Browsing by Subject "laskeumat"

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  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 30/2006
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2005/2006 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - Reports on the following topics: trend assessment of deposition and runoff/soil water chemistry at ICP IM sites, heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM catchments, use of dynamic modelling forecasts to derive future target loads for N and S in deposition - Reports on national ICP IM activities.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2007)
    The Finnish Environment 26/2007
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2006/2007 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A summary prepared for the Gothenburg revision process: effects based approaches for S and N - Reports on the following topics: assessment of heavy metal loads and critical limits at ICP IM catchments, effects of climate change on dynamic model predictions and target loads functions, pine forest vegetation dynamics at ICP IM sites in Latvia - Reports on national ICP IM activities.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2008)
    The Finnish Environment 28/2008
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long‑range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2007/2008  including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A progress report on biodiversity issues - Two reports on assessing links between climate change and air pollution effects using site-specific data: a progress review, a report on development of a model framework  - A report on daily streamwater runoff characteristics of ICP IM catchments in the Bohemian Massif - Reports on national ICP IM activities.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    The Finnish Environment 23/2009
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2008/2009 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • Reports on the following topics: - critical loads for acidification and eutrophication for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems - trend assessment of deposition and runoff/soil water chemistry at ICP IM sites - heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2010)
    The Finnish Environment 15/2010
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2009/2010 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database,and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • A progress report on ICP IM biodiversity assessment • Two reports on critical loads at ICP IM sites: - report on calculation of site specific critical loads for acidification and eutrophication for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems - relationships between critical load exceedances and empirical impact indicators
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2011)
    The Finnish Environment 18/2011
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2010/2011 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • A review of published vegetation results from ICP IM and preliminary analyses of collected vegetation data • A report on updated heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites • A report on benefits of LTER collaboration (Long Term Ecological Research network, www.lter-europe.net) • National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2012)
    The Finnish Environment 28/2012
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2011/2012 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • An interim report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites • A summary of results from biological sub-programmes of ICP IM and data analysis of relationship between changes in abundance of understory species and Nitrogen Critical Load exceedance • A progress report on field monitoring and dynamic soil-vegetation modelling using VSD+ model • National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2013)
    Reports of The Finnish Environment Institute 25/2013
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2012/2013 including: • A short summary of previous data assessments • A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network • A final report on relations between vegetation changes and nitrogen Critical Load exceedance • A progress report on base line heavy metal approach, estimation of the extent of metal turnover in European forest catchments over the last decades • A final report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites in Europe • National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2014)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 23/2014
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2013/2014 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A progress report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ICP IM sites - A report on mass balances for sulphur and nitrogen at ICP IM sites in 1990-2012 - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2015)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 31/2015
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2014/2015 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A progress report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ICP IM sites - A progress report on trend assessment for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry and climatic variables at ICP IM sites in 1990–2013 - A progress report on heavy metal trends at ICP IM sites - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2016)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 29/2016
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2015/2016 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on dynamic vegetation modelling at ecosystem monitoring and research sites - An interim report on trend assessment for deposition and runoff water chemistry and climatic variables at ICP IM sites in 1990–2013 - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Kleemola, Sirpa; Forsius, Martin (Finnish Environment Institute, 2017)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 24/2017
    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2016/2017 including: - A short summary of previous data assessments - A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network - A report on connections between calculated Critical Load exceedances and observed fluxes and concentrations of nitrogen in runoff - A report on concentrations of heavy metals in important forest ecosystem compartments - National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.
