Browsing by Subject "lapsuudentutkimus"

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  • Monter, Marianna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to understand the process by which children produce meanings with adults and in peer groups. Courage was selected as the theme of the study, as it is an abstract concept that is concretely present in a six-year-old's life. In the interview, the children were asked to explain in their own words what courage means. Explanatory questions examined the different kinds of meanings of the word courage that children have, as well as what kind of narrative method results in children telling stories that can be interacted with by their peer group as well as adults and children. The theoretical framework is based on a socio-cultural point of view and narrative research methods. The study outlines the narrative as well as the methodology and pedagogical methods. The study involved 15 preschool-age children at a day-care center. They were interviewed both individually and in groups, which was the setting used to examine the storytelling method. The study encompasses qualitative research; it is a case study that examines and describes the meanings of children produced by a group of children. The data were classified by means of content analysis and narrative research methods. The study also focuses on ethnographic features in order to understand and explore the phenomenon from the children's point of view, as well as from that of the teacher and researcher. The results of the study indicate that the children produced meanings of courage that can be divided into three categories: courage portrayed in images, courage that can be translated into concrete acts, and courage presented in the fairytale world. The meanings the children produced were directly related to their own experiences. The interviews contained numerous narrative moments, in which children told little stories that described an important experience of courage. The children's collective narrative was marked by spontaneous verbal description, as well as by playing with the worlds of media effects and the disorder of civilizations. This study demonstrates that the use of narrative methods can assist with understanding children's ways of communicating and forming meanings.
  • Olkkonen, Hanna-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Finnish elementary school has been the solid foundation for Finnish education for decades. While the elementary school's name has stayed the same it has still been in a continuous process of change. Our elementary school is a time-related institution that changes and evolves together with the curriculum, teachers and pupils, and the prevailing culture. The environment and the people living in it are always interacting with each other and together they create a social or relational space. The school building and its surroundings are a special social space. The relation between people and the school makes the building a school and turns the people into teachers and pupils. Despite the fact that the school is an important social institution that has been created especially for children and their learning, there have been few studies about school from the children's perspective. This study aims to find out what is the social space of school like for pupils. How do the pupils display physical or social space in their photographs and texts? How does power divide between teachers and pupils? What kinds of feelings do the pupils attach to the photographs and texts they produced? The study involved seven sixth-grade pupils. They photographed their own school days for four consecutive days. After each photograph the pupils filled out a questionnaire in which they reported things regarding the photograph such as who was in charge at the time and how did the pupil feel at the moment. The study consisted of 122 photographs and texts related to the photographs. The material was analysed with the Collier & Collier visual content analysis. The study showed that the pupils photographed the school's physical rather than social space. Most pupils took photographs of different teaching aids such as text books on their desks. Social space was displayed in photographs taken during recesses when the pupils were playing with their friends. The pupils took very few photographs of the teachers. The most common answer to the questionnaire's question about who is in charge was "the teacher" though in many cases said question was left unanswered. This means that the pupils did not really pay attention to the teachers' use of power. The most common feelings of pupils during school hours were joy and tiredness.
  • Säkkinen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study is to examine children's experiences of participation in everyday preschool life. Children’s participation is considered as an important part in legal documents regulating the field of early childhood education in Finland. However, previous studies show that child participation is poorly implemented in early childhood education. Barriers to participation have been seen as a various understanding of the concept of participation, and the lack of policies that support children's participation. Children's participation is best realized in play and small everyday moments. Instead, in situations involving children’s basic functions, routines take precedence over children’s participation. (Turja & Vuorisalo 2017; Virkki 2015; Fabric 2016) Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study of one pre-school group. The study involved 19 children aged 6-7 years. The research material was collected using method triangulation. The data were collected through five group discussions of 4-5 children and observations of the group´s daily life. The children also took pictures of things they like in preschool. They shared a reason for the pictures they took. The analysis was guided by abductive reasoning. The study followed the basic principle of childhood studies; Children have their own important self-worth and a wealth of information that can only be obtained by asking the children directly (Alanen 2009). Turja's (2011) model of multidimensionality of participation was used in the analysis. Results and conclusions. Children see adults in a pre-school as limiting their activities. They believe that adults decide almost everything in preschool. In addition to supervised activities and daily routines, adult control extends also to children's free playtime. The children had useful and sensible suggestions for activities they felt needed change. The children thought that the daily rest was a function that needs to be changed. Preferably, they would remove it altogether and exchange it for play. Play was an area where children felt participated. In the play, they were allowed to decide who to play with and what to play with. The nice thing about the play is "That you can do whatever you want." The play and friends gained a lot of importance in the children’s speeches and the photos they took. The activities of pre-school education were strongly planned by adults. However, the consideration of the children's interests and the children's ideas fit within the framework of the plans. These children’s ideas, which strengthen children’s participation, engaged them noticeably. Supervised pre-school activities were fun for many children. However, it should be considered how to enable the full participation of children in early childhood education so that it also goes beyond the planning of activities.
