is only little research on the interaction of SES and genes on cognitive ability. Specific genomic loci associating with cognitive abilities are scarce and potential candidates might be genetic variants linked with Alzheimer's disease such as APOE ε4 isomorph and rs405509 located in the APOE promoter region. I studied how childhood SES and APOE ε4 and rs405509 and their interactions associate with cognitive abilities in late adulthood in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (HBCS) sample. Methods: The participants of this study consisted of 607 men belonging to the HBCS who were born in Helsinki, Finland between 1934 and 1944. They participated in the test for general cognitive abilities at the average age of 68, and who were successfully genotyped. Associations and interactions of childhood SES, APOE and rs405509 on cognitive ability were studied. Results and conclusions: Lower childhood SES associated with lower verbal subscale score and total score. APOE ε4 was not independently associated with cognitive abilities. The number of G-alleles in rs405509 associated with lower verbal subscale score and total score when adjusted for age, but no longer after adjusting for adulthood SES. Interactions of rs405509 and childhood SES were not associated with cognitive ability. Socioeconomically less advantaged childhood environment has long-term consequences on cognitive abilities, and the effects last until late adulthood. The study suggests that rs405509 G-allele might have an independent effect on cognitive ability before the outset of Alzheimer's disease, but the results require further replication with larger sample size.
  • Pussila, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Introduction Antisocial behavior associates with higher risk for chronic criminal behavior and thus constitutes a significant public health and societal problem. Previous research shows that an adverse childhood environment may predict an increased risk for antisocial personality disorder symptoms in adulthood. Still there are noticeable limitations to the studies, as most of them have been retrospective. There is also a marked hereditary component in the development of antisocial personality disorders, but the specific genetic risk factors for this disorder are poorly understood. Some studies also suggest gene-environment interactions in the etiology of antisocial personality, but previous findings are inconsistent. This thesis examines longitudinally the association between MAOA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), childhood temporary parental separation and socioeconomic position and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Furthermore the possible moderating role of MAOA genotypes in the association between early life stressors and antisocial personality symptoms are examined. Methods The participants of this study are part the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Antisocial personality disorder symptoms were measured as a part of the psychological questionnaire with Older-Adult Self-Report (OASR) questionnaire. The psychological questionnaire was answered by 1893 participants. Data on childhood separation and socioeconomic status is objective register based information from national registers. 209 participants had been temporarily separated from parents due to World War II evacuations. Both MAOA SNPs (rs1284326 and rs2235186) used in this study were imputed successfully. The final size of the sample was 1852 (1067 men and 785 women). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used separately for men and women to examine the associations between developmental risk factors and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. Results and conclusions Among men, parental separation, especially after five years of age, predicted a higher risk of antisocial personality disorder symptoms in adulthood. Instead among women A allele in rs1284326 increased the risk for antisocial personality symptoms in adulthood. Childhood socioeconomic status had no effect on antisocial personality symptoms in adulthood among either sex. Furthermore the MAOA genotypes didn't moderate the association between early life stress and antisocial personality symptoms in adulthood. Results of this study emphasize the role of childhood adversity among men and genetic predispositions among women in the development of antisocial personality. In particular the findings suggest differences between the sexes in the etiology of antisocial symptoms.