  • Forsius, Martin (National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1992)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 10
    Yhteenveto: Järvien happamoituminen Suomessa: Alueellinen vedenlaatu ja kriittinen kuormitus
  • Syri, Sanna (Finnish Environment Institute, 2001)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 19
    This study presents the development and applications of regional and local scale models for use in integrated assessment of air pollution effects in conjunction with large-scale models. A regional deposition model called DAIQUIRI (Deposition, AIr QUality and Integrated Regional Information) for integrated assessment purposes in Finland was constructed, and regional matrices for nitrogen oxides and ammonia were developed from the results of the regional air quality model of the FMI. DAIQUIRI produced similar estimates of deposition from Finnish sources as the original model, and long-term trends and the average level of deposition estimated with DAIQUIRI were found comparable with the monitored deposition levels and trends. For the mid-nineties situation, the regional nitrogen modeling resulted in 9% to 19% (depending on the region compared) larger estimates of areas with acidity critical load exceedances than when using European scale nitrogen deposition modeling.In this work, also a method for estimating the impacts of local NOx emissions on urban and sub-urban ozone levels was developed and tested. The study concentrated on representing the destruction of ozone by fresh NO emissions in urban areas for future use in integrated assessment modeling of ozone control strategies. Correlation coefficients between measured daytime ozone values in the study area were found to improve from 0.64 (correlation between urban and surrounding rural measurements) to 0.85, on the average. The average correlation between daytime large-scale model estimates and urban site measurements was found to improve from 0.37 to 0.58.In the study, also integrated assessment model applications were carried out at European, national and local levels. The synergies between control strategies for CO2 and acidification and ozone formation in the case of the UN/FCCC Kyoto protocol and the air quality targets of the EU were assessed with the help of coupled models. With two alternative energy scenarios reflecting the Kyoto targets for CO2, reductions of sulfur and NOx emissions between 12% and 22% and 8% to 12%, respectively, were estimated by 2010 in the EU-15 with the present emission control legislation. Due to the lower activity levels generating less emissions and the cleaner energy forms used, 35-43% cost savings in further technical emission controls required for achieving the EU air quality targets would be achieved with the scenarios studied. Case studies for Finland indicated that there has been a decrease of 60% in the area at risk of acidification from 1990 to 1995, and that the declining trend is expected to continue due to the recent international emission reduction agreements within the UN/ECE and the EU. Implementation of the Kyoto protocol in Finland and in the whole of EU-15 (with the present emission legislation) could bring up to 8% more reduction of ecosystems at risk of acidification in Finland by 2010 than the recent UN/ECE protocol.An uncertainty analysis of acidification integrated assessment modeling in Finland indicated that critical loads dominate the uncertainty. Estimates are becoming more robust, as the general level of deposition is decreasing. In Finland, further efforts to reduce the overall uncertainty should be mainly directed to more accurate description of critical thresholds. In areas affected by major nearby emission sources, also uncertainties in emissions and deposition are significant. The models and their applications presented in this study contributed to identifying the problem characteristics and have supported environmental policy development at international, national and regional levels.
  • Forsius, Martin; Posch, Maximilian; Holmberg, Maria; Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Kleemola, Sirpa; Augustaitis, Algirdas; Beudert, Burkhard; Bochenek, Witold; Clarke, Nicholas; de Wit, Heleen A.; Dirnböck, Thomas; Frey, Jane; Grandin, Ulf; Hakola, Hannele; Kobler, Johannes; Krám, Pavel; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Löfgren, Stefan; Pecka, Tomasz; Rönnback, Pernilla; Skotak, Krzysztof; Szpikowski, Józef; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa; Valinia, Salar; Váňa, Milan (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 753 (2021), 141791
    Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing the environmental consequences of air pollution. We computed CLs for eutrophication and acidification using a European long-term dataset of intensively studied forested ecosystem sites (n = 17) in northern and central Europe. The sites belong to the ICP IM and eLTER networks. The link between the site-specific calculations and time-series of CL exceedances and measured site data was evaluated using long-term measurements (1990–2017) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry. Novel techniques for presenting exceedances of CLs and their temporal development were also developed. Concentrations and fluxes of sulphate, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and acidity in deposition substantially decreased at the sites. Decreases in S deposition resulted in statistically significant decreased concentrations and fluxes of sulphate in runoff and decreasing trends of TIN in runoff were more common than increasing trends. The temporal developments of the exceedance of the CLs indicated the more effective reductions of S deposition compared to N at the sites. There was a relation between calculated exceedance of the CLs and measured runoff water concentrations and fluxes, and most sites with higher CL exceedances showed larger decreases in both TIN and H+ concentrations and fluxes. Sites with higher cumulative exceedance of eutrophication CLs (averaged over 3 and 30 years) generally showed higher TIN concentrations in runoff. The results provided evidence on the link between CL exceedances and empirical impacts, increasing confidence in the methodology used for the European-scale CL calculations. The results also confirm that emission abatement actions are having their intended effects on CL exceedances and ecosystem impacts.