  • Hannuniemi, Tiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Nonstandard hour child care is a subject rarely studied. From an adult's perspective it is commonly associated with a concern for child's wellbeing. The aim of this study was to view nonstandard hour child care and its everyday routines from children's perspective. Three research questions were set. The first question dealt with structuring of physical environment and time in a kindergarten providing nonstandard hour child care. The second and third questions handled children's agency and social interaction with adults and peers. The research design was qualitative, and the study was carried out as a case study. Research material was mainly obtained through observation, but interviews, photography and written documents were used as well. The material was analysed by means of content analysis. The study suggests that the physical environment and schedule of a kindergarten providing nonstandard hour child care are similar to those of kindergartens in general. The kindergarten's daily routine enabled children's active agency especially during free play sessions for which there was plenty of time. During free play children were able to interact with both adults and peers. Children's individual day care schedules challenged interaction between children. These special features should be considered in developing and planning nonstandard hour child care. In other word, children's agency and opportunities to social interaction should be kept in mind in organising the environment of early childhood education in kindergartens providing nonstandard hour child care.
  • Sallamaa, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to examine sixth graders’ perceptions of economic inequality and its different forms in children’s everyday life. Furthermore, the aim is to gain an understanding of children’s agency in relation to economic inequality. Only a few Finnish studies consider the issue from a child’s viewpoint, namely the studies of Hakovirta and Rantalaiho (2011, 2012), Hakovirta and Kallio (2014) and reports conducted by the organizations Mannerheim League for Child Welfare (2010) and Save the Children (2015). More research has been done in Sweden (e.g. Olsson, 2007; Harju, 2008), Great Britain (e.g. Ridge, 2002) and the United States (e.g. Pugh, 2009). Economic inequality has increased in Finland over the past three decades and since it can affect the population in several ways, for instance through unequal distribution of health and education, children’s points of view in relation to the issue should not be disregarded. Methods. The material for this thesis was obtained through 29 empathy-based stories and 9 focused interviews conducted in two sixth grades in the Helsinki Metropolitan area. The study was conducted in the frameworks of childhood studies and phenomenography. Both narrative and thematic strategies were applied in the process of analysis. Results and conclusions. According to the sixth graders, economic inequality is connected to children’s everyday life through consumption and peer relationships. Challenges in consumption caused by deprivation could have a negative effect on peer relationships and result in discrimination and feelings of shame. Children understood economic inequality mainly through outward appearances, like clothing and other materia. It was more challenging for the participants to consider the effects on inward characteristics, such as mood and behavior followed by it. The sixth graders believed that children can endeavor to better situations of economic inequality by saving money, helping a friend economically and showing support to people who suffer of deprivation. In the end, however, relationships with friends and family were seen as the most important buffer against economic inequality. Children’s conceptions of inequality as a social issue varied: some believed it is an unfair phenomenon which divides people, while others saw it as a normal part of society. As economic inequality seems to appear and have a profound effect in children’s lives, awareness of the issue should be raised. Adults working with children should also be able to recognize the issue, the complexities behind it and discuss it with children.
