Browsing by Subject "lastensuojeluilmoitus"

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  • Riipinen, Marjut (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Keskeinen tapa saattaa lapsen mahdollinen lastensuojelun tarve lastensuojeluviranomaisten tietoon on lastensuojelulain 25 §:n mukainen ilmoitus kunnan sosiaalihuollosta vastaavalle toimielimelle eli lastensuojeluilmoitus. Lastensuojeluilmoituksen voi tehdä kuka tahansa. Velvollisuus sen tekemiseen on monilla eri tahoilla mm. sosiaali- ja terveydenhuollossa sekä opetustoimessa. Lastensuojeluilmoituksen taustalla voi olla hyvin moninaisia huolta herättäneitä seikkoja lapsen hyvinvointiin liittyen. Lastensuojeluilmoituksen kohteena olevan perheen halutessa tietää ilmoituksen tekijän tulevat sovellettavaksi säännökset yleisöjulkisuutta laajemmasta asianosaisjulkisuudesta. Asianosaisella on julkisuuslain 11.1 §:n mukaan oikeus saada tieto muunkin kuin julkisen asiakirjan sisällöstä, joka voi tai on voinut vaikuttaa hänen asiansa käsittelyyn. Asianosaisen tiedonsaantioikeudella on tärkeä merkitys asianosaisen oikeusturvan kannalta. Tutkielmassa selvitetään ensin asianosaisjulkisuuden perusteiden täyttymistä lastensuojeluilmoituksen kohdalla. Tarkasteltavaksi tulevat asianosaisuus lastensuojeluasiassa sekä lastensuojeluilmoituksen asema asian käsittelyyn vaikuttavana salassa pidettävänä asiakirjana. Tutkielmassa käsitellään myös mahdollisuutta tehdä lastensuojeluilmoitus jo alun perin anonyymisti. Lähtökohtana olevaa asianosaisen tiedonsaantioikeutta voidaan rajoittaa julkisuuslain 11.2 §:n 1 kohdan mukaan erittäin tärkeän yleisen edun, lapsen edun tai muun erittäin tärkeän yksityisen edun perusteella. Tutkielmassa haetaan vastausta siihen, mitä nämä asianosaisjulkisuutta rajoittavat vahvemmat edut lastensuojeluilmoituksen tekijätietoon liittyen voivat olla. Asianosaisjulkisuuden soveltamistilanteet edellyttävät tapauskohtaista eri intressien välistä punnintaa, joiden osalta tutkielmassa selvitetään, millaisia erilaisia oikeuksia joudutaan sovittamaan yhteen ja millaisia seikkoja lastensuojeluilmoituksiin liittyen on soveltamistilanteissa otettu huomioon. Viranomaiselta edellytetään asianosaisjulkisuuden ratkaisutilanteissa kokonaisharkintaa siitä, onko ilmoituksen tekijätiedon salassapidon tarve julkisuuslain 11.2 §:n 1 kohdan perusteilla suurempi kuin asianosaisen intressi saada tieto lastensuojeluilmoituksen tekijästä.