  • Pelkonen, Riina; Alfthan, Georg; Järvinen, Olli (Finnish Environment Institute, 2006)
    The Finnish Environment 17/2006
    The aim of the study was to study the geographical and temporal variation of Cd, Pb, As and Ni in wild edible mushrooms and to evaluate possible toxicological risks resulting from their consumption. The research focused on 12 mushroom species commonly collected in Finland. The samples were collected at common collection sites in Southern Finland between the years 1977 and 1999 and analysed using ICP-MS. The median dry weight concentrations ranged between 0.22-29.70 mg kg-1 d.w. for Cd, 0.36-6.05 mg kg-1 d.w. for Pb, 0.14-5.11 mg kg-1 d.w. for As and 0.41-9.08 mg kg-1 d.w. for Ni. The highest concentrations of Cd, Pb and As were found in Agaricus abruptibulbus and the highest level of Ni in Albatrellus ovinus. The Pb concentrations in A. abruptibulbus and Cd levels in Lactarius species were found to be significantly higher at polluted than at unpolluted sites. The Pb contents of A. ovinus, Boletus species, Cantharellus tubaeformis and Lactarius species as well as Cd levels of A. abruptibulbus and Leccinum species were signifi cantly higher for samples collected in 1977-1983 than for ones collected in 1992-1999. Decomposer species had generally higher concentrations of Cd, Pb and As than mycorrhizal fungi. Apart from the high element concentrations of A. abruptibulbus, the consumption of mushrooms was generally not considered to pose a toxicological risk in the light of the safety limits set by WHO. However, the Cd and Pb contents in A. abruptibulbus and Cd levels of Gyromitra esculenta and Boletus species exceeded the EU maximum permitted concentrations for cultivated mushrooms.
  • Haapala, Kirsti; Ruoho-Airola, Tuija; Granat, Lennart; Järvinen, Olli (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1984)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 57, 14-23
    Laskeumanäytteiden tulosten vertailtavuus
  • Soveri, Jouko (National Board of Waters and the Environment, Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1991)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 8, 29-48
  • Vuorenmaa, Jussi; Arvola, Lauri; Rask, Martti (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2011)
    Suomen ympäristö 34/2011
    Hämeenlinnan Evolla Valkea-Kotisen ympäristön yhdennetyn seurannan (YYS) alueella on tehty vuodesta 1987 lähtien tiivistä ja monipuolista ekosysteemin tutkimusta ja seurantaa. Valkea-Kotisen alue kuuluu YK:n Euroopan Talouskomission (UNECE) ilman epäpuhtauksien kaukokulkeutumista koskevan yleissopimuksen alaiseen seurantaohjelmaan, missä seurataan ja ennustetaan erityisesti kaukokulkeutuvien ilmansaasteiden sekä muiden ympäristömuutosten (mm. ilmastonmuutoksen) pitkän aikavälin vaikutuksia ekosysteemeihin. Valkea-Kotisen alue kuuluu myös Suomen pitkäaikaisen ekologisen tutkimuksen verkostoon (FinLTSER), ja on ollut sen myötä tarkastelualueena Suomen luonnon tuottamien ekosysteemipalvelujen haavoittuvuutta ja ihmisen sopeutumismahdollisuuksia selvittäneessä Euroopan Unionin Life+ -ohjelman VACCIA-hankkeessa vuosina 2009–2011. Eri tutkimuslaitosten ja yliopistojen tiiviillä yhteistyöllä Valkea-Kotisen YYS-alueelta on kertynyt yli 20 vuoden ajalta kansainvälisesti mittava ja tieteellisesti arvokas tutkimus- ja seuranta-aineisto ekosysteemin eri osa-alueilta. Tässä julkaisussa esitetään, millaisia vaikutuksia ja pitkäaikaismuutoksia ilman epäpuhtauslaskeuma sekä ilmaston vaihtelut ovat aiheuttaneet Valkea-Kotisen alueen metsien tilaan, veden laatuun ja vesieliöstöön, sekä maaperään ja pohjaveteen. Lisäksi arvioidaan, kuinka alueen ilmasto sekä ilman epäpuhtauskuormitus tulevat muuttumaan tulevaisuudessa, ja millaisia vaikutuksia niillä tulee olemaan alueen eri ekosysteemeille.
  • Lepistö, Ahti; Räike, Antti; Sallantaus, Tapani; Finér, Leena (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 780 (2021), 146627
    Brownification, caused by increasing dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations is a threat to aquatic ecosystems over large areas in Europe. The increasing concentrations of DOC in northern boreal streams and lakes have attracted considerable attention with proposed important drivers such as climate, deposition and land-use, and complex interactions between them. Changes in total organic N (TON) concentrations have received less attention, even though carbon and nitrogen losses are highly related to each other. We used long-term (1990–2019) monitoring records of 12 small data-rich headwater forested catchments in a large gradient of climate and deposition. We found that total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations were significantly increasing in almost all study catchments. The mean air temperature and change in sulphate concentrations had a strong, significant correlation to TOC change-%. Both explained, alone, more than 65% of the change in TOC concentrations, and, together, up to 83% of the variation. Sulphur deposition has already decreased to low levels, our results indicate that its importance as a driver of TOC leaching has decreased but is still clearly detected, while the impact of climate warming as a driver of TOC leaching will be even more pronounced in the future. A positive correlation was found between drainage-% and increases in TON, suggesting also importance of land management. TON trends were tightly connected to changes in TOC, but not directly linked to decreasing S deposition.