  • Reima, Henriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The main purpose of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret what children in first grade play in school context. This study was interested what kind plays children were playing and who they were playing with. Aim was to find out what factors in school are affecting play, for example how schools physical surroundings affect what children play. It was also examined what motivate children to play: how children come to play certain types of plays and why children want to play in general. Methods. This study was conducted as qualitative research. Material was collected from one class in metropolitan area school. There were 22 children in that specific class. All the pupils took part of drawing assignment were the purpose was to draw a picture about play that they play in school. Half of the pupils were then interviewed based on pictures using theme interviews. Both the children's drawings about play and the interviews were used as materials of this study. The drawings were analyzed based on semiotic theory and the aim was to find different representations that were further examined. The interview material was analyzed in five phases that were reading, examination, thematize, expansion and summarizing. Results and conclusions. Children that took part of this study played in school surroundings agon, mimicry and ilinx plays. Usually all the children were approved in plays and play was more fun in a big group. Children wanted to play with other children that were not rude to them. A good playmate in a context of this study is someone who is nice and kind for everyone. Children chose to play with children that were the same sex as themselves and children that who were in the same class. It seems that if children can choose their playmate, they prefer close friends that are the same sex. Play was influenced by the school yard, weather and season, different rules and structure of the day. These things affect the play and give children different possibilities to express play. Children also liked to play in school and play was motivated by their interests, the fun in it and the fact the got spend time with other children. In a context of this study play is meaningful for children and it gives them possibilities to spend time together.
  • Lassila, Anni-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan luokkahuonevuorovaikutusta koulukuraattorin yhteisöllisellä tunnilla. Työssä tarkastellaan oppilaiden osallisuuden rakentumista luokkayhteisössä luokkahuonevuorovaikutuksen kautta. Aineisto on kerätty eräässä pääkaupunkiseudun alakoulun luokassa koulukuraattorin yhteisöllisellä tunnilla. Koulukuraattorin tunti on kuvattu kahdella kameralla ja litteroitu videonauhoituksen perusteella keskustelunanalyysin litterointiperiaatteita noudattaen. Aineisto on analysoitu keskustelunanalyysia soveltamalla ja Goffmanin osallistumiskehikkoa metodologisena työkaluna hyödyntäen. Keskustelunanalyysi mahdollistaa vuorovaikutuksen systemaattisen ja yksityiskohtaisen tarkastelun, osallistumiskehikko puolestaan sosiaalisen tilanteen osallistujien asemien ja roolien muutosten analysoinnin. Kuraattorin yhteisöllisen tunnin tavoite on vahvistaa luokan yhteisöllisyyttä ja lisätä oppilaiden osallisuutta luokkayhteisössä. Tutkimuksessa kuitenkin käy ilmi, että oppilaat rakentavat puheessaan paitsi sellaista käsitystä osallisuudesta, jolla oppilaita suljetaan luokkayhteisön sisäpuolelle, myös osallisuuden käsitystä, jolla oppilaita suljetaan luokkayhteisön ulkopuolelle. Näin luokkahuonevuorovaikutuksessa säädellään sitä, ketä oppilaista suljetaan luokkayhteisön sisäpuolelle ja ketä sen ulkopuolelle. Koulukuraattori ohjaa puheenvuoroillaan keskustelua ja sitä, mistä puhutaan ja kuka saa puheenvuoron. Keskustelu muodostuu myös erilaiseksi sen perusteella, minkälaisesta aiheesta puhutaan ja onko kyse yksilön kokemuksesta vai luokan tilanteesta. Aiheen mukaan myös pääsy keskusteluun vaihtelee. Toisen kokemukseen ei toisella ole pääsyä, mutta ulkopuolinen voi havainnoida ja tunnistaa tilanteellisia, näkyviä tiloja ja tilanteita. Vaikka luokkahuonekeskustelussa oppilaat saavat puheenvuoroja, eivät kaikki oppilaat ole yhtä paljon äänessä eikä kaikille puheenvuoroille anneta samanlaista merkitystä. Koulukonteksti ja koulukuraattorin auktoriteettiasema luokassa yhtäältä mahdollistaa oppilaiden keskustelemisen osallisuudesta, mutta toisaalta myös rajoittaa keskustelua sen suhteen, mistä asioista ja miten asioista puhutaan. Vaikka yhteisöllisen tunnin tavoitteena on yhteisöllisyyden vahvistaminen ja osallisuuden lisääminen, säätelevät oppilaat osallisuutta luokkayhteisössä puheensa kautta. Keskustelussa rakennetaan osallisuuden lisäksi osattomuutta. Keskeisiksi tutkimustuloksiksi saatiin, että osallisuuden määritteleminen ja säätely tapahtuvat kahdella tasolla: formaalilla ja informaalilla vuorovaikutuksen tasoilla. Osallisuutta säädellään vuorovaikutuksessa luokkahuoneessa ja sen perusteella syntyy yhteisön ulos- ja sisäänsulkemista, ekskluusiota ja inkluusiota. Lisäksi tutkimuksen mukaan sosiaalisessa kohtaamisessa syntyy osallistumisen osalta vuorovaikutuksen tasolla muutoksia, jotka vaikuttavat osallistujan näkyvyyteen ja näkymättömyyteen.