  • Kurkivuori, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Pro gradu –tutkielman aihe liittyy lastensuojeluilmoituksen vastaanottamisen ja käsittelyn vaiheeseen lastensuojelussa eli niin sanottuun ensiarviointityöskentelyyn. Lastensuojeluilmoituksen saavuttua sosiaalitoimeen on lastensuojelun työntekijän lain mukaan välittömästi arvioitava, onko lapsella tarve kiireellisille lastensuojelun toimenpiteille. Lisäksi työntekijän on ratkaistava, aloitetaanko sosiaalihuoltolain 36 §:n mukainen palvelutarpeen arviointi. Lastensuojelun sosiaalityön alkuvaiheeseen liittyvä tutkimus on tärkeää, sillä työvaihe on keskeinen määritettäessä lastensuojelun asiakkaaksi tulemisen edellytyksiä. Tutkimuksessa mielenkiinto kohdistuu tapauksiin, joissa lastensuojeluilmoituksessa esiin tuotu huoli ei johda palvelutarpeen arvioinnin tai lastensuojelun asiakkuuden aloittamiseen. Aihetta lähestytään asiakirjojen kautta tutkimalla sosiaalialan ammattilaisten ensiarviointityöskentelystä laatimia asiakaskertomuksia. Tutkimuskysymys liittyy siihen, mitä tietoa lastensuojelun työntekijät tekevät asiakaskertomuksissa näkyväksi ja miten päätös palvelutarpeen arvioinnin tarpeettomuudesta tuodaan niissä esiin. Aineisto käsitti 401 asiakaskertomusta, joista 44 poimittiin tarkemman sisällönanalyysin kohteeksi. Sisällönanalyysin kautta hahmottui kolme keskeistä teemaa, joista tietoa asiakaskertomuksiin kirjattiin. Ensimmäinen oli lapseen kohdistuva huoli, joka liittyi joko lapsen lähipiiriin kuuluvan aikuisen tai lapsen omaan toimintaan. Huolen sisällölliset teemat olivat moninaisia. Toisekseen tietoa kirjattiin lapsen ja perheen elämäntilannetta kannattelevista voimavaroista sekä arvioidusta tuen tarpeesta. Kolmas teema liittyi päätökseen olla aloittamatta palvelutarpeen arviointia. Asiakaskertomuksiin kirjattu tieto oli ensisijaisesti vanhempien tuottamaa. Sen sijaan lapsen asema tiedontuottajana ei ollut selkeä, sillä lapsen tuottamaksi kirjattua tietoa ei asiakaskertomuksissa ollut välttämättä lainkaan. Myös lastensuojelun työntekijöiden oma ammatillinen ääni oli asiakaskertomuksissa vähäistä. Muiden viranomaisten tuottamaa tietoa oli asiakaskertomuksiin kirjattu tapauksesta riippuen. Dokumentointi tekee sosiaalityön prosessit ja syntyvän tiedon näkyväksi. Siksi olisi tärkeää, että työntekijöiden ammatillinen tieto näkyisi selkeämmin ensiarviointityöskentelystä laadituissa asiakaskertomuksissa. Lisäksi lapsen asema tiedontuottajana voitaisiin huomioida kirjaamiskäytännöissä paremmin ja myös lapsen edun näkökulma voisi olla vahvemmin esillä. On kuitenkin muistettava, että mahdolliset puutteet kirjaamiskäytännöissä eivät suoraan kerro puutteista tehdyssä asiakastyössä.
  • Kuusinen, Veera (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of this study was to find out experiences of day care and school workers about collaboration with families during the process of making a mandatory report to child welfare. Workers in day care and school are obligated to report to child welfare if they start having concerns about a child's or his/her family's wellbeing. Along with the changes in legislation preventive services and earlier help for families are being emphasized. As a result the amount of mandatory reports to child welfare from the services close to child such as day care and school have increased. Collaboration with the family is often part of the process of making the mandatory report. Despite of that there is still very little we know about it. The purpose of this study was to examine, how families react to the concern and discussion about a mandatory report introduced by day care or school workers and also what is the workers' professional role in the collaboration with parents during that process. The data of this study is part of the data of Lastensuojelun kehittämis- ja tutkimushanke (LaskeTut 2013–2015) about the process of mandatory reporting. The data consists of 11 focus group interviews carried out in maternity and child welfare clinic, early childhood education, school, and specialized medical care. The data was collected during the spring of 2015. For this study two interviews from the workers of early childhood education and two interviews from the workers of school were chosen for the analysis. In total 13 cases about the process of mandatory reporting were introduced by the interviewees. The data was analyzed with mean content analysis. The results of this study showed that discussing about concerns and mandatory report is an emotional situation for families. The reactions of families changed depending on the cases, but four styles of reactions were found that could be distinguished from each other. They did not rule each other out but one style was always emphasized in the situations. In some cases families reacted positively and were understanding about the concern and a proposition of mandatory report. In those cases the discussions about the concerns were constructive and the concern became shared regardless of which one the worker or the parent first mentioned it. Parents who had difficulties on accepting the concern or the proposition of a mandatory report introduced by worker showed negative reaction. Those parents also showed anger and aggressive behavior towards workers. In some cases the reaction of parents changed suddenly from negative to positive or vice versa. Different views between parents and workers, parents diminishing the concern or ending the collaboration showed denial of the concern. In those cases parents did not see the reason for mandatory report. Workers' professional responsibility on collaboration with family during the process of mandatory reporting emerged from workers' experiences in addition to families' reactions. These responsibilities create the basis for collaboration with family. Workers felt they have a responsibility of thinking the child's best in all situations even if it would complicate the collaboration with parents. Bringing up the concerns was also considered part of their professional obligation. In addition workers of school discussed and listened the child's version of the concern and the situation of the family. Workers also tried to support parents in their challenging life situations by giving advices. Collaboration with family during the process of mandatory reporting evoked strong feelings in workers. However workers were aware of their own position and responsibility of controlling their personal feelings and keeping their actions professional. Based on the results of this study collaboration between family and workers from day care and school during the process of mandatory reporting includes some challenges and requires personal and professional views to meet.