  • Hakovirta, M; Rantalaiho, M (Kela, 2012)
    Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia 124
    Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan taloudellista eriarvoisuutta lapsuudentutkimuksen viitekehyksessä ja lasten näkökulmista käsin. Tutkimuksessa kysytään, mitkä taloudellisten resurssien erot jäsentyvät lasten näkökulmista tarkasteltuina merkityksellisinä, mitä lapset itse käsittävät eriarvoisuudella sekä miten he eriarvoisuuden kokevat. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan myös sitä, minkälaisissa yhteyksissä taloudellinen eriarvoisuus lasten arjessa esiintyy, mitä seurauksia eriarvoisuudella lasten elämässä on ja minkälaisia keinoja ja toimintamalleja lapsilla on puuttua taloudelliseen eriarvoisuuteen omassa arjessaan. Tutkimus on laadullinen tutkimus. Tutkimusaineisto koostui keväällä 2011 kerätyistä viides- ja kahdeksasluokkalaisten lasten teemahaastatteluista ja eläytymistarinoista sekä lasten eläytymistarinoihin liittämistä piirustuksista. Analyysimenetelmänä käytettiin laadullista sisällönanalyysiä. Analyysissa kiinnitettiin huomiota erityisesti lasten eriarvoisuuden kokemuksiin sekä eriarvoisuutta koskeviin ajatuksiin ja merkityksenantoihin. Tutkimus osoittaa taloudellisen eriarvoisuuden olevan läsnä lasten arjessa monin eri tavoin, erityisesti erilaisina kuluttamisen ja kulutusmahdollisuuksien eroina. Kuluttaminen on osa lasten arkea, ja siihen sisältyy tiettyjä odotuksia, joista lapset ovat tietoisia ja joista poikkeamisen he saattavat kokea haastavana. Tutkimuksessa kuvataan, miten lasten väliset erot kulutusresursseissa tuottavat eriarvoisuutta, joka edelleen määrittää lapsen sosiaalista osallisuutta ja asemaa vertaisryhmässä. Taloudellinen samanarvoisuus voi olla ystävyyden mahdollistava tekijä, kun taas taloudellinen eriarvoisuus voi pahimmillaan johtaa syrjimiseen, ryhmästä ulos sulkemiseen ja kiusaamiseen. Tutkimus osoittaa, miten lapset omalla toiminnallaan rakentavat aktiivisesti omia strategioitaan selviytyäkseen tilanteista, joissa lasten väliset taloudelliset erot ovat läsnä.
  • Holmikari, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Goals: This study examines different meanings of preschool environment through pictures children have taken, and by children's stories associated to these pictures. The study committed to multidisciplinary childhood study approach which sees children as competent active actor in their own right and as a constructor of their own childhood. Theoretically the study focuses on studies of child perspective, children's geographies, and meanings. The study assumes that preschool environment appears differently to children that it does to adults, and that adults should pay more attention to how the preschool environment appears to children. Methods: The study is a part of Academy of Finland research project "Children tell of their well-being - who listens? Listening to children's voices and receiving their stories" (TelLis project number 1134911) The project is led by Adjunct professor Liisa Karlsson in University of Helsinki. Material for the study is collected from a Kouvola-area child safety project. The project focused on children's point of view. As part of the project children photographed places they considered nice or boring in their preschool environment. The children were then asked to tell about the pictures using a method called Storycrafting. The pictures and stories were used as information source by the experts from different fields who participated in this project. Pictures and narration materials produced by 28 preschoolers are analysed in this study. The material consisted of 40 picture and story combinations. Method of the study was a qualitative study and the material was analysed using content analysis. Results and conclusions: Four significant dimensions were found from the material: operation, social interaction, play, and aesthetic character. The study found that meaningful environment for children is cosy, and offers different activities, social interactions, and also possibility to play. The pictures taken by the children and the stories they relate to them contain information which helps to understand how children react to their environment and how they take advantage of affordances environment produce. The results of this study can be utilized by the experts who are working among children and design environments for children.