  • Miikkulainen, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. According to the Child Welfare Act (417/2007, 3a §) the vital parties in preventive child welfare are public services, including educational administration. Preventive child welfare aims in guaranteeing welfare when the child is not a customer of child welfare. The goal is to support children at an early stage, during which it is still possible to prevent problems escalating any further. (Bardy, 2013.) Furthermore, the aim of this study was to map teachers' experiences on child welfare in school environment. The study looks at how teachers at primary schools perceive their awareness of child welfare work, how child welfare concerns of primary school teachers show up, and what kind of experiences primary school teachers have with regards to the cooperation with child welfare. Methods. The thesis was carried out as a qualitative research, based on the phenomenological approach. The study was conducted at an elementary school with seven teachers participating in the theme interviews, five individual interviews, and one pair interview. Out of all the participants, three were class teachers, two subject teachers, and two special education teachers. In addition to theme interviews, an email containing three open-ended questions was sent to all the participants in August 2017. The data was analysed via theme-analysis. Results and Conclusions. Teachers felt they were able to partly put into practice the child welfare act, despite the bigger picture of it being unclear. Teachers' awareness of child welfare came mainly as a result of their own work and experience. Teachers' perceptions of preventative child welfare work at the school were related to student work, school curator activities, co-operation with parents, and teachers' pedagogical methods in the classroom. The raise of concern regarding child welfare was affected by troubles at school, behavior, general appearance, home life, and the negligence of parents toward the school life of their children. The concerns that raised from the students' behavior were often seen as multi-dimensional and aggregated. Teachers' child welfare concerns awakening is often affected by the child's school, problems, behavior, general appearance, home life, or the parents' indifference towards school-going. Ways to deal with concerns were open discussion and, as a last resort, a child welfare notice. Experiences in co-operation with child protection were varied, but often the co-operation was not working well enough. In particular, the flow of information was considered inadequate. Nearly all of the teachers hoped for better co-operation between schools and the child welfare.
  • Honkanen, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Studies have shown that cooperation between families and teachers should be a respectful dialogue, focusing on the healthy, growing child. Sometimes, however, various matters impede the success of cooperation, or even interrupt it completely. The purpose of this study was to explore how cooperation with families change after a child welfare notification is filed considering the point of view of kindergarten and class teachers. There were two research questions: (1) How does cooperation with families change after a child welfare notification is filed? - by the point of view of kindergarten teachers (2) How does cooperation with families change after a child welfare notification is filed? by the point of view of class teachers. This research was conducted as qualitative research. Semi-structured interview forms were used to collect data and interviews were answered by three kindergarten teachers and three classroom teachers (n = 6). The data were collected in winter 2017 and content analysis method was used for the analysis of the data. The study results showed that after a child welfare notice was filed there were no important differences in the opinions of both kindergarten and the class teachers regarding changes in cooperation with families. It was evident that the kindergarten and class teachers both considered that cooperation decreased or communication even momentarily stopped completely after the child welfare notification had been filed. However, as time passed of the submission of the child protection notification, cooperation improved and became like the past or even improved compared to the past.